TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH AND ANTHROPOLOGY (TIJSSRA)
VOL. 8 (6) FEBRUARY, 2022 EDITIONS. ISSN: 2977-5745
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies,
Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
IMPACT OF PRAGMATIC LANGUAGE TEACHING TECHNIQUE ON INFERENCIAL READING COMPREHENSION OF PRIMARY 5 ALMAJIRI LEARNERS OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN NORTH- WEST ZONE, NIGERIA
*AKINRUJOMU TEMITOPE PRESTIGE; **MUNTARI LAWAL; & ***SAFIYA M. BALARABE
*Department of Art and Social Sciences Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. **English Department, Isa Kaita College of Education, Dutsinma, Katsina State. ***Department of English, Federal College Of Education, Zaria.
This study examined the impact of Pragmatic Language Teaching Technique (PLTT) on inferential reading comprehension of Almajiri learners of English language in north west Zone, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised 35,652 Almajiri pupils studying in modern Almajiri schools in north west zone, Nigeria. The target population were all the primary five (5) Almajiri pupils in the north west, Nigeria, while the sample size was made up of 97 Almajiri pupils that were selected from Mal. Kwaire Qur’anic School, Dakingari, Kebbi state and Tsangaya Integrated Model Boarding Primary School, Tambuwal, Sokoto state. Two intact classes were selected from the sampled schools. In order to answer and test the research questions and hypotheses, a pre-test achievement test was administered to both the experimental and control groups followed by eight (8) weeks exposure to treatment, then finally the post-test. The instruments used were thirty (30) questions from two (2) comprehension passages. Descriptive and Inferential statistics were used to compare the results of the pre-test and post-test. The result showed that there is a significant difference in the inferential reading comprehension of Almajiri pupils that were exposed to Pragmatic Language Teaching Techniques and those that were treated with the conventional teaching activities. In the light of the findings, the researcher recommended among others the training and retraining of English language teachers in Almajiri schools on the use of PLTT to teach reading comprehension. More so, textbook writers/publishers and curriculum planners should create an avenue for Pragmatic Language Teaching Techniques in reading comprehension in order to make the lessons more meaningful, purposeful, rewarding and exciting.
EXEMPLIFYING THE HODGIAN SEVEN CRITERIA IN PLAY DIRECTING: A DIRECTORIAL ANALYSIS OF JOHN RUGANDA’S THE BURDENS
Department of Performing Arts, Faculty of Arts, University of Delta, Agbor, Delta State
The foundation of this paper is hinged on the seven criteria suggested by Francis Hodge in play directing, where he carefully substantiates the use of: The Given Circumstance, Previous Action, Dialogue, Character, Idea, Mood and Tempo as a panoply of an artistic embroidery which is capable of producing the director/actor responses of the dramatic event, especially as it is contained within the ambience of the directorial analysis of a play. However, to lend support to this supposition, John Ruganda’s play The Burdens is textually analyzed under a directorial foundation to demonstrate the aptness and beauty of the Hogian approach. More so, the stronghold of this paper is anchored on the analytical methodology, and it is envisioned that a painstaking rededication to this approach will enhance audience understanding and patronage, and thus, becomes a source of invigoration for the survival of the theatre and its product in the face of the current post pandemic era.
Keywords: Hodgian Criteria, Directorial Analysis, and the Burdens
THE IMPACT OF RELIGION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF CRIME CONTROL IN NIGERIA
*NWANERI CONSTANCE L.O.; **ARETHA REKIYA SAMUEL (Ph.D); AND **ABDUL ISMAILA DONGGURUM
*Department of Sociology/Criminology and Security Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Plateau State. **Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Jos – Plateau-State
This paper emphasis the impact of religion as an instrument of crime control in the society. It examine the detailed effect and consequences of religion as panacea of crime prevention and control in Nigeria society. Many factors have been said to be responsible for or influences the high incidence of crime among the youths and adults. They include the following which will be systematically considered-personal, family/parents factors, school based/education factors, socio-economic and political factors, religious, peer influence, media and career related factors. The paper however, posit that religion is vital in curbing most, if not all of the excesses exhibited by the youths and adults by providing a practice approach to helping them to overcome the violent behaviours they exhibit. In this regard, religion becomes a veritable tool in solving the problem of crimes and anti-social behaviour as the Holy writs negate these acts among the youths and adults.
