INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HEALTH AND MEDICAL RESEARCH (TIJSHMR)
VOL. 15 (3) NOVEMBER, 2023
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES OF ETHYL ACETATE METABOLIC EXTRACT OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ISOLATE OF MITRCARPUS SCABER
IFEOMA S. ASOGWA1,2, ANTHONY C AGBO3*, UDAUK P. ISE4, CHINEDU E. IBEZIM 1, ANTHONY A. ATTAMA1*
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Enugu State, Nigeria. 2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Bingham University, Karu, Abuja, Nigeria. 3Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology & Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. 4Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Bingham University, Karu, Abuja, Nigeria.
Safety or toxicity assessment of newly discovered endophytes with potential therapeutic applications is very crucial prior to their approval for human use. This is to ascertain the possible undesirable outcomes of the drug agents within a short-term of 24 h of administration (acute toxicity). This study was aimed at determining the adverse effects that could be observed within a short-term of 24 h of oral administration of multiply doses of metabolic ethyl acetate extracts of leaf parts of Mitracarpus scaber to rodents. In determining the median lethal dose (LD50) of the crude extract, a method described by Lork was followed, which involves two phases of administration of test drug to experiment animals. In the first phase, oral gavage needle in a single dose disposable syringes were used to administer three dose levels (10, 100, and 1000 mg/kg) of ethyl acetate extract to mice of three in a group. Under critical observation, behavioral changes and other possible signs of death/adverse effects associated with the test extract were documented. The second phase was a deduction of first phase, eight mice were divided into four groups of two mice each. Each group was treated orally with graded doses of 1200, 1600, 2900, 5000 mg/kg respectively. Signs of adverse drug reactions and other side effects within 24 hours were observed and recorded and from the results gotten, final LD50 was evaluated. Results from the treatment showed that the animals were not subjected to any immediate risks of drug reaction or adverse effects on 24 h exposure and the LD50 for extract was > 5000 mg/kg. Also, on completion of the treatment some parameters evaluated showed significant differences when compared with standards. Generally, the result of this study shows that the metabolic crude extract of endophytic fungi isolated from Mitracarpus scaber showed no oral acute toxicity in mice. However, further evaluation of sub-acute and long-term toxicity studies using oral and other routes of administration is recommended.
Keywords: Endophytic fungi, Mitrcarpus scaber, Acute toxicity, Metabolitic extract, Median-lethal dose, Roots, Fruits, Seeds, Barks,Flowers
MUTAGENESIS: A POTENTIAL APPROACH FOR IMPROVING TOMATOES’ NUTRITIONAL QUALITY
AMOS OLADIMEJI ADUBI; FELICIA ADEJOKE DURODOLA; & MUSIBAU ADEWUYI AZEEZ
Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.
In the world, tomato is regarded as one of the important crop. Due to a number of obstacles, tomato production has not yet realized its full potential. Determining the extent of genetic variability for biochemical properties among genotypes of Solanum lycopersicum was the goal of this study. Twenty eight (28) M1 genotypes were assessed. Significant differences between genotypes were revealed by the analysis of variance results. Studies on correlation also revealed a variety of correlations between the researched parameters. Lycopene and beta carotene were negatively correlated (r = -0.468**) to each other. Based on non-hierarchical Euclidian cluster analysis, it was demonstrated that there was significant genotype-to-genotype variation. Cluster III was found to have the highest intra-cluster distances, while cluster VI and VII had the highest inter-cluster distances. The clusters with a higher mean value and a greater inter-cluster distance could be chosen as parents for a breeding program. This type of research can aid in the identification of Solanum lycopersicum genotypes with superior yield and biochemical composition. In conclusion, chemical mutagens can be utilized to increase the quantity and quality of tomatoes and have the potential to improve tomato fruit quality.
Keyword: Breeding, Cluster Analysis, Genetic Advance, Genetic Distance, Genetic Diversity, Inter Cluster Distance
AN EVALUATION OF HEALTH INTERVENTION OF MATERNAL NEONATAL AND CHILD MORTALITY REDUCTION IN PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRES KALTUNGO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF GOMBE STATE
*RONAH YARO; *DR. S.O BANJOKO; & **SAIDU SANUSI IBRAHIM
*Department of Public Health, Faculty of Basic and Applied Science, Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria **Department of General Studies, School of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic Kaltungo, Gombe State Nigeria.
