INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY (TIJERAT)
VOL. 13 (5) MAY, 2023
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
SYNTHESIS OF ZEOLITE Y USING A FUSION TEMPERATURE OF 600ºC
ODAUDU HAMZA S.1; AUDU NASIRU1; S. ZAMBIRI1; I. N. OKECHUKWU2; & SANNI Y. YUNUSA 2
1Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, the Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa. 2Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, the Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa
Sandstone is an abundant raw material. In the event of synthesizing zeolite Y (Faujasite) from the afore-mentioned raw material, an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) elemental analysis was carried out revealing SiO2 (Silica) 0f 87.5%, Al2O3 (Alumina) of about 6.8% as well as Na2O of 0.08%.Hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite was adopted and it was realized that the siliceous part of the material depolymerizes over a reasonable exposure to high temperature and excess Alumina (Al2O3). The synthesis of zeolite Y (Faujasite)with limited Al2O3 for 6h at 80˚C yielded a siliceous material (quartz) of 1452.4 intensity on the XRD pattern whereas synthesis of same form of zeolite from the same material with excess Al2O3 (Alumina) at same temperature of 80˚C for a contact/reaction time of 3h, 6h and 9h yielded intensities of 854.5, 764.7 and 720.9 respectively as well as formation of various zeolite phases in contrast to the resistivity of the siliceous material (quartz) experienced in the synthesis done with limited Al2O3 (Alumina) being figures 2,3 and 4 with set reaction time of 3,6 and 9 hours respectively. It was observed that the tendency of formation of the zeolite Y material increases against the decreasing and depolymerizing quartz (siliceous material) with increased reaction time. The plot of Faujisite intensity against reaction time shows a rise in the formation ability of the zeolite Y with increase reaction time due to the presence of excess Al2O3 which helps in weakening the bonds of the quartz thereby depolymerizing it to form more of the required material rather than the unwanted. While for the Quartz intensity plotted against reaction time, it implies the effect of Al2O3 on the siliceous component of the material over sufficient reaction time.
Keywords: Synthesis, Zeolite Y, Fusion Temperature, XRF, XRD.
COMPUTATIONAL APPROACH FOR COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY GENERATED FROM ASSOCIATED TURBINE MODEL SPECIFICATIONS USING ANNUAL BONNY WIND SPEED
1R.E. AKPODEE; 2A. ZUKBEE; 3B. NKOI
1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University. 2,3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rivers State University.
Qualitatively, on the comparative analysis of energy generated from associated turbine model specifications using annual Bonny wind speed, numerical simulation approach was used on a diffusion model equation computationally with Matlab ODE45 numerical scheme software. In this study the results show that from the 60th day to the 360th day of our experimental time we observed a fluctuating (non-sequential) pattern on the coordinates of the Bonny wind speed with its optimal values ranging from 8.7953002m/s to a saturated value of 8.7071175m/s. The corresponding energy generated for Polaris P15-50 ranges from 3682037.91271854 Watts on the 60th day to a saturated value of 22092227.47631127 Wattson the 360th. Similarly, for Polaris P19-100 with 5813904.35369085 Watts on the 60th day which increases monotonically down the trend to a saturated value of 34883426.12214510 Watts on the 360th experimental days. This shows that Polaris P19 – 100 has a relative advantage over Polaris P15 – 50 in power generation under the same conditions and time interval. Furthermore, from the 60th day to the 360th day of our experimental time we observed a fluctuating (non-sequential) pattern on the coordinates of the Bonny wind speed with its optimal values ranging from 8.7953002m/s to a saturated value of 8.7071175m/s. The corresponding energy generated for Polaris P15-50 ranges from 57372474.4017779 Watts on the 60th day to a saturated value of 344234846.4106673 Watts for WWD-1-60 on the 360th. Also, for Polaris P50-500 with 39841996.1123458 Watts on the 60th day which increases consistently to a saturated value of 239051976.6740745 Watts on the 360th experimental days. This shows that Polaris WWD-1-60 has a relative advantage over Polaris P50 – 500 in power generation under the same condition and time interval. The full results of this noble contribution are presented and discussed as well.
