INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HEALTH AND MEDICAL RESEARCH (TIJSHMR)
VOL. 14 (3) AUGUST, 2023
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
STUDIES ON PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF BLOOD PLANT (JUSTICIA SECUNDA VAHL)
*1NKAA, F. A., 1EGBUCHA, K. C., 1UDOGU, O. F. AND ²ONYEABOR-CHINEDU, N. P.
1Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. 2Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State
The study investigated the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of the leaf extracts of Blood plant (Justicia secunda Vahl). Methanol and ethanol were used in extracting the bioactive components of the leaves, while crude extract was obtained by squeezing fresh leaves to obtain the extract. The agar well diffusion method was used in investigating the antimicrobial activities of the extracts. The result of the phytochemical test showed that tannin, phenol, alkaloids, flavonoids and saponin were present in the leaf extracts of J. secunda at varying intensities. The quantitative analysis showed that tannin content of the extracts ranged from 1.70 – 3.35%. The phenol, alkaloids, flavonoids and saponin contents ranged from 3.90 – 15.38%, 3.25 – 4.38%, 1.20 – 3.63% and 2.05 – 3.25% respectively. The antimicrobial study showed that the zones of inhibition of ethanolic extract were: 15.5 mm (Candida. albicans), 15.5 mm (Escherichia. coli), 16.0 mm (Salmonella typhi), 18.5 mm (Staphylococcus aureus) and 18.0 mm (Proteus vulgaris). The zone of inhibition obtained for methanolic extracts were: 20.5 mm (C. albicans), 16.5 mm (E. coli), 18.5 mm (S. typhi), 20.5 mm (S. aureus) and 18.0 mm (P. vulgaris). The inhibition zones obtained for crude extract were: 14.0 mm (C. albicans), 15.0 mm (E. coli), 8.5 mm (S. typhi), 10.5 mm (S. aureus) and 12.5 mm (P. vulgaris). The control (gentamicin and ketoconazole) showed inhibition greater than 26.0 mm for all the test bacterial organisms and fungal organism respectively. The extracts however, showed varying minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against the test organisms, with crude extract having the least MIC (25 mg/ml) against C. albicans.
Keywords: Antimicrobial, phytochemical, microorganism, Justicia secunda, crude extract.
MYCOTOXIGENIC MOULDS AND AFLATOXIN B1 OCCURRENCE IN ROASTED YAM MARKETED WITHIN KADUNA METROPOLIS
SABI’U SHITU,1 SADIQ UMAR,2 ODEDEJI JOSHUA OLUREMI3 AND BASHIR SA’ID TAL4
1Department of Applied Biology, School of Applied Science, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. 2Department of Laboratory Science Technology, Binyaminu Usman Polytechnic, Hadejia, Jigawa State. 3Food Technology Department, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree. 4School of Health Sciences and Technology, College of Technical and Vocational Education, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna
The aim of this study is to examine the presence of mycotoxigenic moulds and aflatoxin B1 in roasted yam that is sold in the Kaduna Metropolis. A comprehensive study was conducted in Kaduna Metropolis, wherein a total of 40 samples of dried yam chips and slices were systematically collected from four prominent markets. These samples were subsequently subjected to rigors analysis in order to determine the presence of mycotoxigenic moulds and specifically aflatoxin B1. The analysis findings indicated the presence of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus nigricans, Mucor and Penicillium species of the samples exhibited the presence of mycotoxigenic moulds. Aspergillus flavus was identified as the most predominant mycotoxigenic mould, accounting for 25.0% of the total. The maximum observed concentration of aflatoxin B1 was 6.7 µg/kg. The mean concentration of aflatoxin B1 was determined to be 3.4 µg/kg. The findings suggest a high prevalence of mycotoxigenic moulds and relatively aflatoxin B1 in roasted yams sold in the Kaduna Metropolis. Hence, it is crucial for regulatory authorities to establish guidelines pertaining to the permissible amount of aflatoxin B1 present in roasted yam that is being sold in the urban area, with the aim of mitigating the potential health hazards linked to the ingestion of contaminated yam products.