Maternal neonatal and child morbidity and mortality indices in Nigeria have been alarming particularly in Gombe state situated in the north East region. The maternal mortality rate in Gombe is 1002/100,000 live birth and infant mortality rate is 20.7/1000 live birth and under-five mortality is 104/1000. The primary Health care system is reduction of this indices through access to health care specific interventions. This study was therefore aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions parameters. The study is descriptive non-randomised, non-controlled outcome evaluation of intervention packages rendered through the Primary Health Centres (PHC) in Kaltungo LGA. A structured questionnaire in the form of an assessment sheet study instrument was used to collect data on documented intervention specific to maternal neonatal and child mortality control and it was measured against the outcome over a period of ten years (10) years intervention period (2012-2021). That out of the eight (8) interventions are: Malaria control, administration of Haematinics, Prevention/Immunization, Post-Natal care, Focus Ante Natal Care, Breast feedings Infection Control, and complimentary Feeding were correlated with outcome Morbidity and mortality and inference were drawn from statistical analysis as effective and non- effective. The documented measurable intervention packages inputs (in form of number of pregnant women, neonates and children that benefited from each category of the intervention) were correlated against the documented measurable outcomes (in form of number of deaths recorded that are specific to the categories of the intervention packages). The results show that of the eight (8) sets of interventions/outcomes for all the PHCs at level of significance of 0.05, only two intervention types (malaria control – p-value = 0.015 and administration of haemotonics – p-alue = 0.036), equivalent to 25% of total intervention sets are signinficant enough to be regarded as effective in reducing maternal mortality. In other words, all intervention packages for reduting Perinatal mortality, neonatal mortality and under 5 mortality are not significantly effective to reduce number of deaths.
Keywords: Evaluation, Appraisal, Effectiveness, Prevention, Mortality, Interventions
PREVALENCE OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN SABON GARI LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
USMAN ALHASSAN GAMAGIRA1, HAUWA BELLO SHARIF2, ALHASSAN ALIYU GAMAGIRA3, SABI’U SHITU2 AND BELLO AHMAD4
1Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, National Open University of Nigeria. 2Department of Applied Biology, School of Applied Sciences, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria. 3Department of Nursing Science, School of Nursing, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Kaduna. 4School of Preliminary Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria.
The study aimed to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna state. A cross-sectional study of adolescent aged from 10-19 years, was conducted using randomized sampling and Systematic random sampling was used to select sample from each ward while simple random sampling was used in collecting data from each stratum. Measurement of weights and height were done to determine Body Mass Index (BMI) using structured questionnaires. A total of 500 participants filled the questionnaires, of which 52.00% (260/500) were male while 48.00% (240/500) were females. Majority of the respondents were within the age group of 16 – 18 years (45.40%), More than one third of the participants were underweight (178: 35.60%) while 225 (45.00%) participants had normal weight. Sixty-four participants were overweight (12.80%) while 33 participants were obese (6.60%). while obesity was higher in adolescent males (8.46%) compared to females (4.58%). The differences observed in BMI distribution based on sex were statistically significant (p = 0.00001). The risk of overweight and obesity was estimated to be higher among participants who do not walk for more 30 minutes daily, dietary risk factors associated with overweight and obesity are frequent consumption of protein rich diets and carbohydrate rich diets were associated with higher risk of overweight and obesity. So also participants who consume oil, salad and butter were three times more likely to become overweight and obese (OR = 3.6512; 95%CI = 1.5415 – 8.6485). However, participants who frequently consume vegetables and fruits as well as those aware of the association between life style and obesity are less likely to be overweight and obese. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity among adolescents in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna state were 12.80% and 6.60% respectively. These prevalence rates might be linked to the lesser involvement of adolescents in physical activities and more engagement in indoor and sedentary activities such as use of phones. Policies and programs that raise awareness of the health benefits of physical activity and outdoor exercise are required to help reduce physical inactivity.
