TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HEALTH AND MEDICAL RESEARCH (TIJSHMR)
VOL. 8 (3) FEBRUARY, 2022 EDITIONS. ISSN: 2373-1340
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies,
Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS FOUND IN VEGETABLES FROM THOMAS DAM IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA
1MAITERA, O. N. 2USMAN I.B
1Department of Chemistry, Moddibo Adama University, Yola 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Kano State Polytechnic
The use of Water for irrigation on vegetable gardens is a public health concern. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe Co, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in two different vegetables, including, Okra and Spinach, grown in the vicinity area of Thomas dam in Kano state, Nigeria. Samples were collected during Rainy, dry and cold seasons. The mean level of metals obtained ranged widely from 0.19 -0.34mg/Kg Cr, 0.2-0.54 mg/Kg Co, 0.43-0.75 mg/Kg Cu, B.D.L Ni, 0-1.47 mg/Kg Pb, 2.86-8.37 mg/Kg Zn, 0.41-0.53 mg/Kg Cd, 1.76- 7.2mg/Kg, Mn and 1.6-6.6 mg/Kg Fe for both rainy, dry and cold season for spinach. The mean level of metals obtained in okra ranged widely from 0.30 -0.60mg/Kg Cr, 0.65-0.8 mg/Kg Co, 4.1-6.11 mg/Kg Cu, B.D.L Ni, 0-1.47 mg/Kg Pb, B.D.L, 2.98-4.23mg/Kg Zn, 2.15-3.75mg/Kg Cd, 2.3-5.4mg/Kg, Mn and 2.23-2.67mg/Kg Fe for both rainy, dry and cold season for okra. Comparison of results with the control showed significant levels (p<0.05) of all the metals analyzed in the vegetable samples obtained from the vicinity area irrigated dam. However, the levels were within the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) tolerable limits for metals in fresh vegetables.
Keywords: Irrigation, vegetables, metals, atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), Dam
A REVIEW OF THE NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF SWEET POTATOES
ABIODUN, ABAYOMI M; & ENUJIUGHA, V. N.
Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure.
A great variety of root and tuber crops plays a significant role in agriculture and facilitates food security, especially in African countries. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) are now being acknowledged for its nutritional and health benefits. Several researches have reported that sweet potatoes can be beneficial in the prevention or management of certain diseases through its antioxidant, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-ulcer activities. Sweet potatoes are excellent sources of complex carbohydrates, dietary fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin B6. The leafy part have also been reported to contain essential mineral nutrients such as potassium, zinc, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and iron. This review highlights the nutritional and health benefits of sweet potatoes.
Keywords: sweet potato, nutritional composition, health benefit
HEALTH DETERMINANTS OF WOMEN WITH UNMET NEED FOR FAMILY PLANNING IN CRISIS-AFFECTED STATES OF NORTHERN NIGERIA
*ADEGOKE ADEMOLA ADEBAYO; **ADISA TITUS GODWIN; & ***ANOZIE CHINAEMELUN I.
*Demography & Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile – Ife, Osun State. **Department of History, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Osun State. ***Department of Microbiology, Veritas University, Abuja
This study ascertains the health determining factors for women who have unmet need for family planning in the crisis-affected states (Borno, Yobe, Zamfara, Kaduna, Plateau, and Benue) of Northern Nigeria. The target population of women studied were within the age range of 15-49 years, selected from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) data of women who had engaged in sexual activity and have had child bearing experience. The study sampled 8,846 (eight thousand, eight hundred and forty-six women) from the 41,821 (forty one thousand, eight hundred and twenty one women population). The statistical analysis were considered and analyzed at the bivariate and multi-variate level of analysis with 1(one) representing women with Unmet Need and 0 (zero) representing women with No Unmet Need. The health factors of pregnancy termination, attendance at ante-natal care, and timing of ante-natal care visits were all considered and it was discovered in the course of the study that they all played significant roles for unmet need for family planning in women in the crisis-affected states of Northern Nigeria.
