INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HEALTH AND MEDICAL RESEARCH (TIJSHMR)
VOL. 13 (3) MAY, 2023
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
WEB BASED RISK FACTORS ANALYSIS, DEATH PREDICTION AND PREVENTION IN SOME COMMON TYPES OF CANCERS USING CORRELATION BASED SELF ORGANIZING MAP (CB-SOM) MACHINE LEARNING MODEL
1A.D. ADENIYI; 2U. I. SULAIMAN; 3M.T. AJIBADE; & 4H. MORA
1Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Medical Sciences, P.M.B. 536, Ondo City, Ondo-State, Nigeria. 2Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Nasarawa State University, Lafia, Nigeria. 3,4Department of Computer science, College of science and technology, Kaduna polytechnic, p.M.B.2021, T/Wada, Kaduna.
Cancer also known as malignant tumors and neoplasm is a large group of diseases that can affect any part of the body by rapidly creating abnormal cells that grows beyond their usual boundaries and then spread to adjoining body parts, which most of the time resulted to death of the patient. This has been adjudged to be the leading cause of death globally, common among them are, the breast, lung, colon, rectum, postrate, skin and stomach cancers. This research work uses a unique toolset to exploit machine learning technique to analyse risk factor in this ailment in order to predict level of infection and likely death in some patients and to as well suggest preventive measures to healthy patients on-line and in real time. The Correlation Based Self Organizing Map (CB-SOM) machine learning technique has been trained to be used to this effect. The pre-ordered feature ranking filtering (PFRF) feature selection method was adopted to select the best features for the predictive system before applying the CB-SOM machine learning algorithm. To achieve these, the database of selected patients diagnostic report of some selected types of cancers was developed, this was analyzed using the propose model. The results were analyzed and presented. Performance, comparison of the proposed model was also carried out alongside with three (3) other machine learning techniques which includes the Naïve Bayesian, the traditional SOM and the K-NN algorithms. The experimental results show an excellent performance of the present system over the baseline methods studied. The present system is capable of producing a faster, accurate and efficient on line, real time predictions to the patients consistently.
Keywords: Prediction, Prevention, SOM, Pre-order, Cancers.
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF SCHIFF BASE AND ITS METAL (II) COMPLEXES OF FE (II), NI (II) AND CO (II) DERIVED FROM 2-HYDROXY-1-NAPHTHALDEHYDE AND 2-AMINO-3-METHYLPYRIDINE
UBA, BALA1; MUHAMMAD, CHIKA2; UBA, AUWAL3; MUHAMMAD, ABUBAKAR.AMALI4
1Desert Research Monitoring and Control Center, Yobe State University, Damaturu-Nigeria. 2Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto- Nigeria. 3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto- Nigeria. 4Department of Pharmacognocy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto- Nigeria
The Schiff base was synthesized by condensation of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with 2-amino-3-methylpyridine and its complexes of Fe (II), Ni (II) and Co (II) chlorides was synthesized and characterized by melting point, solubility test, conductivity, measurement, magnetic susceptibility measurement and IR spectroscopy. The Schiff base and its respective metal complexes were colored with sharp melting point and are soluble in ethanol, dimethylsulfuroxide and methanol but insoluble in water and slightly soluble in other solvent. The conductivity value obtained indicates that the synthesized complexes are non-electrolytes while an octahedral geometry was suggested for all complexes based on the data obtained from magnetic susceptibility analysis. The IR results revealed bands at 1596cm-1 indicating the formation of azomethine (C=N) confirming the formation of Schiff base. 791cm-1, 683cm-1, 747cm-1 for (M-N) and 447cm-1, 461cm-1, 451cm-1 for (M-O) bands in the spectra of the complexes supporting coordination of Schiff base to respective metals. The in vitro antimicrobial screening of Schiff base and its metal complexes against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumonia, Klebsiella pneumonia, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans showed that they are potential antibacterial and antifungal agents against the tested microorganisms.
Keyword: Synthesis, 2-Amino-3-Methylpyridine, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Activities
ISOLATION OF MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH DETERIORATION OF BANANA FRUITS CONSUMED IN DAMATURU, YOBE STATE
*IBRAHIM ADAMU; **SUNDAY DAVID NAJOJI; & *IBRAHIM BABALE GASHUA
*Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science & Technology, the Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria. **Department of Basic Science, School of General & Remedial Studies, the Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria.