Keywords: aflatoxin B1, mycotoxigenic mould, roasted yam, Aspergillus flavus
FOOD POISON: CAUSES, EFFECTS AND CONTROL MEASURES
JUMAREA*, S.A., MUSTAPHAB, Y.D, MUHAMMADB, D.A, TANKOB, O.O AND SIRAJB, M.F
aDepartment of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Nigeria. bDepartment of Nutrion & Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Nigeria.
Food poison is an illness caused by eating contaminated food. It’s not usually serious and most people get better within few days without treatment. By far the most of such attacks are mild and quickly overcome, and it is only when the attack is serious and affecting many persons at the same time that it attracts particular notice, and perhaps becomes the subject of public record. Contamination of food can happen at any point during its production: growing, harvesting, processing, storing, shipping or preparing. Cross contamination is often the cause leading to food poisoning. Many bacterial, viral or parasitic agents cause food poisoning, example Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Giadialamblia etc. causing symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramp, dehydration, sunken eye, low amount of morning urine etc. Most of these symptoms set in between 24-72 hours of consuming contaminated food, that is, food that contains the microorganism or their toxins. Food poisoning organisms can be transmitted via animal-animal, animal-human or food material to human. The organisms can be found in foods such as milk, meat, egg, poultry. Prevention measure can be through proper cleanliness of; the food handler, cooking environment, nails, aprons and proper food hygiene. Foodborne diseases can be mild with recovery in days, or severe resulting in hospitalization and death in certain patients.
Keywords: Food Poison, Contamination, Hygiene, Prevention.
NORMS CONCENTRATION IN SOME SOLID CANNED FOODS SOLD IN ZARIA KADUNA STATE
YUSUF, A. 2, GAZARA, A. B. 1, MANSUR H.2, MUSTAPHA S1.
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria. Nigeria 2Department of IJMB Science, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria. Nigeria.
A study to assess the natural radionuclide in canned foods commonly sold in zaria, kaduna state was conducted using the sodium iodide (NaI) thallium as detector, Samples were collected from markets and shops based on the major canned foods sold and consumed within the study area. The samples were packaged and sealed in polyethene bag indicating sample. The samples were taken for analysis, the results for the liquid sample shows that the concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K ranged from 0.06±0.01 to 0.25±0.06 Bq/L, 0.18±0.06 to 1.21±0.31 Bq/L and 1.45 ±0.18 to 2.95 ±0.23 Bq/L respectively. The highest concentrations were recorded from samples CF3 for both 238U and 40K of 0.25±0.06Bq/L and 2.95±0.23 Bq/L which is below acceptable limit by UNCEAR. While high concentration of 232Th was recorded in samples CF2 of 1.21 ±0.23Bq/L with lowest concentrations of CF1 (0.18±0.06 Bq/L) while for the solid samples the results shows that the concentration of the natural radionuclide shows from the table, ranges from 0.37±0.03 to 3.50±0.03 Bq/kg, 0.13±0.01 to 6.89±1.23Bq/Kg and 0.12±0.01 to 9.12±0.01 Bq/kg respectively. High concentrations of 238U was obtained in samples CF14 (3.12±0.02Bq/kg) and CF18 (3.50±0.03 Bq/kg) which well below the permissible value UNCEAR. The high concentration of 40K can be seen from samples CF5 9.12±0.01Bq/kg, CF7 (8.52±0.11Bq/kg), CF10 (5.21±1.02Bq/kg), CF12(6.91±0.12Bq/kg), CF15(5.31±1.21Bq/kg), CF16(4.35±0.25) and CF18(7.21±0.31Bq/kg) with the lowest concentrations in sample CF11 (0.12±0.01 Bq/kg). All the samples are below the permissible value by UNCEAR. The highest concentrations correspond to radionuclide 40K measured in the samples and their spread of measured value is rather larger, 40K was found to contribute the highest activity in all food samples.
