TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH AND ANTHROPOLOGY (TIJSSRA)
VOL. 10 (6) AUGUST, 2022 EDITION. ISSN: 2977-5745
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
IMPACT OF USING EVALUATIVE READING COMPREHENSION APPROACH (ERCA) TO ENHANCE SENTENCE AND PARAGRAPH WRITING PERFORMANCES OF PRIMARY 5 ALMAJIRI LEARNERS OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN NORTH WEST ZONE, NIGERIA
*PROF. SADIQ MUHAMMED; **SAFIYA M. BALARABE; ***ZULAI MOHAMMED RABIU; ****MUNTARI LAWAL; & *AKINRUJOMU TEMITOPE PRESTIGE
*Department of Art and Social Sciences Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. **Department of English, Federal College of Education, Zaria. ***Department of Arts and Social Science Education, Kaduna State University, Kaduna. ****Department of English, Isa Kaita College of Education, Dutsinma, Katsina State
This study examined the impact of using evaluative reading comprehension approach (ERCA) to enhance sentence and paragraph writing performances of Almajiri learners of English language in north west, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised 35,652 Almajiri pupils studying in modern Almajiri schools in north west zone, Nigeria. The target population were all the primary five (5) Almajiri pupils in the north west, Nigeria, while the sample size was made up of 97 Almajiri pupils that were selected from Mal. Kwaire Qur’anic School, Dakingari, Kebbi state and Tsangaya Integrated Model Boarding Primary School, Tambuwal, Sokoto state. Two intact classes were selected from the sampled schools. In order to answer and test the research questions and hypotheses, a pre-test achievement test was administered to both the experimental and control groups followed by eight (8) weeks exposure to treatment, then finally the post-test. The instruments used were sentences extracted from the two (2) comprehension passages and these sentences were arranged to form a composition question for testing paragraph writing. Descriptive and Inferential statistics were used to compare the results of the pre-test and post-test. The result showed that there is a significant difference in the sentence and paragraph writing performance of Almajiri pupils that were exposed to Evaluative Reading Comprehension Approach (ERCA) and those that were treated with the conventional teaching activities. In the light of the findings, the researcher recommended among others the training and retraining of English language teachers in Almajiri schools on the use of reading comprehension approach to enhance sentence and paragraph writing performances of Almajiri pupils. More so, textbook writers/publishers and curriculum planners should create an avenue for writing lesson to be integrated into evaluative reading comprehension lesson (ERCA), this will go along way in making the lesson more meaningful, purposeful, rewarding and exciting.
Keywords: Evaluative Reading Comprehension Approach (ERCA), Sentence, Paragraph, Writing Performances, English Language.
THE NIGERIAN GAS POLICIES, GAS FLARING AND CONTAINMENT OF THE EXCESSES OF THE MULTI-NATIONAL OIL COMPANIES ON FARE REDUCTION
CHUKWUWINKE SMART MOKUYE
Department of Public Administration, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State. Nigeria
While the practice of gas flaring remained a major menace in the natural gas sector in Nigeria, though recent government efforts of government have brought about some reduction of a sort, the provisions of the National Energy policy for a phase out are far from being achieved. The focus of the National Gas Policy seems to be on how the practice could be commercialised for economic advantage, hence the Nigerian Gas Flare Commercialisation Policy. The study thus reviewed the National Gas Policy’s position on gas flaring and reasons behind the sluggish response of Multi-national Oil Companies to the flare reduction policies in the nation’s gas sector. This is done with a view to identifying the factors affecting the development of the gas sector in Nigeria, especially how these serve as discouragements to investment in the sector. The study finding revealed that, the policies have not achieved much at curtailing the excesses of Major Oil Companies (MOCs) on gas flaring mainly due to government’s dual status of being both an operator and regulator within the gas value-chain. As such, foresees possible hitches in the achievement of sustainable development in the nation’s gas sector. Furthermore, with the focus of the NGP (2017), flaring activities may continue as long as government is deriving enormous benefits from the practice. The paper concluded that only a truly independent and an empowered regulator can compel players in the sector to comply with rules especially on natural gas flaring activities.
Keywords: National Gas Policies, Gas Flaring, Multi-national Oil Companies, Fare Reduction, Sustainable Development.
CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS IN PRESIDENT MUHAMMADU BUHARI’S BROADCASTS ON 2021 DEMOCRACY DAY AND INDEPENDENCE DAY CELEBRATIONS
*FELIX AISHE AMALE; **JOHN JULIUS JOHN; & ***MANYIL MAUREEN ZWALWAP
*University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. **Kaduna State College of Education, Gidan Waya, Kaduna State, Nigeria. ***Federal College of Education Pankshin, Plateau State, Nigeria
Language is very pivotal in the affairs of man, as there is no aspect of man’s life that is not expressed in language: whether verbal or nonverbal. To this end, metaphors have really been ustilised in political discourses to depict one political issue or the other especially in the Nigerian political atmosphere. There are a series of studies on conceptual metaphors relating to political speeches; however, little has been done on the speeches of President Muhammadu Buhari of Nigeria. This study, therefore, analyses conceptual metaphors in the broadcasts of president: identify the metaphors; their various mappings and how they have been used to depict different political issues in his broadcasts. Lakoff and Johnson’s (1980) served as the theoretical framework for the study. President Muhammadu Buhari’s broadcasts on 2021 independence and democracy data for the study. The result of the study shows that Metaphors in the domain of journey were used to depict politics is a journey; metaphors of protest/sports were used to represent politics as either a contest or sport. Other metaphors were used to depict Buhari as a sacrificial lamb; Nigeria is a family, Nigeria is a building/structure; the Nigerian citizens as agents of nation building and politicians are visioners. The study concludes that political speeches are characterized with lots of conceptual metaphors depicting various political issues in society.
Keywords: Metaphors, political discourse, Nigeria, President Muhammadu Buhari, Broadcasts
ASYMMETRY IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: NIGERIA AND THE GAMBIA
ADETOLA E. ADEJO; DEBORAH EBUNOLUWA OLUWADARA; & ABIODUN A. ADESEGUN
Department of History & International Studies, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Nigeria.
