TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HEALTH AND MEDICAL RESEARCH (TIJSHMR)
VOL. 11 (3) NOVEMBER, 2022 EDITION. ISSN: 2373-1340
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF THE METHANOL ROOT EXTRACT OF Lovoa Trichilioides HARMS (MELIACEAE)
MACDONALD IDU1, *BELUCHUKWU JOSEPH NWANKWO1, CHIGOZIE ONYEKA CHUKWUDIKE2
1Phytomedicine Unit, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo Sate, Nigeria. 2Parasitology and Public Health Unit, Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra Sate, Nigeria.
The phytochemical composition of the methanol root extract of Lovoa trichilioides was investigated. This plant was investigated to ascertain its suitability as pharmaceutical. The qualitative phytochemistry of the methanol root extract of L. trichilioides examined in this study has shown the presence of phenol, saponin, anthroquinone, flavonoid, alkaloid, steroid and glycoside. The quantitative phytochemistry of the extract expressed that saponin was present in the highest quantity (2.2 ± 2.30) followed by the alkaloid (1.7 ± 1.70) then flavonoid (0.8 ± 0.80). Hydrogen cyanide occurred at the quantity of 0.5 ± 0.45 and finally phenol at 0.4 ± 0.42. Generally, the result suggests the root extract to be rich in bioactive chemicals and hence their potential for medicine could be harnessed.
Keywords: Lovoa trichilioides, tree, phytochemical, medicine.
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF DATE PALM FRUITS AND TIGER NUTS EXTRACTS ON SOME PAYHOGENIC BACTERIA (E.coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp.)
DENNIS DOGARA YAKUBU; & MANASSEH MASIN KATSA
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Microbiology Unit), School of Science and Technology, Isa Mustapha Agwai 1 Polytechnic Lafia, Nasarawa State.
This study Investigated the antibacterial activity of Date Palm fruits (Phoenix dactylifera) and Tiger nut (Cyperus besculents) extracts on some enteric Pathogenic bacteria (E.coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp.) Solvent Extraction was carried out using ethanol, acetone and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial sensitivity and minimum inhibitory concentration were determined using Agar well diffusion method to obtain zone of inhibition on Mueller-Hinton Agar. Gentamycin was used as positive control while normal saline was used as negative control. Results of this study showed that extracts from Date Palm fruits and Tiger nut have antibacterial activity against test organisms, zone of inhibition ranges from 17.50 mm, 14.50 mm, 11.60 mm, 7.50 mm for E.coli and similarly 14.50 mm, 11.50mm, 10.50 mm, 7.80mm for Salmonella species at different concentration of 1000mg/ml, 500 mg/ml, 250 mg/ml, and 100 mg/ml. While that of Shigella species ranges from 14.5 mm, 10.00 mm, 7.5 mm and 6.20 mm, but with some little resistance at different concentration. However, the fruits extract inhibited the growth of all the tests organisms at different concentrations. Comparatively, the ethanol and acetone extracts produced wider zones of inhibition compared to extract obtained using ethyl acetate. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) results ascertained the antibacterial effects of these extracts. It is recommended that, further study be done to explore its potential for preparation as antimicrobial drug for treatment of infectious disease.
Keywords: Antibacterial, Pathogenic, enteric, extract, Salmonella spp., E. coli, Shigella spp.
HALIDES (FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE) AND SOME SELECTED METALS CONCENTRATIONS IN THE SELECTED TOOTHPASTES MARKETED IN STUDENTS’ POPULATED AREA IN SAKI, OYO STATE, NIGERIA
*IMRAN, M.O., *LAWAL, I.A., *AZEEZ, G.O., AND **BOLANLE, E. O.
*Science Laboratory Technology Department, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State, **Science Laboratory Technology Department, Adeseun Ogundoyin Polytechnic, Eruwa, Oyo State.
