The 14th Academic Conference on New Direction and Uncommon Changes for Sub-Sahara African Nations’ Transformation: Multi-Disciplinary Approaches Vol.14 No.1.
DATE: 26th – 27th January, 2017.
VENUE: Conference Hall, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja FCT, Nigeria.
UNDERSTANDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF VIRTUAL REALITY AND ITS ADVANTAGES TO THE MODERN DAY ARCHITECT.
ARC. MICHAEL AJUFOH *1, MURATLA BABAJI *2. ARC. SHITUFA HAMIDU *3, ARC. DAUDA ALI *4
Department of Architecture, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
Virtual reality (VR), is currently gaining momentum in terms of its usage and impact in Architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industries for a while now. Building owners, construction companies and architectural firms are the greater beneficiaries in today’s VR marketplace. The word ‘virtual’ is popular among computer scientists and is used in a wide variety of situations. In general, it distinguishes something that is merely conceptual from something that has physical reality. For example, the architect’s plans are different from the house; another analogy is the difference between the brain and the mind. The opposite of virtual is real, absolute, or physical. The paper tries to define virtual reality stating its history and uses as well as trying to classify VR. It also describes the relationship between architecture and virtual reality as well as its advantages to architecture.
Keywords: Virtual, Reality, Computers, Architecture, software.
PREVALENCE OF VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINICS OF SOME SELECTED HOSPITALS IN ZARIA
**1. GARBA, I., 2. TIJJANI, M.B., 2. ALIYU, M.S., 1. UMAR, A.I., 2. DOKO, M.H.I., 3. UMAR, U.Z. AND 2. ORJI, I.V.
1. Dept of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Microbiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto 2. Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria 3. Department of Biology Saadatu Rimi College of Education, Kumbotso, Kano State
One hundred samples of High vagina swab (HVS) were collected from pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of two hospitals in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria and screened using standard microbiological procedures for the ;presence Candida albicans. The prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis among the subjects studied was found to be 43.0%. Seventy five percent (75.0%) of the pregnant women were symptomatic while 21.7% were asymptomatic. Distribution based on age showed age group 30-39 yrs had the highest prevalence (64.3%) and group 12-19 yrs had the lowest (8.3%) rate among the different age groups studied. Candidal infection by obstetric history showed that primigravidas (those having their first pregnancy), had less positive cases (26.1%) than multigravidas (those who have had many pregnancies), (48.1%). Those in their second trimester had higher prevalence (48.7%) than those in their third (41.2%) and first (30.0%) trimester stages of pregnancy. Serious sequelae can follow genital infections such as candidiasis, it is thus, imperative to carry out further investigations in the study area. These call for an urgent need for candidiasis prevention/education program to stop the spread of the infection.
Keywords: Candida albicans, candidiasis, pregnant women, antenatal clinics, High vaginal swab, Zaria.
MAXIMALLY FLAT RESPONSE MICROWAVE FILTER DESIGN
MUHAMMAD, S.YAHYA 1, NORHUDAH SEMAN 2, ABUBAKAR SALISU 3.
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi State- Nigeria 2. Wireless Communication Centre (WCC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia 3. Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola-Adamawa Sate Nigeria
This paper presents the design of a microstrip low pass filter (LPF) with cutoff frequency of 1.5 GHz. The LPF was designed to have maximally flat response and attenuation of 20dB at 3 GHz using lumped elements. The corresponding step impedance of the LPF was also implemented. The low pass filter protype designed using insertion loss method was scaled and transformed to a band pass filter with pass band range of 5GHz to 8GHz. The response of the band pass filter shows that it satisfied the design objective. The circuits were designed and simulated using Advanced Design System (ADS) software.
Keywords: low pass,stepped impedance filter, band pass flter.
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF BURNING CHARACTERISTIC OF SOME SELECTED MAJOR AGRICULTURAL WASTE IN YOBE STATE, NIGERIA
MUSA AHMED JATTO, 2. ISA GARBA, 1. HAMMAJAN ABBA ALHAJ, 1. USMAN KALLAMU MAIJAMA’A
1.Depatment of mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bayero University Kano, Kano State, Nigeria
One of the most challenging tasks facing Nigeria, just like other developing countries, is finding a means of expanding its energy services especially to the rural households, the epileptic power supply from National grid and at the same time addressing the health and environmental consequences of over dependence on firewood for cooking. The study was undertaken to investigate the comparison of burning characteristics of some selected commonly biomass waste found within Yobe state, wastes from rice husk, millet husk, groundnut shell, melon shell and corn cob were prepared into Briquettes. Proximate analysis was carried out to determine the following combustion related properties of the briquette produced, Ash content, Percentage fixed carbon, Percentage volatile matter and Heating value. The results shows that heating values of the waste sample are 18724 KJ/kg, 18528 KJ/kg, 19480 KJ/kg, 18521 KJ/kg and 22120 KJ/kg for rice husk, groundnut shell, corn cob, millet husk and melon shell respectively. From the foregoing, it is envisaged that industries that use their waste biomass for energy simultaneously would solve a waste disposal problem and save money on their Energy needs. Water Boiling Test (WBT) was also carried out to test the performance of all the fuels at ambient temperature and standard pressure. Test results show the burning rate of briquette fuel of melon shell, corn cob, groundnut, rice husk and millet husk were on increasing orders respectively. It was concluded that stable briquettes could be formed from waste biomass of rice husk, groundnut shell, melon shell, maize cob and millet husk mixed with cassava starch.
Keywords: Agricultural wastes, Briquettes, Combustion properties, boiling test, Boiling rate
CREDIT POLICY FORMULATION
Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Lecturer in Department of Marketing
Credit policy is compulsory for any enterprise whose sales programme involves, selling on credit terms. Policy is a definite course of method of action selected from among alternatives and in light of given conditions to guide and determine present and future decisions (Nwaochei, 2002:16). A policy empowers a company to make appropriate decisions within prescribed boundaries. Credit Policy is a key ﬁnancial management guideline that should be prepared under the guideline of the company’s Director or Head of Finance or ﬁnancial control, an experienced credit professional, a qualified ﬁrm of accountants, or an entrepreneur who has the necessary business and financial back-ground. Purchases of merchandise are recorded at cost; cost that may be affected by such factors as cash discounts and transportation charges (Meigs et al, 1965:15). Thus, most manufacturers and wholesalers sell merchandise on account. Credit terms are stated in the seller’s bill, or invoice. For example, credit term could be stated as “net 30 days” or “n/ 30” meaning full payment is due in 30 days. Another example of credit term is “I0 eom” meaning payment is due in 10 days after the end of the month in which the purchase occurred. Sellers often offer cash discounts to encourage their customer to make early payment for purchases on account.
Keywords: Credit, Sales, Formulation, Policy, Recruiting, Procedures, Evaluating, Guidelines, Acceptance, Figures.