Keywords: Youth, Adult, crime, evidence, religion and society
THE DARK SIDE OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN A WORLD OF PLURALISM, DIVERSITY AND INTERDEPENDENCE
*’BIMBO OGUNBANJO; AND **MODUPE ALBERT, PhD
*Department of Politics and International Relations, ISM – Adonai University, Cotonou, Republic of Benin. **Department of Politics and International Relations, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria.
This paper is of the view that human rights are now a settled part of international law and politics. By 2000 the main human rights treaties had been ratified by a large majority of the world’s countries. The idea that there are only negative human rights is partly supported by the contribution of this paper. It argues that rights must be correlated with duties. And it argues that negative rights are correlated with negative duties that are easily assignable to all human beings. So, each person can make a claim against every other person in the world that that person not interfere or harm them. But this paper argues the situation of positive rights, such as a right to education, is not so easy to understand. Who must provide the education to the person in Malawi? Do we (citizens of Nigeria) have a duty to do this? This paper appears to think that this is implausible. Perhaps the state of Malawi has this duty. But in this case, the thought is, we are assigning a duty to an entity that is a contingent product of institutional arrangements. In the case of negative rights, we have them against all persons and no institutional setting is required for determining what duties people have, but it appears that in the case of positive rights, the duties must be assigned by institutions and this will depend on a myriad contingencies making them special rights and not human rights. Hence it is not clear how there can be positive human rights.
Keywords: Human Rights, Positive Rights, Negative Rights, States, Covenants, Treaties
CONTRACEPTIVE NEGATION: A QUALITATIVE INQUIRY OF SOME SOCIO – COGNITIVE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR CONTRACEPTIVE DISCONTINUATION AMONG MARRIED WOMEN IN OTUKPO
*ULAGBA, EMMANUEL; & **OKOH, EDOH MIKE
*Department of Sociology, Kwararafa University, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria. **H17 Aliyu moddibo Street Sunnyvale Estate
The campaign to popularize the use of contraceptives among sexually active women has gained prominence in Nigeria. In the late 1980s, knowledge of contraceptives spread like a wildfire among Nigerians and this has continued till date. However, usage of contraceptives among sexually active women in Nigeria remains very low. Reports have shown that the use of these contraceptives is as low as 14% with increasing rate of discontinuation. The low rate of contraceptive use and discontinuation cannot be disconnected from certain side-effects attributed to those contraceptives. This study investigated socio-cognitive factors responsible for possible or complete discontinuation of contraceptives in Otukpo Local Government Area of Benue State. Health Belief Model (HBM) and Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA) were adopted as theoretical frameworks. The study was conducted among attendees of selected family planning clinics in Otukpo using narrative analysis, a variant of qualitative methodology. Data were gathered from both primary and secondary sources. In-depth Interview (IDI) and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) were adopted to collect primary data from a total of 44 snowballed respondents. The study found that inter-play between cognitive and social factors could be responsible for possible or complete discontinuation of contraceptives. However, cognitive factors such as the experiences of depression, loss of Libido and fear of unknown were more likely to affect possible or complete contraceptive discontinuation than social factors. There is the need for potential and current users of contraceptives to be adequately informed about the side-effects of each of the available methods of contraceptives prior to uptake. More importantly, there is the need for the development of contraceptive methods with less side-effect so as to minimize the current high rate of contraceptive discontinuation.
Keywords: Contraceptive, Discontinuation, Depression, Married women and family stability
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS’ QUALITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE EFFECTIVENESS IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN NORTH-WEST, NIGERIA
BOLATITO, ABDULRAFIU OMOTAYO
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education and Extension Services, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria.