A banana is a long curved fruit that grows in clusters and has soft pulpy flesh and yellow skin when ripe. It is an edible fruit and is an herbaceous flowering plant belonging to the genus Musa and the family Musaceae. The massive production of bananas and the result of poor storage facilities leads to a large waste of bananas due to microbial deterioration. Microbes associated with spoilage are mostly due to contamination from external sources during post-harvest practices as a result of transportation to the market or during storage of the fruit. The study aims to isolate microorganisms associated with the deterioration of banana fruits and to assess common ways that have been used to improve the storage life of the fruit sold in Damaturu Yobe State. The standard pour plate and streak plate methods were used in the identification and isolation of microorganisms from deteriorated Banana fruits. Yeast cells were the most isolated fungal isolates in spoilt Bananas. While Penicillium and Aspergillus niger had the least fungal isolate rate. Streptococcus pyogenes were the most isolated Bacteria species in fresh Bananas, their occurrence was 28% while Staphylococcus aureus shows a percentage occurrence of 24%. Coccobacilli species were strictly isolated from spoilt Bananas and show a percentage occurrence of 48%. This study shows that microorganism especially fungi, causes deterioration and spoilage of banana fruits and consumption of some of the infected bananas fruit causes disease in man as a result of toxics secreted by fungi.
Keywords: Banana, Microorganism, Deterioration, Isolation, Identification.
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE PROXIMATE AND MINERAL PROPERTIES OF SOME LOCALLY SOLD AKAMU IN BIDA METROPOLIS
NDALIMAN, M.B, ADEOLA, T.M, SADIQ, U.M, ABDULKADIR, A.N, MOHAMMED, A, KABARAINI, M.A, SHEHU, H
Department of Nutrition Dietetics, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida. Department of Microbiology, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida. Food Technology and Value Addition, National Cereal Research Institute, Badeggi. Beniseed Research Program, National Cereal Research Institute, Badeggi
Ogi is popular in Nigeria and in most parts of West Africa. It is a fermented cereal porridge made from maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) which is also known as guinea corn or millet (Pennisetum typordeum). However, Ogi is consumed by adults and children as breakfast meals and it also serves as a wearing diet. The objective was to evaluate proximate and mineral properties of locally sold akamu in the Bida market. From the result, moisture content shows that sample B (48.613 ± 0.19%) was significantly (p > 0.05) higher while lower in sample F (44.272 ± 0.11%). Also ash content revealed that sample C (0.467 ± 0.03%) was significantly (p > 0.05) higher than the value obtained in sample A (0.141 ± 0.01%). The result of crude fat shows that sample F (1.674 ± 0.02%) was significantly higher (p > 0.05) while sample A (0.099 ± 0.01%) is the lowest. The study also shows that crude protein was significantly higher in sample E (4.967 ± 0.01%) while lower in sample B (1.663 ± 0.04%). The result of crude fibre revealed that sample C (0.308 ± 0.02%) was significantly higher while sample D (0.092 ± 0.01%) had the lowest value. The result of carbohydrate content shows that sample C (50.990 ± 0.23%) was significantly higher while sample E (46.959 ± 0.11%) was the lowest. Also, the result of energy revealed that sample F (229.59 ± 0.41%) was significantly higher while sample B (203.379 ± 0.80%) had the lowest. The result of mineral composition shows that sample A (70.800 ± 0.40mg/100g) was significantly higher in sodium content while sample F (37.960 ± 0.16 mg/100g) has the lowest value, the result of potassium reveled that sample A (156.650 ± 0.05 mg/100g) was higher than the value obtained in sample E (38.500 ± 0.03 mg/100g). The study also revealed that the result obtained in calcium (Ca) shows that sample D (384.000 ± 4.00 mg/100g) was significantly high while. Sample F (282.000 ± 2.00 mg/100g) had the lowest value. The result of magnesium shows that sample E (966.200 ± 3.40 mg/100g) was significantly higher while sample C (113.54 ± 0.26 mg/100g) is the lowest. The result of phosphorus (p) revealed that sample A (44.285 ± 0.03 mg/100g) was significantly higher than the value obtained in sample F (14.425 ± 0.02 mg/100g).
Keywords: Comparative Study, Akamu, Proximate Composition, Mineral Properties, Bida Metropolis
INCIDENCE RATE AND MICROBIAL SENSITIVITY OF ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM VAGINAL INFECTION
OKEKE, KINGSLEY SUSAN AND OBI, PAULINE UCHENNA
Department of Biological Sciences, the Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.
Vaginal infections are a major health problem associated with gynecologic complications. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rate of vaginal infection, and antibiotic sensitivity of microorganisms isolated from vaginal of patients attending Federal Polytechnic Medical Center Bida. The design was cross sectional and descriptive. Data were collected using 200 well-structured questionnaires. A total of 50 high virginal swab (HVS) were collected from different patients and analyzed for microbial profile and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using disc diffusion technique. Results obtained revealed the marital status of the students was highest for single (68%) and 4% were divorced. Regarding the clinical profile of the respondents, 56% of the respondents experiences lower abdominal pain while 44% do not, 76% carry out douching, 34% had history of rape cases. Staphylococcus aureus 23 (46%) was discovered to be the most prevalent microorganism. All organisms isolated were resistant to amoxicillin. To prevent the incidence of virginal infection patients should be educated on observation of personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and avoid douching.
