JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE
December, 2017 Vol. 11 No. 1
Hummingbird Publications and Research International,
Chembian Heritage Suite, No 18, Justice Sowemimo Street,
Off T.Y Danjuma Str., Asokoro. P.O. BOX 16868, Wuse 3,
Copyright © 2017 Hummingbird Publications and Research International
MODELLING THE CO-EXISTENCE AND SURVIVAL SCENARIOS OF TWO COMPETING LEGUMES WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL PERTURBATION
1JAMES GALADIMA AND E. N. EKAKA-A2
1Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai,Niger State, Nigeria 2Department of Mathematics and Computer Science,Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
The occurrence of an environmental perturbation on the outcomes of co-existence and survival for two competing legumes for limited resources is one of the challenging crop science problems that require a mathematical quantification. We have explored the application of a MATLAB algorithm in this study. We have found that the inclusion of a low random noise intensity value of 0.01 has dominantly predicted more instances of valid co-existence scenarios and fewer instances of degeneracy scenarios provided the inter-competition coefficients outweigh the intra-competition coefficients. We would expect these present novel results to provide a further insight on the crop science ideas of co-existence and survival.
Keyword: Perturbation, Competing, Co-Existing, Legumes, Environmental
INTEGRATED GEOPHYSICAL AND GEOTECHNICAL DETERMINATION OF SOIL ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY
1*UGWU N. U., 2IGBOAMA W. N. AND 1UGWOKE J. L.
1School of Applied Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Nigeria. 2Department of Physics, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria
This study was carried out to determine the conductivity of different types of soil (sandy, clayey and loamy) at different locations in Ede, Osun State, Nigeria and their laboratory properties. Wenner four- point electrode configuration method was used. The mean ground electrical conductivity of the loamy soil was1.75×10-3(Ωm)-1 and that of the clayey soil was 2.82×103(Ωm)-1, while the mean electrical conductivity of the sandy soil was 5.1×10-4(Ωm)-1. This showed that clayey soil has the highest conductivity value followed by loamy and then sandy soil with the least value. The laboratory sieve results and specific gravity values showed that the three samples were coarse to fine grained and gave the specific gravity values of clayey soil as 2.50, loamy soil as 2.13 and sandy soil as 2.60 respectively. This study has relevance in electrical earthing system, Lightning and surge technology, in electrical tomography for detecting root biomass, and other applications in agriculture. It is also applicable in geotechnical investigations where study of undisturbed soil is of essence.
Keyword: Compaction, Electrical conductivity, Density, Soil, Sandy, Clayey Loamy, and Resistivity.
CHILDREN IN AGRICULTURE IN NORTH-EAST NIGERIA: SOCIALIZATION INTO FARMING OR CHILD LABOUR?
BABATIMEHIN M. AND WADINGA A.
Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, Ibadan
It is exactly a decade ago since the monumental baseline study on child labour in Nigeria was published with the overarching goal of provoking national commitment to its eradication in the country. Subsequent studies have all confirmed the persistence of child labour in proportion sufficient to compel actions towards its elimination. But in spite of the availability of situation knowledge and legislations against it, evidences still point to its deterioration. Incidentally, the re-examination of the activities of children working in agriculture in North East Nigeria indicates that yet more children are to be reclassified as child labourers, not children undergoing socialization into agriculture. Using data on children 5-17 years in agriculture, the study sought to examine in details their levels of participation in agriculture, taking into consideration the indicators of child labour such as reasons for work, days and hours of work, salaries/wages, work and schooling, health conditions, etc. The study found that, contrary to the notion of socialization into agriculture, majority were actually driven into agricultural activities by economic reasons. Specifically, most of the children work in order to supplement family incomes, a factor that strongly suggests household poverty as the driving force. Furthermore, over 80% of both male and female children work 4-6 days a week, and over 40% are engaged 4-6 hours a day making it difficult for them to combine work with schooling. The children also indicated working under dangerous health and whether conditions and exposed to dangerous tools. While recommending massive awareness campaign and legislations against child labour, the implementation of poverty reduction strategies that lift families out of poverty and therefore reduce household dependence on children for supplementary income remains the ultimate solution to child labour in the region.
Keyword: North East Nigeria; Children in Agriculture, Socialization, Child Labour, Household Poverty, Supplementary Income
ASSESSMENT OF THE MANAGEMENT OF MOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMISSION OF HUMAN IMMUNE DEFICIENCY VIRUS/ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (HIV/AIDS) AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTE-NATAL CLINIC IN AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL (ABUTH) SABON GARI COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH CENTER, ZARIA, KADUNA STATE – NIGERIA
ALEWU, B1. USAMA, L. F. A2., MAGAJIYA, H1.