The study investigates relationship between school administrators’ qualities and administrative effectiveness in colleges of education in Northwest, Nigeria. This study has become necessary due to lack of consideration by the government and authority of tertiary institutions in Nigeria for the specialists in educational administration and planning in the appointment of school administrators into leadership and management positions in tertiary institutions. The study raised five research questions which includes among others that, there is no significant relationship between school administrators’ qualification and administrative effectiveness in colleges of education in North-West Nigeria. The specific objectives are to find out among others if there is any relationship between school administrators’ qualification and administrative effectiveness in colleges of education in North- West Nigeria. The hypotheses of the study were formulated which includes among others that, there is no significant relationship between school administrators’ qualification and administrative effectiveness in colleges of education in North-West Nigeria. The study used descriptive survey research design of correlation type. The study population consisted of 607 school administrators in 12 colleges of education in Northwest Nigeria and the study selected 169 school administrators as sample size, using Research Advisor (2006) table for determining sample size. The study used deliberate sampling technique to select seven (7) out of twelve (12) colleges of education in Northwest, Nigeria. The study used proportionate sampling technique to determine sample size require per college of education and simple random sampling technique was used to select four (4) out of seven (7) states in Northwest Nigeria. The research instruments used to collect relevant data were School Administrators’ Qualities Questionnaire (SAQQ) and Administrative Effectiveness of School Administrators Questionnaire (AESAQ). The face validity of the research instruments was done by the experts in the field of Educational Administration and Planning, as well as other experts in the field of Science Education, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. The reliability index was computed using Cronbach Alpha with School Administrators Qualities Questionnaire (SAQQ) had index of 0.912 and 0.842 for Administrative Effectiveness of School Administrators Questionnaire (AESAQ). The data collected were analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (PPMC) to test the research hypotheses with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software 20.0 versions. The study found among others that school administrators’ qualification was found to be a key determinant for holding academic and administrative positions in higher educational institutions. The study concluded that school administrators’ qualification is the prerequisite forholding academic and administrative positions in higher educational institutions leading to administrative effectiveness. The study recommended that school administrators with requisite qualification should be given opportunity to hold academic and administrative positions in higher educational institutions for attainment of administrative effectiveness.
Keywords: School administrators’ qualification, specialization, experience, gender, place of origin and administrative effectiveness.
POLITICS AND TERROR IN A TRAUMATISED SOCIETY: THE AUGUST 2012 SHOOTINGS IN EBIRALAND, NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA
*DR. ENESI PRINCE HABIB; **DR HANNATU K ALI; ***PROF. (DR) ADAM OKENE AHMED
*Department of History, PMB 1154 Lokoja, Federal University Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria. **Department of History and War Studies, Nigerian Defence Academy, Africa’s Top Military University, PMB 2109, Kaduna Nigeria. ***Conflict Resolution and International Studies, Directorate of Linkages and Collaboration, Nigerian Defence Academy, Africa’s Top Military University, PMB 2109 Kaduna Nigeria
This paper examines politics and terror in Ebiraland, North-Central Nigeria. It focuses on the August 2012 terror attacks and its aftermath on a people which had become traumatized due to lots of crises and conflicts that had bedeviled the area. The methodology adopted by the paper is the extensive use of primary sources which include oral interview. It also made use of secondary sources such as journals and books. Findings in the paper reveal that the attacks on Okene was politically orchestrated and using the instrumentality of Boko Haram. Despite this devastating attack on the people of Ebiraland, the Nigerian Police Force whose constitutional role is to protect law abiding citizens unleashed terror on an already traumatised society. In the final analysis, the paper submits that the Nigerian government needs to step up efforts to defeat all dysfunctional activities including banditry, kidnapping but particularly the terrorist groups, Boko Haram and their successors, the ISWAP because of their negative implications on the society.