Nigeria and The Gambia have had friendly relations overtime. However, their relations can be described as asymmetrical. This is because there is a clear and relatively stable disparity between the capabilities of the two countries. Thus, Nigeria’s foreign policy behaviour towards the Gambia, influenced by her Afro-centric policy, has been one of largesse. Nigeria is the stronger state and it has taken partial responsibility to assist the weaker state, The Gambia. This has generated controversies with certain scholars arguing that Nigeria cannot afford such chivalrous foreign policy because of inherent domestic economic problems. Others posit the importance of bilateral and multilateral relations in an increasingly interdependent world. The former have called for a reversal in the level of Nigeria’s participation in international affairs and the devotion of resources used in foreign aid to improve the welfare of Nigerians. The methodology adopted in this research was the qualitative approach. The data used in writing this study was obtained from primary and secondary sources. The primary sources were collected from oral interviews, newspapers and archival materials. The secondary sources included published books and journals. These were complemented with internet materials. The theoretical framework used to guide the study was the Asymmetry Option Model. Using that model, the authors discovered that Nigeria and The Gambia maintain an open attitude in their relationship, with the aim of diminishing the asymmetry between them. Thus, Nigeria commits sufficient resources to the aid of The Gambia. This policy has proven to be beneficial to both countries. On the part of The Gambia, the sectors that Nigeria is actively involved in have witnessed tremendous growth. In spite of her altruistic bent, Nigeria also reaps strategic, political as well as economic benefits. Also, issues like lack of implementation of some crucial existing agreements, cost of the Technical Aid Scheme and hostility of the Gambians to Nigerians, among other things pose challenges to their relations. The growth in certain sectors in the Gambia did not necessarily close the gap between Nigeria and The Gambia. The factor of global economic recession can make both countries to focus on domestic issues in the immediate future. Global economic recession, notwithstanding, Nigeria continues to participate in African affairs and still seeks to improve her relations with The Gambia it is hoped that in future, through the maintenance of excellent and ‘open’ bilateral relations, the asymmetry between Nigeria and The Gambia will diminish. In order to assuage the controversies that arise from the asymmetric bilateral relationship it is important to publicize and demonstrate the concrete gains of the relationship within Nigeria to ensure public support.
Keywords: Asymmetry, Foreign Policy, Afrocentrism, Altruism and Welfare
FRONT – LINE STAFF COMMUNICATION AND CUSTOMER PATRONAGE IN SELECTED HOTELS IN OWERRI, IMO STATE, NIGERIA
*UBAH CHUKWUDI NELSON (Ph.D); **CHUKWUEZI FRANKLIN NZUBECHUKWU; AND ***IHEMEREZE KESIDE EJIKE (Ph.D)
*Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria. **Department of Business Administration and Management, School of Business Management Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo. ***Department of Marketing, Faculty of Management Sciences, Imo State University, Owerri
This study focused on communication of front – line staff and customer patronage in selected hotels in Owerri, Imo State. The study was carried out to determine the extent front line communication influence performance of hotels. The researchers employed descriptive survey research design, while questionnaire served as the instrument of data collection. The data collected in this study were analyzed using simple percentage and chi-square. It was discovered that giving correct and adequate information to guests helps to improve customer patronage in hotels, proper handling of guest complaint enhances customer patronage in hotels, and cordial reception of guests enhances customer patronage in hotels. It was recommended that there is need for frontline office employees to regularly give accurate and adequate information to customers so as to enhance hotel patronage. Furthermore, there should be proper handling of complain of customers in the hospitality industry by both frontline office staff and management so as to improve patronage.
Keywords: Communication, Front – Line Staff, Customer Patronage, Adequate Information, Customer Patronage, Proper Handling, Guest Complaint, Cordial Reception and Customer Satisfaction.
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE RULES OF THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS
Baze University, Abuja.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organisation, which regulates international trade. Its creation marked the biggest reform of international trade since the end of World War II. Whereas the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) mainly dealt with trade in goods, the WTO and its agreements cover trade in services and intellectual property. The birth of the WTO also created new procedures for the settlement of disputes. However, the WTO has not been able to ensure a balance of trade between economically-advanced countries and poorer countries which remain in its fold. It would appear that the rules and regulations set out by the organisation to govern trade among its member-nations favourably benefit a select few. It is in the light of the foregoing that this paper reviews the strategy of the WTO with regards to its rules and regulations, identifies loopholes in its rules and regulations, assesses the strategic implications on world trade and proffers solutions. The method of research adopted is the doctrinal research method from related literature. Data is generated from primary data sources such as provisions of international, regional and national conventions, statutes, declarations and policies. Secondary data is sourced from newspapers, journals, articles and other sources including the internet. Findings reveal the existence of operational and strategic issues in the WTO, which hinder the achievement of its organisational objectives especially in the context of developing countries and manifest themselves due to factors such as lack of transparency, communication gap and the existence of dominant personalities. Consequently, a re-examination of how the multilateral trading system currently operates and how it can be of immense benefit to developing economies is recommended.
RIGHTS AND PRIVILAGE OF DETENTION OF AWAITING TRIAL FEMALE INMATES IN CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES IN NIGERIA
DANCE, AYUBA MAIKASUWA; SANI SULEIMAN; & AMEHOJO DANIEL
Department of Public Administration, Nasarawa State University, Keffi
The ceaseless abuse of rights and privileges of the detention of awaiting trial female inmates in correctional facilities in Kuje and Suleja has necessitated the study. The study thus aimed to examine the rights and privileges of the detention of awaiting trials female inmates in Kuje and Suleja correctional facilities, in the federal capital territory (FCT) Abuja. In view of the foregoing the study employed the exploratory survey research design. Focus group discussion (FGD) and interview drawn from ten (10) research questions were used as instrument utilizing both primary and secondary sources of the data or information gathered. Result revealed that the rights and privileges of the detained female inmates awaiting trial are been abused by the Nigerian police force (prosecutors) and the correctional service personnel. The findings also revealed that inadequate accommodation, lack of operational vehicles, non-chillan attitudes of the Nigerian Police and the Correctional Personnel to produce the awaiting trial in Court, unfriendly manner by the Correctional personnel to the inmates to mention but a few of the findings were so revealed during the study. Among other, the study recommended that, government should for a matter of urgency increase the budgetary allocation to the Nigerian Correctional Service to build more accommodation space for adequate accommodation in the correction centers, operational vehicles should be urgently to rescue the current shortages encountered in the Kuje and Suleja correctional centers for the smooth conveyance of these female inmates awaiting trial to and from court.