Keywords: Mistimed Pregnancy, Unwanted Pregnancy, Child Mortality Experience, Fertility Desire, Antenatal
PREVALENCE OF GASTROINTESTINAL HELMINTH INFECTIONS IN CATTLE SLAUGHTERED IN OYO TOWN
WAHAB ASIATA OMOYIOLA; ALADE AYODELE OLASOJI; AND OKUNLOLA DEBORAH OLUKEMI.
Department of Biology, School of Secondary Education(Science Programmes) Emmanuel Alayande College of Education Oyo, Oyo State
A survey of the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in cattle slaughtered in Oyo town was investigated. The study was carried out in two abattoirs in Oyo town, Akunlemu and Oroki abattoirs respectively. Faecal sample of twenty-five cattle each from Akunlemu and Oroki abattoir were collected to investigate the prevalence of helminth in these animals in August, 2021 using sedimentation method . Twenty-two cattle (88%) have ova of helminthic worms in their faeces in Akunlemu, while twenty-one (84%) cattle sampled in Oroki were positive with helminthic ova. Male cattle have infection prevalence of 87%, while the female have 85%. Heamonchus had the highest prevalence of (34%), followed by Strongyloides (24%), while Fasciola gigantica had the least prevalence of (6%). Regular control measures should be practiced and farmers educated in the proper use of antihelminthiasis on their livestocks.
Keywords: Gastrointestinal, Helminths, Prevalence, Abattoirs, Cattle, Infection, Slaughter, Sedimentation.
HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPLC) DETERMINATION OF WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS CONTENT IN FERMENTED AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN (PARKIA BIGLOBOSA) SEED MARKETED IN OSUN-STATE, NIGERIA
MOSHOOD, A. ABIBU 1, 2, DAVID T. TAKUWA 2 AND KWENGA SICHILONGO 2
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Ede, Private Mail Bag 231, Ede Nigeria. 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone, Botswana.
The fermented African locust bean seed is consumed as a local food condiment by populations in African countries particularly in Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Ghana and Nigeria. Consumption has been increased in recent years by natives due to ability to act as dietary supplements and nutraceutical. In this study, a comparative analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B4, B6, and B9) content of the fermented African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) spices from three different markets in Osun-State, Nigeria were identified and quantified using HPLC with ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE). The extracts were clean-up using commercial C18 silica-based solid phase cartridge and the resulting filtrate portions were analyzed using our previously validated reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method at ambient temperature. The Ede (ED) sample showed the highest contents of vitamin B6 (18.07 mg/100g) while Ikire (IK) and Iwo (IW) locust bean samples had highest vitamin B3 content (27.60 mg/100g) and IK (8.51 mg/100g) respectively. IK sample showed the highest content of vitamin B2 (2.87 mg/100g). The values were subjected to statistical analysis, Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed no significant variations (P < 0.05) among the samples analyzed. These findings could help communities to develop diet planning by incorporating fermented African locust bean seed with high level of vitamins for their daily healthcare need.
Keywords: African Locust bean; Locations; Water-soluble vitamins; ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE); RP-HPLC.