Keynotes: Violence, Hoodlum, Terrorism, Transformation, Good governance, Accountability, Development
THE CONCEPT OF SONG IN THE IGALA METAPHYSICAL PHENOMENAL: A PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS
AMODU SALISU AMEH; & STEPHEN, EMMANUEL
Department of Philosophy, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria
A study on the concept of song in the Igala metaphysics is a form of encounters attached to the religious rituals and the observable actions of man’s encounter to the ontological makeup of the universe. Their interactions to forces and nature through song were more descriptive, narrative and deeply emotional, which distinguish it from that of other African religious word view, the uniqueness of song among Igals in term of religion is so paramount that it manifest at every instincts. The central idea of song in the Igala ontology presents their ideology on the Supreme Being, the Igala religious language, or their spiritual influence on force as Being. An analytic method will be applied in our quest of the research to create an in-depth interpretation of the concept of song in the Igala metaphysical phenomenon, and this research will also conclude on creating a depth awareness of the Igala perception of song as a passage of interaction and flow of emotion from man to the object of the unknown through a descriptive encounter.
Keyword: Igala metaphysics, ontological makeup, descriptive encounter, religious influence, linguistic and phenomenon.
INFLUENCE OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT ON JOB SATISFACTION AMONG MEDICAL DOCTORS OF SPECIALIST HOSPITAL, JALINGO, TARABA STATE, NIGERIA
*DR. AMINU SANI; **CHINDO USMAN ZAKARI; & ***CHRISPINA HASSAN GARBA
*Department of Educational Foundations, Taraba State University, Jalingo. **Ministry of Health, Taraba State, Nigeria. ***Department of Guidance and Counseling, Taraba State University, Jalingo
The study investigates the influence of government support on job satisfaction of Medical Doctors in Specialist Hospital, Jalingo, Taraba State. Four objectives and four research questions were raised for the study. The study used the total population of twenty three (23) Medical Doctors in Specialist Hospital, Jalingo, thereby taking the number as the study sample, using purposive sampling. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze and answer the research questions and results showed that there is moderate level of job satisfaction among Medical Doctors, also factors which include on the job training, special incentives, good working relationship with other staff provision of relevant facilities are among the factors associated with job satisfaction, non provision of government support to Medical Doctors and negative influence of government support on Doctors job satisfaction in Specialist Hospital, Jalingo. The study concludes that there is negative influence of government support on job satisfaction among Medical Doctors in Specialist Hospital, Jalingo. The study recommends among others, that government should show more commitment in the provision of basic facilities and motivate them to achieve greatness in their chosen career.
Keywords: Government, Support, Job Satisfaction, Medical Doctors, Specialist Hospital, Influence.
FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN NIGERIA: A CRITICAL EXPOSITION
DR ANTHONY EMHENYA IYOHA
Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Edo State University, Uzairue.
This study attempts an in-depth examination of financial accountability in local Government in Nigeria and the extent to which it has contributed to the grass-root development. In executing its constitutionally assigned functions and responsibilities, the local government requires adequate funds to enable her function effectively with due consultation of relevant texts and publications of experts in local government administration, it was found that the federal allocations, and the internally generated revenue to local Government councils, were grossly inadequate. This incapacitated the local government in the performance of its responsibilities thereby frustrating any meaningful development in the grass-root In view of this development, the following suggestions were made to ameliorate the situation. The local government council should go into genuine business partnership with voluntary development agencies and non-governmental organizations to attract meaningful business. Efforts should be made to provide electricity, good roads, banks, and other basic infrastructures that would attract entrepreneurs to set up business that would consequently give rise to grass-root development. Allocation to local government councils should be reviewed upward to cushion its financial problem.
Keywords: Local Government, Local Government Area, Service delivery, Local Authority, Financial Accountability,
PRESS, POLITICAL PROPAGANDA, AND PRESIDENTIAL POWER IN NIGERIA’S FOURTH REPUBLIC
OVIE, EDOMI; & PROF. SAMUEL OKERE, PhD
Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
This study examines the production and dissemination of political propaganda in the quest for presidential power in Nigeria since the return to democratic rule in 1999.It interrogates the role of Nigerian press in the generation and spread of political propaganda using the framework of Harold Laswell’s propaganda theory.The study employed the qualitative paradigm with a narrative methodology. Secondary empirical data was gathered and reviewed with the goal of understanding how the media is used to produce and promote political propaganda for the purpose of acquiring or retaining presidential power in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic. The study found that media organizations are active participants in the production of political propaganda because most of them are owned by politicians or their friends. The newspapers help in the creation and spread of political propaganda without recourse to journalistic ethics or public interest. It recommends that political leaders should play politics of ideas and not propaganda in order to serve the people better. It also urges readers to improve their media literacy levels in order to make better meaning out of media messages and improve their power as electorates in the political process.