Keyword: Incidence rate, Vaginal infections, Antimicrobial susceptibility, Douching
THE IMPACT OF MOTHER’S AWARENESS IN USING MEASLES VACCINATION INFORMATION IN THE NORTH-EAST REGION
*BABA USMAN; & **ZAINAB MOHAMMED MUSTAPHA
*Federal Polytechnic Bali, School of Science and Technology, Department of Library and Information Science. **Federal Polytechnic Bali, Library Department.
Vaccination is one of the greatest and least expensive disease prevention measures available. In Nigeria, the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was initiated in 1976 to ensure that young children within the established age range are vaccinated. However, persistent measles epidemics, particularly in northern Nigeria, are a consistent indicator of poor EPI progress. This research aimed to examine maternal awareness of using measles immunization information in the North-East region. A qualitative research design for finding facts was carried out for data collection. An in-depth interview was conducted with six mothers of children under 3-5 years of age who had been vaccinated against measles. The data collected were recorded and transcribed. The data analysis was carried out with thematic content analysis. The research study discovered that mothers had negative and positive consciousness of using vaccination information. The use of information sharing and experiences of measles precaution by the community and family members influenced the acceptance and uptake of vaccination services. However, ineffective communication channels, including a lack of information dissemination services, socioeconomic limitations, inadequate outreach services, and perceived lack of oversight of health facility delivery, significantly contributed to and hampered low uptake of immunization. The study recommended that the aforesaid sceneries should be addressed, by public professionals librarian, as part of imbedded service delivery through social mobilization and dissemination of information services at both individual and community levels. As these, have the potential values and significance to improve the uptake of measles vaccination services, and the well-being of the society.
Keywords: Vaccination, Immunization, Vaccine Information Sharing, The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI)
PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA) LEAVES EXTRACTS FOR BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND NUTRITIVE MINERAL ELEMENTS FOR ETHNO-MEDICINAL AND HEALTH BENEFITS
1UZOH, RAYMOND D. AND 2KABIRU YAKUBU
1Materials Science Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa state, Nigeria. 2Botany Department, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa state, Nigeria.
It has been empirically established that Guava, psidium guajava fruits and leaves have both ethno-medicinal and health benefits. For the above reasons and moreso to establish the scientific evidence for the said application and other health benefits, 10g of pulverized leaves of Guava was extracted with 100cm3 of 98.9% n-hexane while 20g of pulverized leaves was extracted with 150 cm3 of methanol,water mixture in ratio 4:1. The above extracts were mixed with distilled water and phytochemical screening conducted according to standard methods; Wagner,1993; Sofowora,1982; Trease and Evans,1989; Horbone,1995,e.t.c. The phytochemical analysis of the n-hexane extract indicated the presence of flavonoids, tannins, anthocyanins, steroids, reducing sugar, terpenoids but indicated absence of alkaloids while the screening analysis on the methanol, water extract indicated the presence of condensed tannins,sterols,flavonoids, reducing sugar, alkaloids, anthocyanins and terpenoids. The trace metal analysis showed the presence of sodium ion and potassium ions as obtained by spectrophotometric analysis conducted on the dilute aqueous extract of guava leaves. From trace metal analysis, the average emission intensity of sodium and potassium were found to be 4 and 99 respectively. Their concentration was extrapolated in part per million from standard curves to be Na =0.3 ppm and K= 49 ppm and therefore their masses are 0.3 mg Na and 49 mg K in 5g of sample. The sodium ion and potassium ion (Na+/K+) ratio in the leave extract was found to be 0.006 indicating a high level of potassium in the extracts. Hence guava leaves currently being used as an herbal tea and the leave extract as a supplement are good sources of medicinal phytochemicals and nutritive mineral elements like potassium coupled with excellent health benefits.
Keywords: Guava, Potassium, Sodium, Medicinal, Health.
ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR COVID-19 DISEASE TRANSMISSION DYNAMICS INCORPORATING COMPARTMENT WITH NATURAL IMMUNITY USING HOMOTOPY PERTURBATION METHOD
IBRAHIM A.; MANKO A. A; & NDAKPAYI IBRAHIM
Department of Mathematics Federal Polytechnic, Bida.
In this current study, we presented a mathematical model for COVID-19 Disease transmission dynamics incorporating compartment with natural immunity. The model equations were solved for the state variables analytically via homotopy perturbation method (HPM). Numerical simulations of the analytical results are carried out using computer symbolic algebraic package maple 17 and the graphical summaries of solutions were provided. Simulation results revealed that increase in the contact rate leads to increase in the individuals with natural immunity which in turn increases the spread of the disease. The solution shows also that Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is an appropriate technique for solving the epidemic models.
Keywords: Mathematical Model, Coronavirus, Analytical Solution, Homotopy Perturbation Method.