Keywords: Radiation, Canned Food, Packaging.
PRION AS A MAJOR FOOD HAZARD: A REVIEW
AJEWOLE, ADEBISI ELIJAH
Department of Biological Sciences, School of Applied and Natural Sciences, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State
A prion is an infectious agent composed of protein in a misfolded form. This is the central idea of the prion hypothesis which remains controversial. The name was coined from ‘pro’teinacious ‘in’fection. Prion are responsible for an array of neuropathological diseases, the sporadic nature of their transmission shows they can be a major food hazard because it can be acquired from infected cattle, when an infectious prion (PrPsc) enters a healthy organism, it induces existing and properly folded prion proteins (PrP) to convert into the disease associated prion form. This leads to very rapidly progressive dementias with varying symptoms such as behavioral changes, memory impairment, visual disturbances, language and hearing problems, ataxia and movement dysfunctions. Prion may be acquired, familiar or sporadic. It may get into the environment through the remains of dead animals and via urines, saliva, contaminated placentas, feaces and other body fluids. They may linger in the soil, get transmitted through manure and irrigation water. Currently, there is no cure for diseases cause by prion and treatment consist of management of symptoms and palliative care. The need to inspect and control animal products for the presence of infectious prion is hereby emphasized in order to mitigate the non-instantaneous effect of the consumption of such food.
Keywords: Prion, Creutzfeild-Jakob disease, food hazards, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, kuru
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE RATE OF TYPHOID FEVER
OYENUGA A. Y. AND OLANREWAJU G. O.
Department of Statistics, Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu Igbo
This paper is concerned with the statistical analysis of the rate of typhoid fever cases in Ijebu-Igbo, Ogun state from 2011-2020, with General Hospital, Ijebu-Igbo as a case study. This survey was carried out using time series analysis to ascertain whether there is a significant increase in the seasonal variation in the reported cases of typhoid fever. Finally, following the inferences drawn from the data collected for the survey, it was discovered that there was a strong seasonal variation in some quarter of the period under review, which can be attributed to some certain factors like raining season. Prevention and control measures were recommended for fighting or combating this problem on the rate of typhoid fever cases in our society.
Keyword: Time Series Analysis and Typhoid Fever
A STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS INFECTION ON THE SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL LIFE OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN DELTA NORTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT
JOHN O. OKARA, AUGUSTINA C. OGBE, MERCY N. OGOCHUKWU-ISIEKWENE & ESTHER U. FADAIRO
Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba, Delta State
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most prevalent vaginal infections among women in Africa. It is a polymicrobial syndrome resulting in a decreased concentration of Lactobacilli and an increase in pathogenic bacteria, mainly anaerobes in the vagina. This study investigated the impact of BV on the Social and Educational Life of Pregnant Women in Delta North Senatorial District and suggested possible interventions to avoid BV-associated complications in pregnancy. The women were studied at the different stages of their pregnancy. One thousand five hundred (1500) high vaginal samples were collected from pregnant women and examine for BV using Nugent criteria. A structured questionnaire was used to gather information on socio demographic characteristics, medical and treatment history of patients after informed consent by the patients. Statistical analysis was based on cross-tabulation of variables and association between different variables were determined using Chi-square. Two hundred and nineteen (14.6%) were at their first trimester, five hundred and eighty-five (39.0%) were at their second trimester and six hundred and nighty-six (46.4%) were at their third trimester. Eight hundred and eighty-nine pregnant women (59.27%) were BV positive. Of the 889 positive patients, 640 (72%) were symptomatic and 249 (28%) were asymptomatic. Bacterial vaginosis was more prevalent among pregnant women in their second trimester (64.9%) and age group 21 to 30 years (68.8%). Educational qualifications had no significant association with BV among pregnant women (P>0.05). All the patients using antibiotics were BV negative. Consequently, high rate of BV among pregnant women attending Anti-natal clinics Delta North Senatorial District demands adequate attention to prevent BV-associated complications in pregnancy and also reduce referrals that may ensue from such complications. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in various hospitals in Delta North Senatorial District should be screened routinely for BV to avoid infection sequelae. Adequate laboratory facilities should be provided and laboratory personnel should be trained in the use of Nugent criteria for effective diagnosis of BV since the method is convenient and reliable. This will aid prompt and adequate diagnosis of BV in pregnancy. Effort should be made to discourage promiscuity among sexually-active age group and self diagnosis/medication among pregnant women.