Bad breath can be a major problem, which is caused by odour producing bacteria that grown in the mouth. Bad breath can often be prevented by the use of oral care product. Toothpaste has multifunctional configuration as oral care product that can however constitute a possible source, among others, of toxic metals exposure in public health. Although toothpastes are considered as topical cosmetics that are not normally ingested, it is evident that they may contribute to the introduction of heavy metals and xenobiotics through buccal and gastrointestinal absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of concentrations of minerals in different toothpaste brand, (Olive, Pepsodent, My my, Dabur herbal and Close-up) marketed in a student populated area in Saki area of Oyo states. Digestion of the sample was carried out using aqua regia. Results of the analysis showed that Zinc and Tin exhibit high values of concentrations, this is because the two nutrients wee incorporated as parts of the ingredient at the amounts which were not beyond the acceptable values recommended by standard organizations. Pb and Ni were obtained in meaningful amounts that do not beyond the limit set by EU and US standard. Cl– and I– values in the sample A-E (Table 4.1) showed that Cl– is of highest concentration which ranges from 450 to 175ppm, of which sample C possess the highest value. All were present in the range that were not exceeded the permissible limit recommend by the approved body such as WHO and USEPA. It can be concluded that those toothpaste of this study as at the time of this research are safe to use.
Keywords: Toothpaste, Bacteria, Minerals, Digestion, Heavy metals.
EVALUATION OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND DIETARY MANAGEMENT OF IN-PATIENT DIABETIC IN GENERAL HOSPITAL MINNA
ABIODUN, A. M & UCHEGBU, J. R
Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, The Federal Polytechnic Bida, P.M.B 55, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
The study was carried out using randomized 121 in-patient diabetics in medical wards of General Hospital no 1 hospital road. The instrument for data collection was structured, validated and pre-tested questionnaires, anthropometry and dietary study. Body mass index was calculated for each patient using weight requirement while that of female diabetics was 80.80%. Other micronutrients such as niacin and riboflavin were less than 100% FAO/WHO requirement for both males and females (63.90% and 88.50%) and (39.62% and 52.91%) respectively. The overall dietary intake of the in-patient diabetics was adequate for energy and macronutrients for females, but close to adequate for the male diabetics. Intakes of micronutrient were adequate except for riboflavin and niacin. Health care providers and the general public should be sensitized to the relevance of adequate nutritional care for people living with diabetes mellitus through workshops, lectures, seminars and interactive sessions.
Keywords: Diabetics, Anthropometrics, Weighed Food Intake, Waist-Hip Ratio, Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index.
HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS OF BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS ON WATER QUALITY AT MUBI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADAMAWA STATE
IBRAHIM USMAN KASHIM; ABUBAKAR ISA; & USMAN BUBA BELLO
Science Laboratory Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State Nigeria
The study has been carried out to stress out the demand for adequate and clean drinking water with pollution related problems which is a serious threat to human health among the developing countries of Africa such as Nigeria. Water because of its importance and constant use serves as means for transmission of diseases such as; diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid fever, cholera, schistosomiasis, urinary tract infection and ascariasis etc. This has led to economic downturn of so many countries. Need for well water quality and biological contamination as a case study within Mubi metropolitan is to determine the quality of water usage. The problems of water distribution networks (WDNs) from wells, lakes, streams and hand drilled boreholes are not mechanically and chemically pure; the pathogenic microbes, parasitic and protistas disease has been explained. An applicable method of sample collection for laboratory analysis was done with 30ml water sample at 5 different locations totaling to 150 ml was transferred to laboratory for analysis. The presumptive, confirmed and completed test method for bacterial evaluation of water in terms with bacteriological standard is introduced. The study has clearly shown that there is high level of contamination caused by bacteria in the well water as a result of pathogenic organisms in some selected water sources in Mubi North. To reduce the high prevalence of coliforms in well water, bacteriological water quality test must be appropriately adopted to avoid contamination, it is recommended that wells must be dug deeper and must be far away from latrines and adequately covered, water must be properly treated by treatment plant before consumption.