Keywords: Prevalence, Overweight, Obesity, Adolescent, Sabon Gari
THE PHYSICS OF DRYING METHODS AND IT’S INFLUENCE ON THE NUTRIENT RETENTION IN MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES – A SURVEY
1ROMANUS I. O, 2SUNDAY AYIGUN & 3MARIA DINGARI
1&2Department of Physics with Electronics Federal Polytechnic, Mubi 3Department of Science Laboratory Technology Federal Polytechnic Mubi.
This review highlights the importance of selecting appropriate drying methods to preserve the nutrient content of Moringa oleifera leaves, a highly nutritious plant often called the “drumstick tree” or “miracle tree.” The leaves are rich in essential nutrients, making them valuable for dietary purposes, but maintaining their nutritional value during drying is critical. The review explores the physics behind various drying techniques and their impact on nutrient retention. Drying Moringa leaves is crucial for extending their shelf life and ensuring their availability throughout the year. The review discusses different drying methods, such as sun drying, oven drying, freeze drying, and microwave drying, and how they affect nutrient content. It emphasizes the role of physics principles like heat and mass transfer, phase changes, and thermodynamics in these drying processes. Traditional sun drying, while cost-effective, is shown to lead to nutrient losses due to heat sensitivity. In contrast, low-temperature methods like freeze drying and air drying are more effective at preserving nutrients. The need for temperature control and understanding enzymatic reactions and oxidation processes in nutrient preservation is underscored. It highlights the impact of drying methods on sensory qualities, emphasizing the potential benefits of freeze drying and vacuum drying. Additionally, it addresses the importance of obtaining reliable data on nutrient composition and the hygiene concerns associated with traditional drying methods and makes recommendations.
Keywords: Moringa, Heat, Phase, Nutrient, Mass And Temperature
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITIONS OF SOME SELECTED TUBERS AND CEREALS
*LAWAL I.A.; *IMRAN M.O.; *AHMED W.A.; AND **BOLANLE E.O
*Science Laboratory Technology Department, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki. **Science Laboratory Technology Department, Adeseun Ogundoyin Polytechnic, Eruwa.
Human body requires a number of nutrients to maintain good health. study was carried out to determine the levels of carbohydrate, protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ashcontent, few phytochemical constituents (saponins,Flavonoids, alkanoids, phenolic, phytate and tannins), minerals elements(calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and phosphorus) and vitamins(A and E) in five different flours using Association of Analytical chemist(AOAC). The results obtained show that carbohydrate was found in appreciable amount in all samples and there is no significant difference (p<0.05) in all samples and ranges from (82.59±1.0) to (87.63±1.00). Cocoyam presented the highest protein content (7.65±1.00), while yam flour contained only (3.83±1.00) and ranked the lowest. The ash content ranged from 0.75±0.10 in sorghum to 1.71±1.00 in wheat. There is no significant difference in crude fiber for all samples and it ranges from 0.46±0.10 in sorghum to 1.05±1.00in wheat. The crude fat levels ranging from 0.26±0.10 to 0.59±0.10 and the highest level was observed in wheat. Saponin levels were high in wheat and millet (0.38±0.01) and sorghum having the lowest value of (0.09±0.00). A considerable level of alkaloids was present in yam flour (1.41±0.01) and wheat having the highest amount of 1.81±1.00. There is no significant difference in oxalate present in all samples and it ranges from 0.63±0.01 for yam flour to 0.80± 0.01for wheat. Flavonoids content ranges from 0.12±0.01 in yams flour to 0.90±0.01 in millet flour. Phenolic was highest in sorghum flour and lowest in yam flour with mean values of 0.84 ±0.01to 0.15±0.01 respectively. Vitamin E ranges from 0.67±0.01 in sorghum flour to 0.31±0.01 in wheat flour. Yam flour with highest vitamin A level 0.23±0.01 and sorghum with 0.05±0.00 is ranked lowest. All the cereals flour were riched in magnesium, iron and phosphorus while a high level of calcium was observed in sorghum(91.50±1.00). Considerate amount of zinc was found in all samples. Cadmium is almost absent in all samples with sorghum and wheat having value of 0.01±0.00 each. Lead is absent in all sample. From the results obtained, the cereals flours can be considered to be ranked the best when compared with the tuber samples analyzed, notwithstanding tubers flour also contain nutrients needed by the body.
Keywords: Cocoyam Flour, Yam Flour, Sorghum Flour, Wheat Flour, Millet Flour, Nutrients