Keywords: Random Perturbation, Numerical Simulation, Wind Speed, Wind Energy, Turbine Power, Mathematical Modeling, Comparative Analysis.
AN OVERVIEW OF APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
SESUGH TERLUMUN1, MC OKAH1, DAVID BROWN1 HABIBU ABUBKAR SANI1, BILAL IBRAHIM BADAMASI1, TIZA MICHAEL2
1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Air Force Institute of technology, Kaduna 2Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria Nsukka
Civil Engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction of the natural and built environment. Artificial intelligence is to develop the machine elements that analyze the human thinking system and reflect the same to reality. In recent years, artificial intelligence applications have found a wide range of applications in civil engineering and the other engineering branches. The increase in artificial intelligence studies with great acceleration shows that the use of artificial intelligence in engineering branches will increase in the coming years. This paper discusses the different sub-fields in civil engineering, duties and responsibilities of civil engineers and how artificial intelligence is applied to the various sub-fields as well as the limitations of artificial intelligence in addressing civil engineering problems.
DOMESTICATING CARBON CAPTURE FOR EFFECTIVE ENERGY TRANSITION
ENGR. ABUBAKAR ALIYU ALIYU
National Metallurgical Development Center, (NMDC), Zaria Road, Jos. (Federal Ministry of Mines and Steel Development).
Carbon capture has emerged as an important solution to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions while ensuring continued use of fossil fuels in the transition to a low-carbon economy. However, the technology is not yet widely adopted due to high costs and technical challenges. In order to make carbon capture more effective, it is important to focus on domesticating the technology. This involves developing and implementing carbon capture projects domestically, rather than relying on overseas projects. Domesticating carbon capture will create local jobs and expertise, reduce the cost of the technology, and increase public acceptance. It will also enable countries to meet their emissions reduction targets and contribute to global efforts to limit climate change. In this article, the sequence and stages to domesticate Carbon Capture for effective energy transition is highlighted. Governments should provide policy support and incentives to encourage the deployment of carbon capture technology, while industry should continue to innovate and collaborate to drive down costs and improve efficiency. By domesticating carbon capture, we can accelerate the transition to a low-carbon economy and ensure a sustainable future for generations to come.
AUTOMATED INVOICE GENERATION, A TOOL TO COMPUTERIZED INVENTORY CONTROL SYSTEM
ACHORI BUSAYO TEMITOPE; IFEKA OLUKEMI IBIYEMI; & OLADEJO RACHEL ADEFUNKE
Computer Science, Ogun State Institute of Technology, Nigeria.
Manual receipt control systems are prone to errors that can affect stock control management and accuracy. This study aims to investigate and evaluate the effectiveness of automating the manual receipt control system through computer integration. The research problem is to identify how computer integration can eliminate errors in the manual receipt control system and improve stock control management. The methodology will use a descriptive or exploratory research design, literature review, data collection methods such as surveys, interviews, observations, and document analysis, data analysis using appropriate statistical methods or qualitative analysis techniques, and interpretation of the results. The study’s findings will evaluate the effectiveness of the automated system in reducing errors and improving stock control management, identify the factors that influence the success or failure of the automated system, and provide recommendations for improving the automated system. The study’s significance lies in providing a comprehensive understanding of the benefits and challenges of automating the manual receipt control system and developing recommendations for organizations to improve their stock control management accuracy.
PHYSICO-MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF CEMENT KILN DUST AS COMPARED TO NORMAL SET PORTLAND CEMENT AS A MINERAL FILLER IN RECYCLED ASPHALT
USMAN K. R.*1, AHMAD Z.2, MUSA R.3, ZAILANI J.4, ABDULKADIR M. S.5, USMAN S.6, SHARIFF F. U.7
1,2,3,4Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria. 5Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria. 6Department of Computer Science Technology, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria. 7Training Department, National Water Resource Institute Kaduna, Kaduna State.