Keywords: Bacterial vaginosis, Gynaecological problem, Pregnancy, Complications, Anti-natal, Treatment
EFFECT OF DRYING ON THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF (RIZGA) LIVINGSTONE POTATO
ABDULLAHI MUHAMMAD BELLO1. MUSTAPHA YUSUF DAUDA2 KABIRU MAMUDA GANO3, ABDURRAHID RIDWAN4, BAMALLI MUKTAR5 AND SANI ABUBAKAR JUMARE6
1 and 3 Department of Food Science and Technology, Kano University of Science and Technology Wudil, Kano, Nigeria. 2 and 6 Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic KauraNamoda, Zamfara, Nigeria. 4and 5Department of Forestry, Kano University of Science and Technology Wudil, Kano, Nigeria.
The Livingstone potato (Plectranthusesculentus), is one of the earliest African crops to be domesticated, and now became one of the neglected and underutilized crop. This study was carried out to evaluate the proximate composition, mineral content, anti-nutritional profile presence of phytochemicals and effect of drying on the nutritional content of Living stone potato. The minerals composition and anti-nutritional profile were analyzed on dried Livingstone potato, presence of phytochemicals and proximate composition were analyzed on both dried and fresh sample. The samples for laboratory analysis were prepared by washing, slicing, dried, and grounded into powdered. The proximate composition of both fresh and dried samples were moisture 77.40%, 8.30%, Ash 2.00%, 1.88%, fat 0.88%, 2.12%, fiber 3.57%, 12.20%, protein 9.73%, 2.14%, carbohydrate 12.20%, 80.78% respectively. From the results, the dried sample had the highest content of phytochemicals. The mineral profiles of the dried sample were calcium 15.00 mg/L, Iron 1.868 mg/L and potassium 35.52 mg/L. The result the, dried sample has the least oxalate content of 0.00135 mg/100g, followed by phytate 0.795%, saponin 2.21 mg/L and tannins 3.045 mg/ml. In conclusion the current study suggested that Livingstone potato be a promising nutritious food.
Keywords: Drying, nutritional composition, Livingstone potato, anti-nutrients, anti-oxidant properties, phytochemicals
NUTRIENT INTAKE AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF GROWING YANKASA SHEEP FED UREA – TREATED AND UNTREATED ACHA (DIGITARIA EXILIS) STRAW WITH SUPPLIMENTS
ALIYU, I. P.; BOT, M.H.; HASSAN I.M.; AND ZUNGUM, A.G.
Department of Animal Production, Federal College of Animal Health and Production Vom, Nigeria.