Keywords: Political Propaganda, Fourth Republic, Presidential Elections, Propaganda Theory and Nigerian Newspapers.
TOURIST POTENTIALS OF “INNEH IWAJI OGBANIGBE” TOTAL THEATRE PERFORMANCE OF IDUMUJE – UNOR, DELTA STATE
ANYIRA, KINGSLEY CHUKWUEMEKE
Department of Theatre Arts, Faculty of Humanities, Imo State University, Owerri
The art of festival evolved with man from the earliest time. This is demonstrated in her folklores, storytelling, children’s play songs, Lullabys, poetry, chat, totem, incantation, religious invocations and satirical songs. Theatre is a resume of life, and the society views it from different angles like ritual, religion and traditional festival. This study is going to view the theatre as a conglomeration of different art/theatre forms that are inherently African in nature. It is also going to view the total nature of the Inneh Iwaji Ogbanigbe festival of Idumuje-Unor people as a masterpiece with the fusion of all the elements of total theatre, making it a tourist destination.
THE PLACE OF SACRIFICE AMONG THE ZAR PEOPLE IN BIBLICAL PERSPECTIVES
WADAM Z. S.
Department of Arts Education, Faculty of Education, University of Jos
This paper tries to identify the place of sacrifice in African concept especially amongst the Zar people. It examines the relevance of sacrifice in. African societies to the contemporary Christian Religious Practice today with biblical basis of the Old and New Testament scriptures. This will lead to identifying the values of sacrifice in human lives and religions. The paper examines the concepts of African Traditional Religion and identifies the place of sacrifices. The beliefs among Africans that sin or disobedience to the divinity (God) is the result of various calamities that affects human lives. In order to be free from the guilt of sins, the Africa man resort to sacrifice. Therefore, the purpose of sacrifices is a very serious one. The paper also examines the place of sacrifice among Zar people, one of the ethnic groups in southern part of Bauchi state in order that we may share their world views in the subject topic of the paper. The paper also made recommendations to scholars of religious studies to study areas of relevance of the African traditional religion and contemporary western or foreign religions concepts of values.
Keyword: Place Sacrifice, Among, Zar people, Biblical, Perspectives
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND HUMAN RESOURCES RECRUITMENT IN MTN NIGERIA OWERRI, IMO STATE
CHIDI M. AYOZIE
Department of Management, Faculty of Management Sciences, Imo State University Owerri, Imo State
This study focused on information technology and human resources recruitment using MTN Nigeria Owerri as the focal point. The study was carried out to determine how e-recruitment process could add value to organizational effectiveness. In line with the above, two research objectives, two research questions and two research hypotheses guided the study. It was discovered that there is significant relationship between cost of IT recruitment process and MTN effectiveness and there is significant effect of timeliness of IT information on human resources recruitment n MTN. Based on the findings, the research recommends that human resources managers should always encourage the use of e-recruitment process in their establishment so as to attract qualified manpower for the organizational good. Furthermore, considering its advantages, the existing staff in the organization should be trained in all e-format so as to contribute for organizational good.
Keywords: Information Technology, Human Resources, Timeliness, Recruitment, Organizational Effectiveness.