Cement is a major construction material globally and its consumption geometrically increases especially in Nigeria with its use for road construction. Consequently, increased production to meet this demand comes with attendant environmental concerns of greenhouse emission and by-product safe disposal. Cement kiln dust(CKD) as the by-product of cement poses risks both to the soil and humans if disposed in landfills, hence, some part is reinjected back into the kiln. Nonetheless, larger part is disposed as waste. Sustainable construction practices seek to reduce waste and most importantly reduce the use of non-renewable resources – cement raw material inclusive. Utilising a by-product for asphalt production will entail reducing the use of cement and invariably reduce the cost of asphalt. Thus, the study assessed the desirability of CKD as compared to normal setting cement for inclusion in asphalt production. The CKD and the cement were tested for chemical, physical and mechanical properties by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP), specific gravity and Blaine fineness tests. Result suggest that CKD has desirable characteristics for use as filler in asphalt in place of cement.
Keywords: Cement Kiln Dust (CKD), Physico-mechanical, Recycled Asphalt, Natural aggregate
ASSESMENT THE COCENTRATION OF SOME RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS (Fe, Pb and Co) OF AWAI LOCAL MINING AREA OF SOBA L.G.A. KADUNA STATE.NIGERIA
GAZARA, A. B.; A. DANLAMI; A. ANGO
Department of Physics with Electronics, School of Applied Science, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria. Nigeria
Analysis of concentration of some Radioactive elements (Co, Pb, and Fe,) in five (5) water samples and four (4) soil samples of awai town, Soba L.G.A. Kaduna State minning area was carryout using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The samples were collected from different points in the study area. The Concentration values of radionuclides from the water samples range between 0.006 ± 0.008 to 0.13±0.0013, 0.23±0.0023 to 0.49±0.003,and 3.7±0.0032 to 8.6±0.0028 for Co,Pb and Fe respectively. While for the soil samples range between 0.22±0.0032 to 0.87±0.008, 0.46±0.0042to0.96±0.003 and 6.44±0.0015to14.06±0.0030 for Co,Pb and Fe respectively all the mesurements were carried out in ppm. In most of the cases, the concentration of these elements in both water and soil samples was found to be very high above the level set by world Health Organization regulation WHO (1998) of 0.002,0.015and 0.03 for water samples of Co,Pb and Fe respectively then for the soil is 8.0,0.05 and 0.2 respectively, except that of covalt (Co) of soil samples which is below the standard set by world health organization . Therefore the Water and Soil of mining area of Awai Village, due to high concentration of some radioactive elements (Co, Pb, and Fe,) is harmful to their health especial cancer as well as the kidney problems.We recommend that the government should take action by awareness the people in the area of risk of using such water and soil for domestics used as well as farming activities in order to ensure public health safety.
Keywords: Radiation, Mining, Soil, Water.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND DURABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF MORTAR CONTAINING RICE HUSK ASH AND WASTE TILES
SHETTIMA U. ALI; AMINA S. GIMBA; & UBALIYO S. ABUBAKAR
1Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, 620221, Yobe State, Nigeria
Increased in the cost of construction materials and raising environmental concerns urges for considerable efforts worldwide to utilize agricultural waste and industrial by product materials to alleviate the cost and improve the performance of construction materials. The rice processing industry generates a significant amount of rice husk as waste, while extensive amount of waste tiles are being generated around the world. These wastes are mostly sent to the landfill without considering recycling option. Various researchers considered these waste as cost-efficient and environmentally friendly pozzolanic material. Therefore considering the environmental impact of cement industries and the expensive rising cost of construction material the cheap and good accessibility of rice husk and waste tiles are the main motivations behind this research work. In this research, the rice husk are obtained from local mill and were burnt to ashes at a temperature of 600 to 700 oC in locally constructed furnace to produce the rice husk Ash (RHA). The waste tiles are obtained at construction sites and tiles sellers at a cheaper rate. Waste tiles are broken manually with hammer and sieved through a 4.75 mm sieve to match with the river sand. The strength and durability properties in terms of water absorption of mortar comprising RHA as supplementary cementing material and waste tiles as substitute for fine aggregate are investigated. Laboratory experiment are conducted to evaluate the characterization of RHA and waste tiles in terms of physical properties (consistency, setting time, particle size distribution, water absorption and specific gravity). Series of mortar were prepared with 10% constant RHA replacement to cement and 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, replacement for fine aggregate with waste tiles. The water to cement ratio (w/c) of 0.48 was adopted. Compressive strength and water absorption of hardened mortar were determined. The mortar cubes of 50 mm3 were casted and cured in water for 7, 14 and 28 days for Compressive strength. While the water absorption test and acid resistance attack were tested at 7, 28 and 56 days.