1Shehu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology, Makarfi, Kaduna State – Nigeria 2Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State – Nigeria
The Assessment of the Management of Mother to Child Transmission of Human Immune Deficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among Pregnant Women attending Sabon – Gari Comprehensive Health Centre – Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital was studied. Human immune deficiency virus/Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) ranked among the fastest cause of death of children in Nigeria especially urban areas. Nigeria has the largest population in Africa (one in six Africans being a Nigerian). Although HIV prevalence rate is much lower in Nigeria than in other African countries such as South Africa and Zambia, according to the United Nations Agency on Aids (UNAIDS), nearly 3 million Nigerians live with HIV or are dying of AIDS, (prevalence rate of 5%). In some urban centers, the prevalence is more than 15% among the adult population and at least 20% among pregnant women. HIV/AIDS has really affected the Nigerian society and economy, disproportionately affecting future leaders of Nigeria. Survey research design was employed in this present study. Total populations of 176 respondents were used for this study. Random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample from the population. One hundred and seventy (170) questionnaires were distributed to the respondents. A reliability ratio of 0.96 was obtained. The result of this study showed that there was fair knowledge of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDs and pretest counseling. The total calculated mean of the age range mostly affected with HIV/AIDS is between 25 – 34 years (31%). Safe sex practice accounts for the major preventive measures employed by the people. The use of antiretroviral drugs was also part of the preventive measures. However knowledge of risk factors was poor. Mass media obviously will reduce HIV/AIDS. Education of women will reduce the dangers mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS. Most of the women in this present study have higher qualification. There was generally good attitude to pre-test and post-test counseling but the level of practice was low. The researcher concludes that, pregnant, women and infant are the more vulnerable group. The effect of discrimination and stigmatization of HIV/AIDs which can result to psychological problem, disrupted family life, destructive pattern of confidence of spouse of whole family. The researcher is recommending that all reproductive age group and pregnant women should go for HIV testing and counseling.
ASSESSMENT OF MACRO NUTRITIVE COMPOSITION OF THREE VARIETIES OF BEANS COLLECTED FROM MARKETS IN KANO, NIGERIA.
1UMMI UMAR AHMED,2 HAFSATU NASIRU AND 1AMINU SAMBO
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Technology, Kano State Polytechnic. 2School of General and Applied Science, Shehu Idris College of Health Science and Technology, Makarfi, Kaduna State.
This study evaluated the macro nutritive composition of three common Nigerian beans: Adzuki bean, White bean and Soy bean. The beans were found to contain 6.0% moisture, 34.76% protein, 32.72% carbohydrate 22%, crude lipid and 4.8% ash in soy bean, while exactly 8.8% moisture, 20.65% protein, 63.95% carbohydrate, 2.4% crude lipid and 4.2% ash were determined in white bean. However, in the case of Adzuki bean 10% moisture, 23.41% protein, 62.39% carbohydrates, 1.2% crude lipids, and 3.0% ash were also determined. The analyses showed that soy bean have higher crude protein and lipid than white and adzuki bean. However, white bean and adzuki bean recorded almost the same percentage of carbohydrate (63.95 and 62.39) % respectively than soy bean (32.72%). Bean is an important crop which plays a significant role in the diets of Nigerians. It serves as a major source of protein in the absence of sufficient animal protein for the population.
Keyword: Beans, Consumption, Health, Legumes, and Nutritive-value.
PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF YOGHURTS PRODUCED FROM COW AND NIGERIA DWARF GOAT’S MILK.
¹LAWAL, R.A; ²LATEEF, O .J; ²DADA, M.A& ²ADEBUSOYE, M. S.
¹Dept. Of Food Science & Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi² Dept. Of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
Yoghurt is a curd-like food prepared from milk fermented by the lactic acid. This includes species such as Lactobacillus Bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Kenton et al 1992). Yogurt has a global status among from fermented foods and is consumed for its refreshing and appealing flavor, biotherapy and versatility (Egbere, 2008). Worldwide, cow is most commonly used to make yogurt but milk from water, buffalo, goats, sheep, camels and yake is also used various different part of the world (Kordylas, 2004).
Keyword: Yoghurts, Composition, Dwarf, Evaluation, Proximate.