Keywords: Rights and Privileges, awaiting trial, detention, inmates.
TRACE THEORY OF MOVEMENT IN THE MWAGHAVUL LANGUAGE
*GUNGRET ANDREW DAWET; & **CHUKWUEMEKA CHRISTIAN OKORIE
*University of Jos, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. **The Federal polytechnic Damaturu, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria
The study examines the application of the trace theory of movement in the Mwaghavul language – a Chadic language of the Afro-asiatic phylum – while exploring the syntax of the extraction site within Chomsky’s Government and Binding framework and the types of trace that can possibly be found in the language. The data for the study were elicited from native speakers of the Mwaghavul language through face-to-face interviews and structured questionnaires. The analysis showed that Mwaghavul allows non-terminal trace (gap) and terminal trace (a pronominal element) at the extraction site of a moved element in wh-movement but allows only non-terminal trace in NP-movement.
Keywords: Trace, extraction site, Mwaghavul, wh-movement, NP-movement.
THE BIAFRAN QUESTION, MILITARISM AND SECURITY OPERATIONS AGAINST INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF BIAFRA (IPOB) IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA
CHIBUZOR NWOBUEZE PhD
Peace Studies, Department of History and Diplomatic Studies, Faculty of Humanities, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Post-independence Nigeria has recorded different threats to the stability of the country, with implications for nation-building. What is expected to be peaceful nation-building is now confrontational because of the hostility perception. For several years, the Movement for the Actualisation of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) became a threat to Nigeria’s unity until the arrest of some of its members and leaders, which contributed to the group’s days of decline. The resurgence of Biafran agitation in 2015 marked a watershed in Nigeria’s nation -building efforts, as the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB), a more radical Biafran group, began to agitate for a referendum to pave the way for the independence of Igboland. With primary and secondary sources, including observation, transect walk, and follow-up of IPOB Radio, this paper examines the evolution and actors of de facto statehood as well as the security operations that escalated the IPOB-Federal Government imbroglio to the extent that the Southeast became an enclave of negative peace, where the standoff between security forces and the IPOB separatist agitators made life brutish. The paper suggests more humane ways of containing the resurgence of Biafra rather than encouraging militarism, which has proven not to be an effective antidote to the separatist movement. Since the escalation of the conflict arising from de facto statehood, the state has continued to respond by initiating different military operations aimed at containing the activities of IPOB and the group’s Eastern Security Network (ESN). The paper recommends government’s people-oriented conflict transformation, true reconciliation with the secessionist agitators, youth-centred human development and integrative peace education in Igboland to reduce tension in the region and address the alleged politics of exclusion.
Keywords: Biafran question, De facto statehood, IPOB, Militarism, Nation-building.
COVID-19 PANDEMIC AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR NIGERIA’S SECURITY
OKEREKE, EMMANUEL UGOCHUKWU
Department of Political Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State.
Studies on covid-19 pandemic and its impact around the world abound. However, none of these studies interrogated covid-19 pandemic in relation to its implications for security in Nigeria. This created deficiency in this area, which requires further examination and analysis. The aim of this paper is to examine the implications for covid-19 pandemic on economic security of Nigerians, especially women. The paper was underpinned by the world-systems theory which is vital in the understanding of how the manner of interconnectedness of Nigeria to the global capitalist system is responsible for the emergence and spread of covid-19 in the country and the inability of the country to tackle the virus without relying on the core countries for vaccine assistance. Data for the study were collected from secondary source and analysed using content analysis. Findings from the study revealed that there was rise in the price of food, reduction in the level of domestic production, loss of jobs, reduction in the price of crude oil due to lockdowns that affected the manufacturing sector globally. It was further revealed the federal government cut down on non-essential capital spending to the tune of 1.5 trillion naira. Findings further showed that covid-19 pandemic adversely affected the wellbeing of Nigerian women, and their security because of their exposure to domestic violence and poverty. It was revealed that the government responded to the challenge by introducing lockdowns, credit facilities, food distribution, among others, but the pandemic still reared its ugly heads in the country. Among other things, it was recommended that the social welfare system in Nigeria should be strengthened to the level where it can significantly cater for Nigerians, especially women during future periods of global pandemic.
Keywords: Covid-19, Pandemic, Security, Economic Wellbeing, Nigeria
WHATSAPP EMOJIS: DISCURSIVE COMPETENCE AND POWER DYNAMICS IN COMPUTATIONAL SEMIOTICS EXEMPLIFIED
*M. O. ODUOLA (Ph.D); & **ELIZABETH ABIADE AGBOOLA
*Department of English, Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo. Oyo State. **Department of English, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo
Semiotics has complemented linguistics by expanding its scope beyond the phoneme and the sentence to include texts and discourse, and their rhetorical, performative, and ideological functions. It has brought into focus the multimodality of human communication. A growing body of research explores emojis, which are visual symbols in computer mediated communication (CMC). This work applies semiotic approaches to linguistics and nonverbal productions, social institutions and discourses, embodied cognition and communication, and the new virtual realities that have been ushered in by the Internet. This research reviews how Emojis have developed, how they are used differently, what functions they have and what research has been conducted on them in different domains. Data for this research are randomly taken from four whatsApp groups’ chats at Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, (EACOED) Oyo where the researcher is also a participant. The theoretical frameworks used for this analysis are Peirce’s and Barthes’ semiotic theories.
Keywords: Emoji, index, icon, symbol, and non-verbal cues.
EFFORTS MADE BY SUCCESSIVE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IN NIGERIA TO MANAGE NIGERIA’S DIVERSITY ISSUES
Department of Business Administration, Imo State University Nigeria
Nigeria’s diversity has become a burning issue. The increasing lack of peaceful coexistence amongst segments, tribes and religion in Nigeria has become worrisome due to flaws in handling Nigeria diversity by the handlers of Nigerian commonwealth, the Government. It is worthy of note in the same vein, that Nigeria’s diversity if properly harnessed can serve as an advantage. Nigeria’s diversity cut across issues of cultural plurality of ethnicity, religious intolerance, population lopsidedness and political inequality, vested interest and clash of interest amongst others. This work seeks to examine the various efforts made by successive administration in Nigeria at managing these diversity issues, conclusion on the success and/or failures recorded and to make recommendations.