EFFECT OF SELF MEDICATION, DRUG ABUSE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF BASIC SCIENCE STUDENTS, IN RIVERS STATE
NWALA, LONGINUS Ph.D
Integrated Science Department, Faculty of Natural and Applied Science
Drug abuse threatens and tends to derail these noble strides by demotivating the students in learning and subsequently ruining school growing children that the government intends to rely on in driving the economy to the next level. Despite the overwhelming intervention strategies by the Government, non-governmental organization (NGOs), religious organizations, and many other keen stakeholders to curb the problem of drug abuse especially among the youths, the number of school growing youths being sucked into drug abuse seems to be escalating daily. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of drug abuse on participation in learning among science students in Rivers State, Nigeria. The study used descriptive survey design combining both qualitative and quantitative research strategies. The research targeted all the form three students and their respective school principals in the three education zones of the state which are Rivers West, Rivers East and Rivers central. Nine schools of the three education zones in Rivers State were sampled. Purposive sampling was used in the selection of the nine schools and their respective principals. From each selected school, 20 Form three students were selected using systematic sampling technique. Questionnaires were used for data collection, hence data was obtained from the field it was coded and analyzed by computer using a statistical software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). On the basis of findings, the study concludes that all the principals had experienced cases of drug abuse from students in their respective schools. About (87.5%) of the principals kept records of those students engaging in drug abuse. The study concluded that most of the schools offered guidance and counselling to the students and that most of the students had attended guidance and counselling against drugs abuse in their schools. Alcohol was the frequently abused drug in the schools as expressed with a mean of 2.632. The study concluded that drug abuse among the students caused dropping out of schools, strained relationship with other students, lack of interest in studying, low concentration span and declining grades. The study concluded that anxiety, headache, feeling sleepy, confusion and vomiting were serious effects of drug abuse among students and that the students have friends who take drugs. The study recommends that all schools should set up guidance and counselling offices facilitated by professionals to counsel students who indulge in drug abuse. Parents and teachers should discourage students and be firm in ensuring that the students do not take alcohol which is the most abused in the schools. The parents should also ensure that they do not give so much money to their children and if they do so they should ensure that the money is put into constructive use.
Keyword: Drug abuse, effect academic performance, science students.
TRADITIONAL FRACTURE CARE IN THE 21ST CENTURY: EMERGING FACTORS FOR THE CONTINUED PREFERENCES
SILAS EPRON; & INUWA YAHAYA
Department of General Studies, College of Health Sciences And Technology, P.M.B 042, Kaltungo, Gombe State, Nigeria.
Traditional fracture care method as part of general traditional medicine has been an old method of fracture treatment that has existed and survived for centuries in most societies. However, the 19th century ushered in the western orthopaedic fracture care method with the introduction of modern medical machines for diagnosis in the treatment of fractures. It is no doubt that in the 21st century, orthodox orthopaedic method of fracture treatment has played a significant role in fracture treatment. One question that studies have failed to answer appropriately is the fact that the practice of traditional fracture care is still striving even amidst the advanced orthopaedic method which ideally should have been the last option. Several factors have been attributed to the preference of people for traditional fracture care over orthodox fracture care which includes affordability, accessibility and fear of amputation among others. The study used Cross-sectional survey design. 600 questionnaires were administered in order to get peoples’ opinion on their preference for traditional fracture care over orthodox orthopaedic fracture care. The findings of the study indicated that effectiveness of the traditional method, cultural influence and the belief that the method has been an old method were major factors behind peoples’ preference. The major thrust of the study is to assert that cultural influence, the effectiveness of the method and belief in the system plays a key role in the preference of people for traditional fracture care. The study recommended among others the need for the government to improve the traditional fracture care system to enable the system efficiently complement the effort of the western orthopaedic practice.
KEYWORDS: Traditional Fracture Care, Western Orthopaedic, Cultural influence, Preference, 21st century, Emerging factors.