Sixteen (16) growing Yankasa sheep with average weight 11-17 kg were used for the research the experiment was conducted at National Veterinary and Research Institute Vom, Jos, Plateau state. The animals were randomly assigned to four treatment groups in a complete randomized designed and lasted for 11 weeks. Animals were fed basal diet of untreated and urea treated Acha straw ad libitum with 300g of the supplementary diet which are designated T1 (untreated acha straw + cotton seed cake maize bran 50:50), T2 (untreated acha straw + dry poultry litter and maize bran 50:50), T3 (urea treated acha straw + cotton seed cake maize bran 50:50) and T4 (urea treated acha straw + dry poultry litter and maize bran 50:50).The result of the study reveals that animals fed diet T4 significantly (P<0.05) recorded the highest basal and supplement intake of 618.60 and 241.77g/day, while those fed T1 with the least 545.80 and 209.43g/day. Significant (P<0.05) difference were recorded in crude protein intake with higher intake (174.87g/day) was recorded in animal fed diet T3 while those fed T2 with the least (78.88g/day). Higher average daily weight gain (ADG) was significantly (P<0.05) recorded in animal fed T4 (136.36g/day) and the least T1 (49.90g/day). Better feed utilization of 5.60 was recorded in animal fed T4 as compared to those fed T1 with 15.70. Animals fed T4 record the highest final body weight with ADG of 136.36g/day. Since utilization of urea treated acha straw with dry poultry litter and maize bran 50:50 as supplement gave the best ADG it may therefore be recommended in growing Yankasa sheep.
Keywords: Nutrient intake, Growth performance, Digitaria exilis, Urea
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND AMINO ACID PROFILE OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA) AND SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX) FLOUR BLENDS FOR MASA PRODUCTION
1NWADIKE, A. N 2EKE, M. O, AND 3YUSUFU, M. I.
1Centre for Food Technology and Research, Benue State University, Makurdi. 2Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture Makurdi. 3Directorate of Research and Development, Federal Polytecnic, Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria.
Masa is a cereal-based spontaneously fermented cake popularly consumed in Nigeria. It is mainly produced from common cereal such as maize, rice or millet. Like most single cereal based products, masa is generally low in protein, micronutrients and amino acid lysine hence the objective of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical and amino acid profile of rice and soybean flour blends for masa production. In this study, broken rice and soybean were both processed into flour and blended into four different ratios, labelled sample A (100% rice), sample B (90:10 rice and soybean blend), sample C (80:20 rice and soybean blend), and sample D (70:30 rice and soybean blend). Functional properties, pasting properties and amino acid profile were evaluated for flour blends according to standard procedures. Results for functional properties showed that oil absorption and water absorption capacity showed decrease with increasing substitution of soybean from 80.62-67.62 % and 83.36-71.36 g/cm3 respectively while that of bulk density and swelling capacity showed increase ranging from 0.58-0.85 g/cm3 and 16.49-20.48 g/cm3 respectively. Pasting properties showed increase with increasing substitution of soybean for peak viscosity, final viscosity, setback, pasting time, pasting temperature and trough viscosity with the value ranging from 159.40-192.30 rvu, 207.80-251.50 rvu, 52.58-70.31 rvu, 6.55-7.67 min, 68.62-95.43 oc and 52.58-70.31 rvu respectively. There was increase in amino acid profile with increasing substitution of soybean for tryptophan, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, lysine, methionine, threonine, asparagine, arginine, alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine and tyrosine with values ranging from 1.06-3.17 g/100g protein, 0.79-1.32 g/100g protein, 1.55-3.66 g/100g protein, 1.65-4.04 g/100g protein. 5.89-8.93 g/100g protein, 2.72-3.87 g/100g protein, 3.85-4.26 g/100g protein,2.66-5.26 g/100g protein, 1.51-3.86 g/100g protein, 3.60-6.32 g/100g protein,2.72-3.45 g/100g protein, 0.55-0.98 g/100g protein, 3.22-6.32 g/100g protein, 1.45-4.15 g/100g protein, 3.65-7.35 g/100g protein, 4.10-4.11 g/100g protein, 3.00-6.05 g/100g protein, 1.70-2.29 g/100g protein and 2.75-6.36 g/100g protein respectively. The study indicates that a functional masa with improved nutritional values and health promoting potentials can be developed from the blends of rice and soybean thus tackling malnutrition problems in Nigeria.
Keywords: Flour blends, soybean, broken rice, masa