Keywords: Rice Husk Ash, Waste Tiles, Setting Time, Water Absorption, Acid Resistance Attack
DEVELOPMENT OF CAMERA-BASED OFFLINE YORUBA OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION SYSTEM ON RECONFIGURABLE HARDWARE FOR AUTOMATIC DOCUMENT READING MACHINE
YEKEEN, SURAJUDEEN ADEWALE; MUSTAPHA, KHADIJA; JIMOH ABDULRAMON AROYRHUN; MUSTAPHA, BASHIRU TOYIN
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, the Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria
In-spite of the numerous reported successes of applications of optical character recognition in languages based on English alphabet, the same success story is not true of Yoruba language. Though the twenty-five basic characters of Yoruba alphabet are drawn from English alphabet, the performance of optical character recognition of Yoruba document is abysmally low because Yoruba is a tonal language. Hence acceptable performance is only guaranteed by expanding the Yoruba’s basic character set to include characters with diacritical (tonal) marks. The focus of this project, therefore, is to develop a robust optical character recognition system for the expanded Yoruba alphabet. The proposed OCR system harnesses the pipelining and parallel processing capabilities as well as flexibility of an FPGA to achieve real-time character recognition for Yoruba document. To implement the system on an FPGA, hardware description languages VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Descriptive Language) was employed to describe the system’s architecture and functionality. The design is optimized to leverage the FPGA’s parallelism and pipelining, thereby allowing for efficient processing of multiple characters concurrently. Experimental results showed the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed Yoruba Optical Character System on the FPGA platform. The system achieves high recognition accuracy, even with challenging Yoruba characters diacritical (Tonal) marks. Furthermore, the real-time processing capability of the FPGA enables seamless integration into various applications, including document digitization, translation, and information retrieval.
Keywords: Optical Character Recognition (OCR), Normalization, Segmentation, Degradation, Restoration, feature extraction.
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A MICROCONTROLLER BASED ELECTRONIC NOTICE BOARD WITH GSM CONTROL
MUHAMMAD ISMAILA YAHUZA
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria.
The primary aim of every notice board is to disseminate information to the appropriate persons. However, the methods used varies based on the type of information to be disseminated and the technology involved in the process of dissemination. This paper presents the design and implementation of a microcontroller based electronic notice board using PIC18F4520 Microcontroller with GSM Technology. Development of a standalone, electronic (matrix type Light Emitting Diode (LED)) notice board capable of controlling using GSM with short messaging service (SMS) is discussed in this paper. The size of the screen will permit the display of unlimited number of characters as a message due to the scrolling functionality. The message to be displayed is received as an SMS from an authorized transmitter (Mobile Phone). The GSM modem receives the SMS while the microcontroller (PIC18F4520) reads the SMS, validates the SMS and sends the SMS to the shift Register. The shift register stores the SMS which is then moved or shifted to the required position on each clock pulse to be displayed on the screen. The validation of the SMS is by the use of password which makes the Notice board to be controlled only by authorized personnel. When the GSM modem receives a predefined SMS (text message), the circuit automatically recognizes it as a command (Attention (AT) Command), and switches the output ports accordingly.
Keywords—Electronic Notice Board, GSM MODEM, Microcontroller, Wireless, LED.