ANALYSES OF CAUSES OF CONFLICTS AND STRATEGIES OF MANAGING CONFLICTS AMONG TEACHERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KAURA LOCAL GOVERNMENT, KADUNA STATE
*DEBORAH ALKALI BULUS; *DR. FRANCIS EPHRAIME RIKICHI; & **FR. EDOUARD MUSIBA
*Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya Department of Curriculum and Instructions. **St. Joseph Parish (SMA) Kagoro
This study was carried out on the Analyses of Causes of Conflicts and Strategies of Management of Conflicts among teachers in Secondary Schools. The study was a descriptive design and two research questions were raised and answered. The population of the study thirteen (13) principals and two hundred and nineteen (219) teachers of secondary schools in Kaura local government area of Kaduna state. Stratified sampling technique was used to select seven (7) principals and one hundred and thirteen (113) teachers for the study. Peace Education as a Means towards Conflict Management in Secondary Schools Questionnaire (PEMCMSSQ) was used to collect data while descriptive statistics was applied in the data analysis. The results reveals that causes of conflict in Secondary Schools are; Wide communication gap between the students and the school authority, delay in meeting students demand, inadequate facilities, Finances, etc. and that strategies used by school principals in Managing Conflict in Secondary Schools include establishing procedure for bringing together the opposing sides of the crises; identifying a safe place for negotiation, the use of force by principals to compel students to concede to their own point of view, allowing third party intervention. Thus, it was recommended that teachers and principals should consider the causes of conflict and used the right strategies in Conflict Management in secondary schools.
Keywords: Conflict, Causes of Conflicts, Conflict Management
ATTITUDE OF MOTHERS’ IN NDOKWA WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE TOWARDS IMMUNIZATION
UMUKORO BLESSING IFEOMA
This study investigated attitude of mothers in Ndokwa west local government area of Delta State of Nigeria towards immunisation. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted. The population of the study consisted of 3000 mothers of child bearing age. Five percent (5%,) of the population was sampled which gave a total sample of 150 respondents using simple random sampling technique of balloting. The instrument was a structured questionnaire and was validated by two experts in the department of health and safety education of Delta State University. The reliability of the instrument was determined using test-retest and a correlation coefficient of 0.88 was obtained as a measure of stability over time. The researcher personally administered the instrument with the aid of three research assistants. Mean and standard deviation were utilized to answer the research questions while t-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of Significance. The findings of the study showed that there was significant difference between the attitude of urban and rural mothers towards immunisation against vaccine preventable diseases of children. There was no significant difference between the attitude of highly educated and lowly educated mothers towards immunisation against vaccine preventable diseases (VDP) of children. Conclusion was made, and it was recommended among others that health education campaigns about immunisation for children should be carried out especially in rural areas.
Keywords: Attitude, Immunisation, Education, vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) and Location.
IMBIBING THE SKILLS AND ART OF EDITORIAL WRITING IN THE 21ST CENTURY
KABIRU IDRIS MUHAMMAD
Department of Mass Communication, Kano State Polytechnic
This paper explores and lights the principle-based approach or skills an editorial writer should embrace for him or her to professionally behave in tune with 21s century demand or realities. In doing this, the paper begins by providing conceptual clarification of the term “editorial”. It also critically examines the Nature of editorial writing, editorial Writer, attributive qualities of Editorial Writers and the Editorial Board as well as its Functions in the 21st Century. In an effort to illuminate and underscores the power vested on Chairman of Editorial Board as the sole director of the editorial publication. The features of editorial, functions of editorials and types of editorials as well as editorial audience have explained in the paper. Overall, the paper pinpoints a paradigm shift in writing editorial, given the realities of high level of literacy coupled with globalizing nature of the world; thereby detailing the need for research in editorial writing in the 21st century, persuasive power of editorials, the art of sourcing the editorial materials and persuasive techniques in editorial writing
Keywords: imbibing, skills, art, editorial writing and 21st century
FORCE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF STATECRAFT
*OSUAGWU CAJETAN IKENNA; & **AKAMERE F.A.C
*Department of Public Administration, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo Ohaji, Imo State, P.M.B. 1472 Owerri, Imo State. **Department of Public Administration, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo-Ohaji, Imo State
In further quest for statecraft, governments adopt several strategies to building a strong state, force forms one of the strategies. Statecraft according to political economists could also be regarded as actions of a state. This paper will tend to provide a critical examination on the contributions of force to statecraft which helps to build great institutions. It will also offer an introduction on the characteristics of statecraft in an environment of a strong force. Analysis will be made on the strength of various forces which will determine the stability of the institutions of a state and vice versa. This work is empirical as it tried to explain the major instruments in statecraft, which force is part of it. It will draw facts from Machiavellian analysis of statecraft. Attention will be drawn to the concept of sovereignty which is one of the major characteristics of a state as it deals with power, the protection and preservation of the state’s integrity.