Keywords: Diversity, ethnicity, intolerance, interest.
PRESS FREEDOM AND ONLINE HARASSMENT: FEMALE ONLINE JOURNALISTS’ LIVED EXPERIENCES IN NIGERIA
*NWAOLIKPE, ONYINYECHI NANCY (PhD); & **AJAEGBU, OGUCHI ONYEIZU (PhD)
*Department of Mass Communication, McPherson University, Ogun State, Nigeria. **Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Technologies have contributed positively and also negatively to the empowerment of women in the media. Some female media entrepreneurs have set up online media firms or online blogs, which have helped to close the gender gap in media ownership, but this has presented challenges. This study investigated the online harassment of female journalists in Nigeria in this era of press freedom. The study employed the Social Responsibility theory of the media, arguing that when a journalist maintains professional and personal ethical principles in the discharge of his/her duties, his/her primary consideration will be to what extent the content of the news stories affects the percentage of society. The study, relying on interviews of selected female online journalists, examined the experiences of selected online female journalists as they relate to online harassment and freedom of the press. It argues that social media content helps to foster inclusive dialogue and expressions of opinions. Also, the media sets the agenda for the masses, and because these female online journalists adhere to the objectives of journalism, the media content should not be questioned since the information relayed assists the masses to form an opinion and also assists in sustainable development.
Keywords: Online harassment; Press Freedom; Female Online Journalists; Lived experiences; Social Responsibility
FIGHTING BANDITRY AND KIDNAPPING IN THE RURAL COMMUNITIES: THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS HUNTERS ASSOCIATION IN OGUN STATE
AKOJI, R. OKLAGBA (PHD) AND ODUNTAN, A. JOSEPH (PHD)
Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Babcock University, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State* Department of Political Science and International Relations, Caleb University, Lagos.
Indigenous Hunters Association was created as an adjunct to traditional policing as a result of the rising tide of crime particularly in the rural communities. However, there had been a steady increase in the spate of insecurity in Nigeria. This caused the death of thousands of people and the destruction of property worth millions of Naira on account of banditry and kidnapping. The Nigeria Security Agencies had not been able to effectively combat these security threats in Odeda Community, Ogun State. This study, therefore investigate the role of Indigenous Hunters Association as a tool for battling banditry and kidnapping in Odeda community, Ogun State, Nigeria. The target population of the study was 100 comprising members of the Hunters Association, community leaders, religious leaders and the Nigeria Police in the 10 selected wards in Odeda Community. 5 out of 10 wards were chosen to act as clusters, and in each cluster, 20 respondents—a total of 100 respondents were chosen using simple random sampling. The qualitative information gathered through key informant interviews was transcribed and added to the quantitative information using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24. The study found that the failure of formal security to safeguard citizens’ lives and property led to the emergence of indigenous Hunters Association in Odeda Communities. The study therefore advises that mutual understanding between community leaders, the police, and the government is necessary, and that educating the public through workshops and the media will help to enhance Indigenous Hunters Association in reducing banditry and kidnapping in Ogun State, Nigeria. It is expected that the findings of this research should be used by the community leaders and any other security agency responsible for crime control in the rural communities in Ogun State.
Key words: Indigenous Hunters Association, Banditry, Kidnapping, Odeda Local Government, Rural Community.
AUDIENCE PERCEPTION OF MEDIA COVERAGE OF CYBER CRIME AMONG RESIDENTS OF IJEBU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
JOLAPAMO, BOLANLE SAMUEL & DR. AWOFADEJU, PETER OLAYINKA
Department of Media Studies, Faculty of Social Science, Redeemer’s University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria
This research examined audience perception of media coverage of cybercrime among residents of Ijebu North Local Government Area. The objective of the study was to examine audience awareness level of cyber crimes, ascertain audience knowledge on media coverage of cyber crimes; to examine the media that is most efficient in the coverage of cyber crimes Study made use of survey design to probe the research questions. Using online questionnaire as instrument for collection of data through googleform, a sample size of 399 was drawn from an entire population of 284, 336 of Ijebu-North Local Government Area, Ogun State. The data collected were analysed and interpreted in a simple frequency and percentage distribution table. Findings revealed that the public is aware of cyber crime issues in Nigeria as a result of the fact that many of the people have been victims of this crime at one point or the other. Research also revealed that the public have a clear knowledge of the various media efforts in cyber crime reportage. It was recommended that since it is not in the jurisdictions or powers of the media to ensure the fight against cyber related crimes. The government, having the powers to instil punishment, though has been doing it, yet efforts should be intensified to allow the effort of media reportage become efficient and meaningful.
Keyword: Crime, Cyber, Cyber crime, Media.
CONVICTING CORRUPT NIGERIANS TO THE GALLOWS AS A MEANS OF COMBATING INCESSANT CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA
AGIRI, ESEOGHENE JAMES; & MORKA, BLESSING CHUKWUKA
Delta State University of Science and Technology, Ozoro, Nigeria
Corruption is a way of life and deeply rooted in Nigeria not only in the public sector, governance, civil service, compradors but also in families, churches and communities. It is an obstacle to development and well being of Nigerians. It has badly damaged Nigeria beyond panel beating. What it is now in Nigeria is that wealthy people who are known to be corrupt are regularly courted and honoured by communities, religions leaders, social clubs and other organizations. These attitudes serve to discourage a new breed of public servants who are not engaged in corrupt practices. This paper interrogates corruption in Nigeria through the prism of the theory of two publics propounded by Peter Ekeh. Information and data used for this work were obtained mostly from secondary sources and personal experience with the Nigerian corrupt environment. This paper adumbrates that incessant corruption in Nigeria is premised on weaknesses of Nigerian Judicial system, poor reward system among others. It is suggested that public officers found guilty of corruption in Nigeria should be compelled to return their loots to the government before they are sent to the gallows.
Keywords: corruption, poverty, accumulation of wealth, economic growth, godfatherism, and progressing poverty.
ELECTRONIC VOTING AND FUTURE OF ELECTORAL DEMOCRACY IN NIGERIA: AN ASSESSMENT OF INEC’S PREPARATIONS TOWARDS FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS IN 2023
*OGBEIDE FREDERICK Ph.D; **IMUETINYAN OSAYOMWANBOR SOPHIA; ***OGIEVA OKUNBOR LAWRENCE; & ****ENABUNENE OSAZEE ISRAEL
*Department of Political Science and Pubic Administration, Edo State University, Uzairue, Edo State, Nigeria. **Department of Public Administration, Edo State Polytechnic, Usen, Edo State, Nigeria. ***Igbinedion University, Okada Edo State. ****Department of Public Administration, Shaka Polytechnic, Egba Campus, Benin City, Edo State.