EFFECTS OF DICK AND CAREY AND MORRISON, ROSS AND KEMP INSTRUCTIONAL MODELS ON MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANIC’S WORK (MVMW) STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN KWARA STATE
1IDRIS, BABA; 2IBRAHIM, TAYE Ph.D.; & 3YAHYA, SAHEED OLALEKAN Ph.D.
1Department of Automobile Technology Education, School of Technical Education, Kwara State College of Education (Technical), P.M.B. 001, Lafiagi, Kwara State, Nigeria. 2&3Department of Curriculum and Instruction, School of Education, Kwara State College of Education (Technical), P.M.B. 001, Lafiagi, Kwara State, Nigeria
This study was designed to investigate effects of instructional design models on teaching of students of Motor Vehicle Mechanics Work in Technical Colleges in Kwara State. The study was a pre-test, post-test, non-equivalent control group quasi-experiment which involved groups of subjects in their intact classes assigned to treatment groups. Two research questions and two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. The population of the study consisted of 109 Technical Colleges (NTC II) students of Motor Vehicle Mechanics Work in Kwara State. No sampling technique was employed due to manageable size of the subjects, 42 subjects were assigned to the experimental group 1 and 37 to the experimental group 2 ). The instruments used for data collection were, Motor Vehicle Mechanics Work Achievement Test (MOVMEWAT) lesson plan for experimental group 1 and Motor Vehicle Mechanics Work Achievement Test (MOVMEWAT). The MOVMEWAT was trial tested for the purpose of determining the psychometric indices of the test. The Kudder–Richardson Formula 20 was used because the test items are dichotomously scored and administered only once. The reliability coefficient of 0.82 was found. The data collected were analysed using mean while the hypotheses formulated to guide the study were tested using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) at p<0.05 level of significant. The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) was used for analysis of data. Mean was used to answer the research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses that guided the study at 0.05 level of significance. The study found out that Motor Vehicle Mechanics Work (MVMW) students taught with Dick and Carey Model had a higher mean achievement score than those taught MVMW with Morrison, Ross and Kemp Model. Based on the findings the study therefore recommends among others that; Technical teachers of Motor Vehicle Mechanics Work should adopt the use of instructional design model in teaching of Motor Vehicle Mechanics Work subjects.
Keywords: Instruction, Model, Academic Achievement, Motor Vehicle Mechanic Work
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SELECTED VEGETABLE OILS AS QUENCHING MEDIA IN HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS FOR MEDIUM CARBON STEEL
*SAFINAT TOLU, **EZIWHUO SECOND JUSTICE; & **ABUBAKAR N. MOHAMMED
*Department of Minerals and Petroleum Resources, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. **Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna
The focus of this investigation is to find the suitability of some selected oils abundantly available as effective alternatives to the conventional media, water and SAE oil. While water usually causes distortion corrosion and cracking of component due to its high quenching severity, SAE oil on the other hand has low quenching severity for many applications, high cost, non-biodegradable and excessive fume generation during the quenching operations. A comparative study was carried out to investigate the suitability of these selected vegetable oils as alternative quenchant to SAE40 engine oil for industrial heat treatment of Medium Carbon steels. The study involved the characterization of physicochemical properties of (jatropha seed oil, neem seed oil, cotton seed oil and castor seed oil. The quenching performance of these vegetable oils was conducted at quenchant bath in a control agitation machine at different temperatures, serving SAE40 engine oil and tap water as control. The effect of cooling rates of the quenching media on mechanical properties and microstructure of the quenched steel samples were investigated. The results obtained show that the different vegetable oils have different viscosity and viscosity-temperature behavior just as their molecular structures were different. Hence vegetable oil is suitable as alternative quenchant to petroleum based SAE40 engine oil for quenching medium carbon steels, without cracking or distortion, the most suitable among them being palm kernel oil.
Keywords: Fatty Acid, Engine oil, Mechanical Properties, Microstructure Quenching, Vegetable oil.