EFFECT OF EXPOSURE TIME OF FAST NEUTRON IRRADIATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD PARAMETERS OF TOMATO (Solanum lycopersicum)
CATHERINE I. OKOYE1, OLAMIDE A. FALUSI2, MUHAMMAD L. MUHAMMAD2, DAVID O. ABOYEJI3*, HAUWA S. SALITH1
1Agricultural Biotechnology Department, National Biotechnology Development Agency, P.M.B. 5118, Wuse, Abuja, Nigeria. 2Department of Plant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. 3Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
Fast neutron irradiation (FNI) is a useful tool for developing plant varieties with great economic values and agricultural potentials. Therefore, this research was carried out to evaluate effects of fast neutron irradiation on the growth and yield parameters of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum); with the aim of obtaining useful and desirable agronomical traits that could be used for large scale production. This was done using an Americium-Beryllium source with a flux of 1.5× 104 cm-2s-1. The tomato seeds were irradiated for 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes equivalent to 0 rad, 4 rad, 8 rad, 16 rad and 24 rad respectively before they were sown, with their respective controls. The effects of the different irradiation treatments were accessed on percentage germination and survival, plant height and number of leaves per plant in three accessions of the plant. The seeds were plated in the laboratory for germination study and in experimental pots arranged in randomized completely block design (RCBD) in the garden. Highly significant differences (p≤0.05) were observed in percentage germination and survival, plant height and number of leaves/plant in all the accessions. However, the study revealed that 90 min (16 rad) was an effective irradiation period to induce viable and useful mutations for yield parameters in tomato and that the accession NG/MR/5/9/006 performed better than other plants in most of the parameters studied. These results demonstrated that FNI is a prime tool for enhancing the efficiency of breeding S. lycopersicum and evolving higher yield variants through proper selection.
Keywords: fast neutron; irradiation exposure period; morphological variation; mutation; Solanum lycopersicum L.
TERMITICIDAL POTENTIALS OF STEM BARK EXTRACT OF ZANTHOXYLUM ZANTHOXYLOIDES (CANDLEWOOD) AGAINST MACROTERMES SUBHYALINUS (ISOPTERA:TERMINIDAE)
1CECE, M. A.; AND 2IBRAHIM, A. W.
1Department of Biological Sciences,the Federation Polytechnic,PMB,55 Bida Niger State. 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic
This study was conducted in Biology Laboratory, Federal Polytechnic Bida to evaluate the efficacy of stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides against Macrotermes subhyalinus at ambient temperature of 28±20C and relative humidity of 70±5%. Parameters assessed were, phytochemical constituents of plant material, mortality of termites and repellency activities of plant extract. Three different concentrations of the plant extract were formulated (1%, 2% and 3%). The results of the phytochemical constituents revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoid, anthraquinone, cardiac glycosides, and tannins. The extract of stem bark of Z. zanthoxyloides caused 80%, 86.7% and 100% mortality of M. subyalinus at 1%, 2% and 3% respectively after 24hours treatment, there effect is significantly different with the control (P<0.05). The repellency activities of plant extract indicated mean % repellency of 30.0% , 33.3% and 43.3% against termites at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 3% respectively. The stem bark extract of Z. zanthoxyloides is recommended for the control of M. subhyalinus and the development of new insecticides from plant extracts sources can be an alternative for the control of M. subyalinus.
Keywords: Termiticidal, Z. zanthoxyloides, Macromtermes subyalinus, Mortaliy, Repellency
INFLUENCE OF PARENTAL AND GOVERNMENT SUPPORT ON THE CHOICE OF MEDICAL CAREER AMONG MEDICAL AND HEALTH WORKERS OF FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTRE, JALINGO, TARABA STATE, NIGERIA
*DR. AMINU SANI; **DAHIRU UMAR; & ***CHINDO USMAN ZAKARI
*Department of Educational Foundations, Taraba State University, Jalingo. **Department of Primary Health Care, Gashaka L.G.A Taraba State, Nigeria. ***Taraba State Ministry of Health, Jalingo
This Study investigates the Influence of Parental and Government Support on the Choice of Medical career among Medical and Health Workers in Federal Medical Centre, Jalingo. Two objectives and two research questions were raised to guide the study. Descriptive survey research design was used and a sample of (120) Medical and Health Workers were used from different units of Medical Centre. Medical career Questionnaire was used to elicit responses from the respondents and the results showed that parental and government support have positive influence on the choice of medical career among medical and health workers in Federal Medical Centre, Jalingo. The study concludes that parental and government support have positive influence on the choice of medical career among medical and health workers of Federal Medical Centre, Jalingo. The study recommends among others that parents and Government should intensify more effort to support the heart desire of their children and citizens in order to read medical and health related courses.