The thrust of this paper is on Electronic Voting and Future of Electoral Democracy in Nigeria: An Assessment of Independent National Electoral Commission’s (INEC) preparations towards free and fair elections in 2023 general election. The study aimed at examining the use of electronic voting to ensure credibility of elections as the 2023 election draws near in Nigeria. The work is situated on Hagen e-democracy theory. Data were collected through secondary source. The paper identified some major challenges the nation may face in adopting e-voting. These include poor internet connectivity, epileptic power supply etc. Findings show among other things that electronic voting will reduce incidences of electoral fraud especially in the areas of voting and vote counting. The study recommended among others things that Nigeria should as a matter of necessity fix eclectic power supply and strengthen internet access before wholesomely switching to or adopting e-voting option in the future elections, especially the 2023 general elections in the interest of sustaining Nigeria’s electoral democracy. The paper concludes that Nigeria must cash in on the adoption of electronic voting to fight endemic electoral irregularities in Nigeria through firm belief in and avowed adoption of e-voting.
Keywords: Democracy, Election, Electoral Fraud, Electronic Voting, INEC, Nigeria
TACKLING INSECURITY IN THE NORTH-EAST OF NIGERIA: COLLABORATIVE ROLE OF YOUTHS AND POLICE IN CRIME DETECTION AND HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTION
ANIEKAN J. MENDIE
Department of Business Administration & Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria.
Social vices such as kidnapping, abduction and insurgency are rampant criminal activities, problems which still defile police and military solutions in the North-East of Nigeria. These criminal activities have raised serious security concerns which are seen largely as internal problems expected to be solved by the police responsible for maintenance of internal security, peace and order of the country. Yet, the combined team of the Nigeria Police Force and other Armed Forces in the country are still struggling to release the country, and particularly, the North-East from the grips of kidnappers, abductors, bandits and insurgents. It is noticed in the midst of havoc and insecurity perpetrated by criminals that little or no collaboration exists between the police and local stakeholders, including organized youths’ groups in the fight against insecurity; and this is part of the reasons why the problem persists in the North-East Region. There is a significant gap existing in the relationship between the police and local communities’ youths in the fight against insecurity. This has led to non-supply of intelligence from the local communities’ dwellers; intelligence which would have been necessary for the police to successfully fight insecurity in the region. This paper therefore seeks to look at the immediate and remote causes, as well as the effect of insecurity the North-East Region. To that extent, the paper looks also at the statutory and institutional measures put in place against kidnapping, abduction and banditry including insecurity in the region. To this end, the paper adopts the method of doctrinalism and qualitative research style in analyzing concepts within its thematic coverage. The paper explains and recommends some of the strategic areas the police and youths’ vigilante groups can play joint roles to fight insecurity. It is expected that the joint efforts of the local Communities’ stakeholders, including youths’ groups would help to protect human rights thoughtlessly abused and restore security to the region.
Keywords: Insecurity, North-East, Nigeria, Youths, Police, Crime Detection, Human Rights Protection.
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND HUMAN RESOURCE PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SECTORS: NIGERIAN PERSPECTIVE
AJAERO, THEODORA GINIKANWA, Ph.D
Catholic Institute of West Africa, Port-Harcourt
Conflict begins with human beings, conflict is managed and controlled by human beings and conflict ends with human beings. Hence conflict is an inevitable part of human/organizational life which emanate from differences in perception, leadership styles, lack of resources, inadequate treatment among others but how conflict occurs and how it helps in human resource performance in the public sectors is the main thrust of this study. The study examines the causes of organizational conflict. It also examines how conflict management has helped human resource perance in the workplace in selected public sectors in Nigeria. Four research questions and two hypotheses guided the study among which are, the significant impacts conflict management have on human resource performance? What are the causes of task oriented conflict in public sectors of the economy? The theoretical framework upon which the study was anchored is the sense making theory by Weicks. The research design adopted was the survey research design and a purposive sampling technique was adopted in the choice of the subjects. The instrument used for data collection was a self-made questionnaire which is a four point likert scale. The data collected were analysed using mean and Z score for testing hypothesis. The findings of the study revealed that conflict management have positive impacts in enhancing productivity and sustainability of human resources in selected public sectors in Nigeria. The study also revealed that management-employee conflicts are often caused by matters of employees reward system. Based on the findings it is recommended that human resources despite their cadre be taught the skill of conflict management. Secondly that the causes of conflict should be scrutinized and evaluated before adopting suitable method, strategy and technique for conflict resolution. Thirdly, the management of different public sectors should ensure that the causes of conflict in organization are checkmated to ensure organizational success.
KEYWORDS: Conflict Management, Productivity, Human Resources, Workplace, Public Sector, Organization.
IMPACT OF RECRUITMENT OUTSOURCING ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA
SADIQ ABUBAKAR ILELAH
Department of Public Administration and Management, School of Management Sciences, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria
Many organizations have started using outsourcing strategy over the years but still many organizations didn’t realize the full benefit of it. Some have experienced low productivity, their they failed to attain expected cost saving and their profitability have not been balanced or stable. The specific objective of the study is to determine the effect of recruitment outsourcing on employees performance. Employers have adopted human resources policies and practices with an aim of improving their employees’ performance. However, despite such policies and practices, it remains unclear why employee performance has been perennially low. The study will employ a descriptive research design. Simple random sampling technique will be use to select the sample. Data will be collected using questionnaires which will be administered to the respondents in Nigeria by the researcher. Data analysis will be done with the aid of SPSS version 22 statistical software. Descriptive and inferential statistics was use in analyzing the data. Hypotheses will be tested using the p-value approach at 95% level of confidence. The findings shown that recruitment outsourcing activities contributed to the organizational performance as revealed by respondents regarding their views on effect of outsourcing on employees performance. Moreover, the findings show that there is a positive and significant relationship between recruitment outsourcing activities and employees performance while it shows a positive and insignificant relationship between outsourcing activities with productivity and employees performance respectively. This study therefore recommended that organizations in Nigeria should continue to improve how they manage their outsourcing activities by emphasizing on non-core activities instead of outsourcing their core activities. Recruitment outsourcing will help the organizations to produce better quality which will lead to the increase of product demand and profitability by reducing competitiveness. Furthermore, organizations should never allow external service provider to perform all the responsibility because this can lead to the loss of control over certain production or operation activities. Therefore, service provider should only manage particular risks that can’t affect or damage the entire organization performance.