Keywords: Military power, security, sovereignty, governance, nation-state
EXAMINING THEMES AND ISSUES RAISED BY NORTH AFRICAN WRITERS IN THEIR WORKS
RAJI, TOLULOPE OLABIMPE
General Studies Department, Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic Saapade, Ogun State.
This paper attempts an enquiry into the literature of the Arabic, North African. This study has been able to discuss the themes and issues raised by North African writers in their works. This study is therefore concerned about the diverse language, subjects and productions elevated in these local literatures.
Keywords: Literature, Arabic, North African, language, subjects and productions
PRAGMATIC ANALYSIS OF EDITORIAL CARTOONS IN ONLINE NIGERIAN NEWSPAPERS
MUSA, ABUBAKAR SADIQ; ATINGA LARAI AZUWO ADAMU; & IOWAR, ESTHER ASHIEMAR
Department of Languages, Kaduna Polytechnic
The study is a pragmatic study of selected online editorial cartoons in Nigerian online newspapers. Editorial cartoons have a long standing tradition of merging social satire with political commentary in the society. It has in several situations been the most direct medium for criticizing maladministration in government or individuals. The aim of this study is to identify the pragmatic features and functions of cartoons featured in selected online newspapers in Nigeria. This study made use of pragmatic theories or features such as speech acts, intention and inference and context as well as pragmatic elements such as presupposition and world knowledge to analyze the cartoons. 15 editorial cartoons were selected from selected online editions of Nigerian newspapers like the sunnewsonline, vanguardnewsngr, punch news and guardianng. The theoretical framework for this research is Mey’s Pragmatic Act Theory. For this study, the qualitative research methodology has been used. The descriptive survey method was employed for the analysis of data. The data for the study comprises fifteen cartoon strips sourced from randomly selected Nigerian online newspapers. The data is analyzed using pragmatic act theory. The elements explored are locution, illocution, and perlocution (speech acts). Implicature, presupposition, inference, and reference. The study revealed that assertives and directives are the most commonly used speech acts in most Nigerian online cartoons.
Keywords: locution, illocution. Presupposition, implicature, inference.
CRISIS PREPAREDNESS AND VISITORS PATRONAGE TO HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM OUTFIT IN JOS PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA
1DIMFWINA, N. TONGSHINEN; & 2 DR. (MRS) IFEGBO LAWRENCIA
1Hospitality Management Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi Nigeria. 2Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria
Crisis preparedness is deficient in Hotel businesses that do not see the significance of preparedness for unanticipated circumstances. Crisis preparedness has received great attention from researchers in recent times, discovering how to deal with tragedies and cope with crises by preparing in advance, modernizing or inventing new methods of crises preparedness, and learning from experience. Globally, crises preparedness can have significant effects on tourism flows. The general objective of this research is to examining the effect of crisis preparedness on visitors’ patronage. The research methods included a cross-sectional descriptive survey research design utilizing both qualitative and quantitative methods. The research instrument was structured questionnaire for visitors and interview for managers with the help of stratified purposive sampling procedure where 205 questionnaires were administered, 171 were filled and returned. Descriptive statistics were used to measure intervals and tendencies-test/Ordinary least square model was used to respond to the hypothesis, Pearson correlation was used to measure the relationships between the variables while regression analysis was used to reflect on the independent variables in finding out their relationship with the dependent variable where crisis management preparedness had a positive and significant effect on visitors’ patronage to the hotels (r=0.288, p=0.000). Findings from the study revealed that crisis management preparedness and visitors’ patronage were positively and significantly associated (r=0.355, p=0.000) in the hospitality and tourism Industry. To the academia, further studies can focus on the several issues that need to be examined in order to advance the perception of crisis management approaches. Based on this, the study is surely of great concern and importance to scholars, visitors/travellers, inspectors, Government and those planning fresh/new initiatives in the hospitality and tourism industry.