Keywords: Parental Support, Government Support, Influence, Career Choice, Medical, Federal Medical Centre.
PREVALENCE OF MALARIAL INFECTION AMONGST PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTE-NATAL CLINIC AT GENERAL HOSPITAL, HADEJIA, NIGERIA
1SULEMAN ABUBAKAR; 2MUA’AZU ABDULLAHI KOFAR NA’ISA; 3GWANA ADAMU MOHAMMED; 4ISA YUNUSA; & 5 FATI ALI DIMARI
1Department of General Studies, Binyaminu Usman Polytechnic, Hadejia, Jigawa State, Nigeria 2Department of Pollution Control, Ministry of Environment, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria 3Laboratory Unit, Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Nigeria. 4Department of General Study, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Nigeria. 5Department of Biochemistry, Kano State University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Nigeria
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at General Hospital, Hadejia Jigawa State, Nigeria, between June to July, 2019. Five hundred (500) blood samples were collected from the subjects by using venipuncture techniques dispensed in to EDTA blood bottles parked in cold-chained box and transported to laboratory. Thick and thin blood smear were made and stained with Leshmans’ and Giemsa’s staining technique as described by Cheesbrough, 2004. Films were examined microscopically with objective lens × 10, × 40 and × 100 oil immersion lenses for the presence or absence of malaria parasites. Result obtained revealed that the overall prevalence of malaria infection among pregnant women was 69.7%. The prevalence of malaria parasite according to gestation age was that out of 500 pregnant women involved, 150 (30%) were in their first trimester, 152 (30.4%) were in their second trimester and 198 (38.4) were found to be in their third trimester. These in first trimester were (150); 104 (69.3) were found to have lower prevalence, while 46 (30.66%) pregnant not followed by those in second trimester were (152); 106 (69.7%) were shown prevalence, while 46 shown no prevalence. Those pregnant women in their third trimester 198; 138 (70.0%) had higher prevalence, while 60 (303%) showed no prevalence. There was no significant relationship (p > 0.05) between the trimester and prevalence of the infection. There was no significant relationship (p ˃ 0.05) between the trimester and prevalence of the infection. Hence pregnant women are advised to attend antenatal clinic for medical cheek and follow-up for their wellbeing.
KEYWORDS: General Hospital, Infection Malaria Parasites, Pregnancy, Prevalence
EXTRACTION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF OIL FROM 4 GENETICALLY MODIFIED VARIETIES OF SOYBEANS IN NIGERIA
H.S. BALARABE; I.A. USMAN; & M.T. ADO
Department of Applied Chemistry, College Of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.
The extraction and physicochemical analysis of soybean oils extracted from four newly genetically modified soybean varieties obtained from Institute for Agricultural Research, Zaria, Nigeria were carried out in order to ascertain their qualities. The physicochemical l parameters determined includes their colours, densities (D), saponification values (SV), peroxide values (PV), acid values (AV), free fatty acids (FFA) and iodine values (IV). The oils were extracted from each Variety by solvent extraction method using soxhlet apparatus and N-hexane as extracting solvent. The results of the analysis obtained, showed that the colours of the oils were pale yellow. The highest density was seen in TGX-1951-3F soybean oil (0.926 Kg/L) and lowest in TGX-1955-10E soybean oil (0.901 Kg/L). On the other hand, pH Values were observed to be between 7.2 to 7.4. The highest and lowest saponification values were obtained at 120.62 mgKOH/g for TGX-1448-2E, TGX-1904-2E and TGX-1951-3F respectively and 122.02 mgKOH/g for TGX-1955-10E variety. It was observed that TGX-1955-10E showed 0.5 meKOH/kg while the other three varieties had 0.4 meKOH/kg as peroxide values. TGX-1448-2E and TGX-1955-10E had the highest and the lowest free fatty acid values of 15.61 and 13.05% respectively. It was also observed that TGX-1955-10E variety recorded the highest iodine value of 25.63gI2/g oil while the remaining varieties recorded same iodine values of 24.75gI2/g oil. The highest acid value was observed in TGX-1448-2E variety at 15.61mgKOH/g and the lowest in TGX-1955-10E 13.05 mgKOH/g. The study and results obtained revealed the good attributes of the four varieties of soyabean as edible oil and the results compares favourably with standard parameters for edible oils.