KEYWORDS: Recruitment outsourcing, employee performance, human resource strategies
A LITERARY ANALYSIS OF THE SELECTED POEM OF SHEIKH NASIRU KABARA KANO (AYA BARKU)
دراسة أدبية تحليلية لقصيدة “أيا برق” للشيخ محمد الناصر (كَبَرَ)
DR SHSEH ABDU MUHAMMAD; YUSUF ALIYU MUSA; & MUHAMMAD ABUBAKAR AL-MISAWY
الدكتور: شيح عبد محمد; يوسف علي موسى; & أبوبكر محمد المسوي
A.D.Rufa’i College of Education Legal and General Studies, Misau, Bauchi State.
مدرسة الألسن، كلية أحمد الرفاعي للتربية والقانون والدراسات العامة، مسو ولاية بوتشي، -نجيريا.
Attempt is made in this paper to examine the impacts of the selected poem of Sheikh Nasiru Kabara, one of the Arabic poems writers in Nigeria, the paper has been motivated to write on this topic so as to appraise the degree and level of Arabic literary production in Nigeria and Africa at large, and also to appraise the Arabic Literature with regard public Researchers in poems of the Sheikh Nasiru Kabara (Kano). The paper also looks at the stylistic features of the poem such as the structure, connotation and denotation. The paper has been divided into sections. Section one covers the introduction, Section two discussed the life History of Sheikh Nasiru Kabara, the author of the selected poem and the contribution that poem, and it focused on the eloquent, ethical analysis, and the strong classical Arabic literature, and context on the Sheikh. Finally, the conclusion tried to summarize the main features of what has been discussed in the research.
IMPACT OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES IN NIGERIA
Department of Banking and Finance, School of Management Studies, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria
The working capital management deals with the management of current assets and current liabilities, the purpose of the study is to determine the impact of working capital management practices on financial performance of small and medium manufacturing enterprises in Nigeria. The target population will be 176 SMEs from manufacturing sector. The study applied both probability and non probability sampling procedures to obtain a sample of 121 SMEs required for the study. To achieve the objective of the assessment, primary data was gathered using questionnaires. Secondary data will be gathered from past published scholarly articles explaining theoretical and empirical information on the influence of working capital management on the financial performance of SMEs growth in manufacturing sector. Inferential statistics such as Pearson correlation coefficient will be use to analyze quantitative data. Pearson correlation coefficient will be use to determine the relationship between working capital management and financial performance. Based on the results, findings and conclusions the following recommendations have been deciphered. It is therefore recommended that the management of manufacturing companies to consider putting in place the recommended steps seen as probable ways of ensuring that their financial management practices are improved for better financial performance. For instance, the manufacturing companies should enhance the process of managing premium arrears as this could be a key to increased gross premium for respective companies
KEYWORDS: Quality training, employee performance, human resource strategies
معاني الإضافة وإضافة الشيء إلى نفسه في القرآن الكريم
AL-IDAFAH WA IDAFAT AL-SHAY’I ILAA NAFSIH FI AL-QURAN ALKARIMI” (ANNEXATION, AND THE THING ANNEXED TO IN THE HOLY QUR’AN)
الدكتور يعقوب موسى محمد; & نعمان عمر
YAKUBU MUHAMMAD (PhD); & NUUMAN UMAR
Dept. Arabic, School of Languages, ADRCOED, Misau, Bauchi
كلية أحمد الرفاعي للتربية والقانون والدراسات العامة ميسو-ولاية بوتشي، نيجيريا.
This article is entitled: “”Al-Idafah Wa Idafat al-shay’i Ilaa Nafsih fi Al-Quran Alkarimi” discusses the Meaning of Annexation, and the thing annexed to in the Holy Qur’an. In Arabic the whole phrase consisting of a noun and a genitive is known as (Iḍāfah) i.e. annexation, or addition, this genitive or phrase construction always affair in pairs pattern. The first term in the pair is called “al-muḍāf” (the thing annexed), while the first term governs (modified by) the second term, referred to as “al-muḍāf ilayhi” (the thing added to). The paper gives the definition of “Idafa” (annexation) and its types, and then talks about the rules related to it. The article aims to compile in a nutshell the various aspects referred annexation nature by giving the examples from the verses of the Holy Qur’an.
هذه المقالة بعنوان: “معاني الإضافة وإضافة الشيء إلى نفسه في القرآن الكريم” تحتوي التعريف بالإضافة وأنواعها ثم الحديت عن الأحكام التي تتعلق بها كما تناولت صورا من إضافة الشيء إلى نفسه في القرآن الكريم واختتمت بالخاتمة فثبت الهوامش والمراجع. وتهدف إلى جمع ما هو مبعثر وإيجاز ما هو مطوّل بغية ترتيبها في صيغة أخرى لتسهيل الوصول إلى المعلومات الدراسية، وأخيرا توصلت إلى النتائج.
A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY IN PLATEAU AND NASARAWA STATES, NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA
*PEGOELONG, MATHEW DAVID; **DR EZENAGU, NGOZI; & **DR NASIRU, TIJANI
*Department of Hospitality Management, Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin Ladi, Plateau State [Department of Tourism and Events Management, Afe Babalola University Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State]. **Department of Tourism and Events Management, Afe Babalola University Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State.
The expansion of employees’ capabilities to function effectively in their present or future job and work in the organisation is referred to as employee development. These activities can be attained through formal education, job experiences and professional relationships, and assessment of personality, skills and abilities that can enhance employee professional growth. The study focused on a comparative study of the relationship between employee development and productivity in the hotel industry in Plateau and Nasarawa States, North Central Nigeria. The paper was motivated by the challenges of inadequate employee training and development in the hotel industry which further affects productivity and efficiency in the workplace. The study aimed to ascertain if there is a significant relationship between employee development and productivity in the hotel industry. The descriptive-survey design method was adopted for the study where fifty-seven (57) standardised questionnaires were administered to the managers of the selected hotels in the study areas. Descriptive statistics (frequency count, percentage, mean and standard deviation) were used to analyse the data. Inferential statistic (chi-square) was used to test the hypothesis. The findings revealed that there is a positive relationship between employee development and productivity, employee development impacts productivity and there is a significant relationship between employee development and productivity in the hotel industry in Plateau and Nasarawa states, North Central Nigeria. The study concludes that employee development leads to enhanced productivity and so should be encouraged for effective and efficient productivity.