A PIC MICROCONTROLLER FREQUENCY METER
ADONU SUNDAY EJIYIME, ABUBAKAR MUHAMMAD & ZAINAB ALIYU MUSA
Department of Computer Science, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
Many electronic circuit operations depend on the frequency of the incoming signal. As digitization of more circuits become important, accurate measurement of frequency using digital circuit has become more desirable. This paper is based on the design of a frequency meter using PIC16F877A microcontroller. The performance of the frequency meter in terms of the frequency range it covers was found to be related to the operation frequency of the microcontroller. The measured frequency is displayed on an LCD.
Keyword: Yoghurts, Composition, Dwarf, Evaluation, Proximate.
ARIMA MATHEMATICAL MODEL ON REPORTED CASES OF CHOLERA AMONG CHILDREN AND ADULT IN PLATEAU STATE
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
The research work was carried out on Reported cases of cholera among children and adult in Plateau State for the period of 2004 – 2014. The secondary data were collected based on these factors during the already compiled records section for the Plateau State Specialist Hospital Jos. Auto regression integrated moving average model (ARIMA MODEL) and estimation of trends respectively was used. It was found that ARIMA (0,1,1) was the appropriate model for forecasting the feature rate of cholera. The results indicate that for the time plop and linear trend model, they were all on a decline stage and also there was decline in forecast for the period of 12 years. It was recommended that there should be proper awareness on the effect of cholera infection and that organization/agencies should intensify their effort to use the mass media to elaborate more on the effect of the disease.
Keyword: ARIMA Model, Cholera, Children, Adult
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF FISH FEED PELLETIZING MACHINE
BALOGUN S. A., ALIYU M. A., IGE S. I & ALHASSAN A. M.
*Mechanical Engineering Technology Department, Federal, Polytechnic Bauchi
Local famers of fish in Nigeria purchase feeds for their stock at high rates. This account for why fresh fish is costly and therefore it is mostly consumed by the rich. In an attempt to reduce the cost of fish production a fish feed pelletizing machine was designed and constructed. The design comprises of three units which are: the milling unit; the mixer and the pelletizing unit. The milling unit has a hoper, a screw conveyor and a pair of grinding disks. The gap between the grinding disks is regulated by a screw and nut mechanism. The mixer comprises of a worm in a horizontal cylinder which cuts through the material as the shaft rotates to effect proper mixing of the various ingredients of the feed. The pelletizing unit is made up of a screw conveyor in a horizontal cylinder. The end of the cylinder is fitted with replaceable dies which has holes of diameter equal to the size of pellet to be produced. A knife attached to shaft cuts out the required length as the shaft rotates. The machine was tested after construction and it was observed that the machine has a minimum output of 1.42 kg/min and an overall efficiency of 77%.
Keyword: Fish, pelletizing, Milling, grinding, conveyor, mechanism
STATISTICAL COMPUTING OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATION INDEX SIMULATED DATA
PEACE EZE-EMMANUEL AND E.N. EKAKA-A
Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
This study has examined the application of calculating the data dispersion and data precision due to a variation of the initial condition using ODE 45 numerical scheme. The full results of this study are presented and discussed in this paper.
Keyword: Computing, Index, Simulated, Data, Statistucal
USING THE NOTION OF A DELAY CHARACTERIZATION TO PREDICT BIODIVERSITY LOSS AND INTERVENTION.
ATSU, J.U.1 AND EKAKA-A, E.N.2
1Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria 2Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port – Harcourt, Nigeria
This study has clearly shown that an increasing pattern of a time-delay on the intrinsic growth rate of the forestry resources biomass when the length of the growing season is fixed for a duration of fifty (50) months, a biodiversity gain is dominantly predicted with only one instance of a saturating biodiversity gain effect. We would expect these observations which we have not seen elsewhere to provide some sort of sustainable development control over the popular biodiversity loss scenario.
Keyword: Time-delay, intrinsic growth rate, sustainable development, biodiversity gain, length of growing season, intervention strategy.
NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND BIOACTIVITY OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE EXTRACT AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI AND PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA
ADO, A., SULAIMAN, S. S. AND *CHONOKO, U. G.
Department of Applied Science, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna, Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria
Nutritional value and bioactivity of Zingiber officinale rhizome collected from Abubakar Gummi central market, Kaduna, Nigeria against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were carried out using standard procedures. Result of phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and steroids in the Zingiber officinale rhizome. The crude methanolic soluble extract (F1) and all the fractions with the exception of water soluble fraction (F3) demonstrated broad spectra of activity against the isolates both at 103 and 102 µg/ml. The F3 was found inactive against the isolates at 102 µg/ml. Z. officinale rhizome could serve as a potential source of therapy for the treatment of gastroenteritis.
Keyword: Nutritional Value, Bioactivity, Zingiber officinale Phytochemical Screening, Tannins, Flavonoids, Steroids, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.