Keywords: Density; peroxide value; acid value; iodine value and saponification value.
THE SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS OF DISEASE PANDEMICS IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF COVID 19 IN PORT HARCOURT METROPOLIS
*AWUDESE, PURITY AZIBABENA; **AMADI, EUNICE MUNACHIMSO; & ***HARRY, SAMUEL INAEBI
*Department of Public Health, JPTS Institute of Management Science and Technology. **Department of Public Health. ***Department of Prevention Care and Treatment, Catholic Caritas Foundation
This study is based on socioeconomic impact of disease pandemic in Nigeria. Port Harcourt metropolis as a commercialized city and state capital was adopted for the study. A descriptive survey design was used who engage in agriculture, private sector, public service and trade/craft by collecting data from 400 households using a stratified sampling technique and analysed . Most of the surveyed respondents had a secondary education level and about 81% of them were males with about 52.50% that are not married. Majority of the respondents (55%) earn between 0-30,000 naira while only 7.5% earn 91,000 naira and above as monthly income. In addition, majority of them (96%) opined to be unhappy with the ban on social gathering. And about 65.5% showed sadness about restriction on intra/interstate movement and more than half (50.5%) of them said to have experienced domestic violence during the lockdown. It was also found that about 98.5% of respondents were not comfortable with stay at home order. Nearly 95% of them were identified to be financially incapable during the lockdown period and about 93.75% said they did not get income support from their employers (especially the private sector workers). Similarly, 93.75% of the respondents did not get palliative support and 97% of them said covid-19 had negatively affected their business/economic activities. About 85.5% of the respondents that are students said they do not have access to internet facility for virtual learning, while 53% of the respondents have no internet knowledge. 80.75% of the respondents said they had constraints in learning virtually. Findings from the research revealed that Nigerian households especially in Port Harcourt metropolis have suffered both socially and economically from the pandemic and so more measures need to be taken to reach out those affected in order to cushion the effects caused by the pandemic.
Keyword: Covid 19, Pandemic, Disease, socioeconomic
NUTRIENT IMPROVEMENT AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF “DANWAKE” – A CASSAVA BASED SNACK
EJIM, M.N AND OMACHI B.A
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B, 55, Bida, Niger State.
Snacks are Important Components of the diet. They can be eaten in place of or between meals to provide a brief supply of energy and some other nutrients. “Danwake” is a cassava based snack that is popularly eaten among children and adults in the Northern parts of Nigeria. In this study “Danwake” was prepared and its proximate and sensory characteristics were examined. It was prepared using cassava flour, soybean flour, potash and salt. The blend formulations includes 95:5%, 90:10%, 85:15% cassava to soybeans and 100% cassava as control. Proximate and sensory evaluation was carried out on the “Danwake” samples using standard laboratory procedures. Moisture content ranged between, 34.36 – 40.86%, Ash content (0.39 – 1.38%); crude fat (0.38 – 4.76%); Crude protein (1.86 – 3.87%); Crude fibre (0.26 – 1.20%), Carbohydrate contents (61.41 – 50.79%). The moisture content and carbohydrate showed significant differences (P < 0.05) among samples while the crude protein, crude fat and crude fibre contents increased significantly (P > 0.05) with the addition of soybeans. Sensory evaluation results showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the taste and overall acceptability while appearance and texture showed significant difference (P <0.05) among the samples.
Keywords: Snacks, Cassava, Nutrient improvement, “Dawanke” and Sensory evaluation.