Keywords: Employee development, Employee Productivity, Hotel Sector, Plateau and Nasarawa States.
DEMOCRACY AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION’ PROGRAMS: CHALLENGES AND THE WAY FORWARD
DAHIRUA BDULLAHI DANASABE Ph.D. & IBRAHIM BADAMASI BA
This paper examine the contributions of democracy to the development of physical education in Nigeria the act of governance brought about by democracy has led to the formulation of national Policy on education and the National Sports Development Policy , this has raised hope for the growth and development of physical education.. However negative factors that still affect the development of physical education programs include the lack of full implementation of the National Sports Development Policy, poor teacher salaries, lack of instructional facilities and the much emphasis on teacher development. It is recommended that there should be sensitization and diversification of physical education curriculum and the full implementation of the National Sports Development Policy.
ENTREPRENEURIAL NETWORKING AND THE SURVIVAL OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES IN NIGERIA
YAKUBU YAHAYA; & JAAFAR ALIYU LIMAN
Department of Business Administration and Management, School of Management Sciences, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria
The objective of this research work was to examine the level of entrepreneurial networking and the survival of small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria. Given this minimal survival rate, it becomes vital to research on the factors. The study focused on SMEs in Nigeria. The study therefore opted to adopt a descriptive research design. The target population was 1,427 registered SMEs where a stratified random sampling was applied to identify 223 SMEs. Data analysis was by way of descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages), tables and graphical presentations, and multiple linear regression model where survival was regressed against the variables of risk taking competencies to make statistical reference. The findings revealed that entrepreneurial networking have a positive and significant effect on the survival of SMEs in Nigeria thereby increasing their chances of survival. The study therefore recommends that SMEs through the management should embrace networking competency as a means of enhancing their survival, which is a key aspect in firm survival and performance, also ensure that they embrace networking as a way of gaining competitive advantage and widening their customer base.
Keywords; Entrepreneurial networking, SME firm performance, competencies
THE CHURCH AND POLITICS IN A DEFINED MARGIN AND ADVOCACY FOR A DYNAMIC CHRISTIAN POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
*VEN EGESI JONATHAN, C.; **VEN DURUJI SIMEON UGOCHUKWU (PHD); & ***DR (MRS) NWEBO-EZECHUKWUNYERE IJEOMA
*Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo-Ohaji, P.M.B 1472, Owerri-Nigeria. **Department of Religion and Cultural Studies, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri. ***Department of Educational Foundation, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri.
In recent times, the church and the political structure or aspect of the society have become so entangled that they two cannot be separated one from the other.. Before now, the two have been separate structures complementing each other. They played key roles in the society but toe separate paths that end up promoting the growth and development of the society. In contemporary times in Nigeria, the two have seemed so intertwined that none seem separate any longer. It must be established that the church or religious structure by all standards be the watchdog of other structures of the human society, the political structure inclusive. This as believed will keep the political structure on its feet. This is also believed as something that will keep the political structure on its toes or feet. It will also make the political class avoid the temptation of usurping the rest of the structures making up the human society. The above statement from the gamut of this study. Various data collection techniques as interviews, use of questionnaire, textbooks, journals and the internet were used. The structural- functionalist theory was adopted as theoretical framework. Thereafter, conclusion was drawn.
KEYWORDS: Church politics, Defined margin, Advocacy, Dynamic, Participation.
RURAL LABOUR MIGRATION IN TEMIDIRE, OYO STATE: CONSEQUENCES ON THE ELDERLY LEFT BEHIND AND COPING STRATEGIES
1ADETUNJI, R.O & 2ADEDOKUN, O.A
1Department of Geography, Federal College of Education (Special), Oyo Town, Oyo State. 2Department of Geography, Federal College of Education, (Special), Oyo Town, Oyo State.
Rural-urban labour migration in Nigeria is still on the increase in changing family structure of the left behind household members. This study examines the consequences as it affect elderly abuse and stress of the elderly left behind as a result of the migration of a family member in a rural settlement of Temidire. This explorative descriptive study is based on the administering of a questionnaire and a session of Focus Group Discussion on 21 left behind elderly aged 60 years and above. The findings showed that the major challenges facing the elderly left behind categorized as elderly abuse are lack of visitation (38.1%), medical neglect (28.6%), verbal abuse (14.3%) and general neglect of elderly and not being comfortable with their living condition (9.5% each). Further, increased economic stress is the most pronounced among the elderly (33.4%). The study also found a variation in the coping strategies adopted between the left behind male and female. For the males, all the respondents (100%) adopted playing local games as the most important coping strategy, followed by working in the farms (90.9%), with the least being “trading” (28.6%). The female left behind adopted trading activities (71.4%) as the most significant, followed by attending/engaging in religious function (46.2%), with the least being working on the farm (9.1%). Based on these findings, the study recommended among others the need to promulgate, and implement policies that will adequately cover the needs and daily care of the elderly most especially in the rural areas that are bedeviled with poverty and menace of rural-urban migration.
Keywords: Rural-urban migration, Labour, Elderly, Left behind and Temidire
ICT AND DIGITAL COMMUNICATION IN NIGERIA: A NEXUS
*BANJO ABOSEDE OLUBUNMI PhD; & **GANIY AJIBOLA KAREEM
*The Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro Mass Communication Department. **University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos State
An organization must acquire a wide range of competencies for successful digital transformation, with the value of each capability varying based on the business environment and demands of the individual firm. Information and communication Technology have a significant impact on how the Nigerian media is run. Media organizations in Nigeria may compete with media companies outside the country when ICTs is being embraced. The study investigated the nexus between ICT and digital communication in Nigeria. The research design used in this study is survey and 125 media practitioners and journalists were selected randomly and administered questionnaire from Lagos State chapter of Nigerian Union of Journalists (NUJ). The result of the study showed that some of the challenges associated with adoption of ICT into digital transmission are shortage of technical skills (X = 2.06, SD = 0.74), lack of funding (X = 1.94, SD = 0.68), legal and regulatory issues (X = 1.62, SD = 0.55) and lack of research & development (X = 1.51, SD =0.56). Also, majority of the respondents agree that ICT brought about innovation technology into communication field, it has made communication faster and cheaper and brings exciting ways to entertainment world with the introduction of sophisticated digital tools. The result of the hypothesis showed that a positive significant relationship between ICT and digital transmission ( r = .648, p<.05) which indicated that ICT positively influences digital transmission. This study recommends that government and related authorities should make funds accessible for media practitioners and journalists in acquiring the required ICT tools for their profession.