Keywords: Bacteriological water quality, Coliforms, Pathogenic Organisms, Well Water, Treatment plant
MICROBIAL QUALITY OF CASSAVA AND MAIZE FLOURS SOLD WITHIN BAUCHI METROPOLIS
EBU BRIDGET; OGBEBA JEREMIAH; & YAKUBU DAUDA ABUBAKAR
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
Cassava and maize flours are the end products obtained from a processed food crops of Cassava and maize. Both crops constitute an economically important staple food in tropical and subtropical region of the world especially in Nigeria in which it is used in various form. Microorganisms could be associated with these products at any stage in its growth, from seeding or planting stage through post-harvest and also in terms of processing and handling. Some of these microorganisms are potential pathogens which may be detrimental and constitute health hazard to consumers. Hence the aim of this work is to investigation the microbial quality of cassava and maize flour sold within Bauchi metropolis. Flour samples were collected from muda lawal market and isolates of the organisms were obtained using serial dilution, plated on duplicate plates using the pour plate method. Developed colonies were identified based on colonial morphology, microscopy on Gram’s staining and bio-chemical reactions on indole, oxidase, nitrate, citrate, and sugar test. The result obtained revealed the presence of the following microorganisms (Staphylococcus spp, Bacillus spp, micrococcus spp, clostridium spp, Penicillium spp, and Aspergillus spp. The sample showed a total microbial count of 2.2×104 and 3.6x10cfu/ml for cassava and maize respectively. Therefore, the practices of basic sanitary rules of hygiene in terms of processing, preparing and handling should be employed.
Keywords: Microbial, quality, cassava, maize, flours
ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION PRACTICES ON MALARIA CONTROL AND PREVENTION IN ABI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA
ONU NKECHI EMMANUELA
Department of Home and Rural Economics, Federal Polytechnic Oko
This study was conducted to determine the environmental sanitation practices on malaria prevention and control in Abi Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study design in Abi Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria from June to August, 2016 conducted. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to generate data from 450 adult respondents who were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. An observational checklist was used to assess the sanitary condition of residential dwellings and facilities. Data generated was entered into excel spread sheet and exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0) software for analysis. Results were presented in frequencies, tables and charts. Chi-square was used to test for association between variables at 0.05 α level. It was revealed that 283 (62.9%) respondents exhibited poor environmental sanitation practices while 167 (37.1%) had good environmental sanitation practices. It also was observed that age (p=0.023), gender (p=0.000), educational status (p=0.000) and income (p=0.000) were found to be statistically significantly associated with environmental sanitation practices. Hence, malaria intervention programmes should be redesigned or remodeled to include the core components of environmental sanitation to prevent mosquito breeding and mitigate malaria transmission in rural areas.
Keywords: Environmental sanitation practices; malaria control; malaria prevention; mosquito.
INFLUENCE OF CORONA VIRUS (COVID-19) PANDEMIC ON THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN LIVING WITH SPECIAL NEEDS IN NIGERIA
*MWAPISHAK, MIKITDA SANI; & **MBAI MATLONG SYLVIA
*Otana Edu-Health Services Nigeria, Jos Branch, Jos, Plateau State. **Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation Sciences Faculty of Education, University of Jos, Plateau State.
This paper focused on factors that influenced the level of inclusion in education for children with special needs before and during the Corona Virus Pandemic (COVID-19) and determined the influence of pandemic-related circumstances (e.g social distancing, online learning) on the well-being and daily activities of children living with special needs and their parents. The writers portray that during the pandemic period, home isolation, lack of socialization, changes in daily routines and lack of services negatively affected the emotional states of children living with special needs, contributing to parental overload and stress. Multiple factors influenced low inclusion and benefits for children with special needs in distance/online education during the pandemic. Thus, to improve education quality, inclusion and opportunities for children living with special needs, we recommend adapting curricula and teaching programmmes according to children’s individual needs, providing equal treatment to all children, encouraging teachers’ professional advancement, providing services within schools, involving and supporting parents in their children’s education.
Keywords: COVID-19, Children with special needs, online learning and Inclusion.