Keywords: Crisis, Preparedness, Visitors, Patronage, Hospitality and Tourism
INAUGURAL ADDRESS OF PRINCE DAPO ABIODUN: A PRAGMATIC APPROACH
1OLADIPO, MICHAEL MOFEOLUWA; & 2OGAMBA CHISOM PAULA
1Department of General Studies, Ogun State College of Health Technology, Ilese-Ijebu. 2Faculty of Humanities, Department of English and Literary Studies, Alex Ekueme Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ebonyi State
Political office holders are responsible for addressing the citizenry form-time to time. To this effect, language is a veritable tool. Governors especially are saddled with the responsibility of communicating their intentions and achievement in state through the use of language. In terms of inaugural speeches, language is used to reveal the intention, integrity, personality commitment and transparency of a Governor. Several studies in pragmatics, discourse analysis, sociolinguistics, stylistics and comparative studies have undergone analysis of inaugural speeches in the Nigerian political discourse. However, not much of the analyses in Nigerian political discourse have employed Speech Act from the perspective of Pragmatics to analyze governorship inaugurals. Thus, this study examined Speech acts in a governorship inaugural using the Searle (1999) taxonomy of illocutionary acts as its theoretical framework. The study utilized the qualitative research design while a purposive sampling technique was used to select locutions/utterances from the 2019 inaugural address of the Ogun State governor, Prince (Dr) Adedapo Abiodun. Findings revealed that the prominent speech acts are commissives, expressive, declaratives, assertives; there is only one directive. The contextual reasons for these performatives were to reveal the intention as well as the personality of the governor. The study concluded that the governor (Dr. DapoAbiodun) made use of commissives to reveal his noble intentions, integrity and future for a better Ogun State. The study recommends more use of commissives and expressive inaugural speeches for positive self-imaging and optimism.
Keywords: language, inaugural address, locutions, utterances, intention
THE ROLE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS IN PUBLIC POLICY MAKING: PRACTICE AND PROSPECTS IN NIGERIA
TIJANI SULEMAN OLATUNJI; & DAMISAH MARYANNE .O.
Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State
This paper ascertains the role of public administrators in public policy making. Descriptive method was adopted in the study. The citizenry, who are the major benefactor of public policy has been sidelined during the policy making process making the entire process faulty and defaulting the modus operandi of the exercise. Unarguably, public policy is a major tool of development at any governmental level and needs to be given adequate attention. Diverse actors involved in public policy making include the governmental actors (legislative, judiciary, executive, bureaucrat) and the nongovernmental actors (political parties, interest group and citizenry). Public administrators ensure the stability of political atmosphere in the country. With their neutrality in the political spheres, they ensure the seamless implementation of government policies without bias or favor, thereby, stabilizing the system. Amongst the problems facing public policy implementation are; deviation from personnel regulation, human resources inadequacy and poor funding. These challenges can be solved by allocating more funds to the public policy sector, ensuring decentralized governance and improved maintenance culture. Public policy being a vital instrument used by public administrations to bring into fulfillment the programs and policies of government in power, decisive and deliberate efforts should be made to ensure the actualization of its goals in entirely. It is recommended that there should be a very strong connecting link between the elites who are the policy makers and the mass – public and that corruption should be reduced in the public service so as to allow free-flow of policy formulation and implementation in Nigeria.
Keywords: Public policy, bureaucrat, public administrator, citizenry, political actors.
INFLUENCE OF STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP AND ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE
*MOHAMMED ALHAJI YUSUF; **SANI MUSTAPHA KURA; & ***BASHIR ALIYU BAWURO
*Department of Business Education, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State **Department of Social Work, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State. ***Department of Social Studies, College of Education, Zing, Taraba State
The study of strategic leadership focuses on executives with the overall responsibility for an organisation, includes not only the titular head of the organisation but also members of what is referred to as the top management team. Through their leaders, organisations make strategic choices about the strategies they implement to enhance their competitive advantage. From a strategic management standpoint, organisational effectiveness is the degree to which the composite outputs an organisation produces align with the demands of its environment in order to achieve a competitive advantage, and strategic leadership is a primary determinant of this set of outputs. Identifying these outputs and the process through which they contribute to effectiveness is the key to understanding the organisational effectiveness construct.