Keywords: ICT, Digital Communication, Technology, Digitization, Transmission
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION, SUPPORTABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND YOUYH EMPOWERMENT THROUGH VSESC OKE-OGUN POLYTECHNIC SAKI, NIGERIA
*AJAYI JOHNSON KOLAWOLE; **ABDULLAH SUAIB; **SOLIU RAZAQ ADESINA; & **ABOLADE WILLIAMS LANRE
*Department of Public Administration, the Oke-ogun Polytechnic, Saki (TOPS), Oyo state. **Department of Business Administration, the Oke-ogun Polytechnic, Saki (TOPS), Oyo state, Nigeria.
This study examines the impact of entrepreneurship education in Nigeria geared towards enhancing sustainable economic development in the country. Since entrepreneurship skills remain vital in the real sector and the sustenance of economic development, it has become imperative for government to pay attention to this sub-sector. The problem facing the country ranging from acute poverty, youth and graduate unemployment, dependency on foreign goods and technology, to very low economic growth and development among others has prompted government to introduce entrepreneurship studies in tertiary institutions. The study investigates importance of entrepreneurship education for sustainable economic development in Nigeria; identify challenges of entrepreneurship education in Nigeria and assess the challenges for promoting entrepreneurship education among Nigerian youth at the Oke-ogun Polytechnic, Saki. The study relies on documentary method which is qualitative and finds out that entrepreneurship education is important for sustainable economic development and a life skills that will enhance the potential of an individual, reinforces self-sufficient and improve the quality of education and life. The paper concludes that entrepreneurship education has been recognized as a key driver in sustaining economic development. It recommends that Nigeria youths be trained in various skills including: creativity and innovation, entrepreneurship skills, managerial experience and record keeping are indispensable.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Education, Sustainable, Economic and Development.
ASSESSING JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHER’S COMPETENCY ON ITEM CONSTRUCTION AT BAUCHI STATE CENTRAL SENATORIAL ZONE
BABAYO MUHAMMAD OTHMAN
Department of psychometrics, AD Rufa’i College of Education, Legal & General Studies Misau, Bauchi State
The study examined junior secondary school teacher’s competency on items construction at Bauchi state central senatorial zone, using survey design. Participants were 155 teachers (Male=123, Female=32) selected using stratified random sampling technique from 25 out of 124 public secondary schools within the Zone. Research instrument was a self-constructed questionnaire, ‘Teacher’s Competency Scale (TCS) ’, the instrument consisted of 2 sections A and B. Section A solicited for Demographic information of respondents while section B posed questions related to item construction at various degree. The response format was on 4 point Likert scale weighted as, strongly agree (SA=4pts) Agree (A=3pts), Strongly Disagree (SD=2pts) and Disagree (DA=1pts). A measure of internal consistency using Cronbach alpha was determined and reliability coefficient of 0.84 was obtained which showed high degree of reliability of the instrument.. Data was analyzed using frequency count, simple percentages and chi-square cross tabulation. Results showed that majority of the teachers that write items in negative form didn’t capitalized or underline the items, similarly, the finding also revealed that part of the respondent didn’t arrange items in order of difficulty while constructing test item. Qualifications of Junior Secondary Teachers do not significantly influence their Competency in Item construction. The outcome also indicated that gender difference was statistically not significant; hence possession of technical skill on item construction is uniform among the participant. The researcher recommends that Teacher should consider arranging item in order of difficulty, especially from simple to complex. Doing this will motivate students in developing confidence while answering questions. An in-house training or workshop on item construction should be conducted, especially to those that lack education qualification as well as those having lowest teaching qualification.
Keywords: teacher’s competency, item construction, Junior Secondary schools
THE POSITIONS OF ARABIC LANGUAGE AND THE QURAN ON THE POWERS OF THE TONGUE (AL-LISAN) IN ENSURING GOOD INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS AND COMMUNAL PEACE
SURAKAT RAFIU OLANIYI; & AZEEZ, NURUDEEN ADELOWO
Department of Arabic Studies, School of Secondary Education, (Language Programmes), Oyo State College of Education, Lanlate
Of all human body parts, the tongue is an exceptional part that is destined to function in bi-polar or contradictory ways; to comfort and discomfort; to praise and curse; to elevate and pull down; etc. That is why the social well-being or otherwise of human-beings, their successes and failures, fortunes and misfortunes depend to a large on how wisely human tongues are being used. This paper explores the positions of both the Arabic language and the Quran regarding the powers inherent in the human tongue to ensure good interpersonal relationships and communal peace if it is properly and wisely used. A number of Arabic statements and Quranic verses are examined to achieve this. The paper concludes that conflicts and crises shall reduce considerably in every human society if humans would use their tongues cautiously and wisely. The paper recommends, among others, that every person should control their tongue particularly during the time of anger so that their utterances may be justifiable.
Keywords: Al-Lisn, Arabic language, Communual Peace, Ensuring, Good-Interpersonal Relationship, Tongue
دراسة أدبية تحليلية لقصيدة “زيارتي في مدينة دُكُّو” للشاعر يوسف علي موسى
أبوبكر إسماعيل; يوسف علي موسى; & آدم محمد طالب
قسم اللغة العربية، مدرسة الألسن، كلية أحمد الرفاعي للتربية والقانون والدراسات العامة، مسو ولاية بوتشي، -نجيريا.
هذه مقالة وجيزة حول القصيدة الميمية للشاعر يوسف علي موسى دراسة أدبية تحليلية، وستهدي إلى بيان الظواهر الأدبية والفنية في أربعة نقاط.