TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL HEALTH AND MEDICAL RESEARCH (TIJSHMR)
VOL. 10 (3) AUGUST, 2022 EDITION. ISSN: 2373-1340
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
HAEMATOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS FINGERLINGS FED WITH LARVAE OF Cirina forda AND Telfaria occidentalis LEAVES
1SHITTU, A. M*., 2AMUSAT, A. I. 3WAHAB, A.O. AND 4DAUD, G. O.
1Department of Pure & Applied Biology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Oyo State College of Agriculture and Technology, , P.M.B. 10, Igboora, Oyo State, Nigeria. 3Department of Biology, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, P.M.B.1010, Erelu oyo Town, Oyo State, Nigeria. 4Ajagba Community Secondary School, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria
Efforts on compositions of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings fed with Cirina forda larvae (CFL) and Pumpkin leaves, Telfaria occidentalis (TOL) at different inclusions. Ground meals of C. forda larvae and T. occidentalis leaves were administered on C. gariepinus fingerlings at percentage ratio of 25 % : 25 %, 50 % : 25 % , 75 % : 25 %, 100 % : 0 % , 0 % : 25 % ,0 % : 50 %, ,0 % : 75 % , 0 % : 100 % ( tagged A–H) for ten weeks respectively. Each treatment had three replicates and stocked with 10 fingerlings per replicate in 50-litre plastic tank and were fed with 5 % of body weight daily. Blood samples from three randomly selected fish per treatment were obtained from caudal peduncle and used to determine six haematological parameters namely, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), White Blood cell Count (WBC), Red Blood Cell Count (RBC), Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Neutrophils and Lymphocytes using standard laboratory procedures. The result showed that mean values for haematological parameters ranged as PCV (26-32%), WBC (0.86-1.01×106 mm3), Neutrophils (15.33-31.0 %) and Hb (7.87-10.47×106 g/dl) respectively. The mean values range were all within acceptable limits recommended for fish. This study revealed that compounded diets that contained C. forda and T. occidentalis in a right proportion showed a comparable haematological results with the conventional feed. However, their combination in the diets of fish examined serves as useful indicators for growth monitoring and the status of fish health.
Keywords: Haemoglobin Properties; WBC; Neutrophils; PCV; Indicator; Fingerlings.
GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF TUBERCULOSIS CASES IN KUMBOTSO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KANO STATE, NIGERIA
S, NDANUSA, B. A. SAWA AND B. ABDULKARIM
Department of Geoinformatics, Zonal Advanced Space Technology Applications Laboratory, Bayero University Kano State, Nigeria. Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious bacterial disease and remains one of the deadliest infectious diseases worldwide, TB is spread from person to person through the air, with number of those affected living in a congested and overcrowding areas. This research work titled Geospatial analysis of the Distribution of TB cases in Kumbotso LGA, Kano state, Nigeria. Address of all TB health care Centre’s, Data of the TB patients were obtained from KSTBLCP and Kano State Ministry of Health. Global Positioning System were used to obtained coordinate point of the TB health care Centre’s and houses of TB patients, Nearest Neighbour Analysis, Kernel Density Estimation, and Simple linear regression were used to analyzed TB cases from 2014 to 2018. The study revealed that there were 10 TB health care Centre’s in 4 wards out of 11 wards, It also show a total of 899 TB case were recorded, But only 717 TB case were identify and recorded on the field during the period of study, The pattern of spatial distribution of TB cases were clustered, Danbare, Chiranchi, Panshekara, Na-Ibawa, Kumbotso and part of Gurin Gawa were the major hotspots while Kureken Sani and part of Mariri indicate to be coldspot. forecast shown there would be an increasing in TB infectious cases from 195 in 2018 to about 262 persons in 2023. The study revealed that the major causes of TB cases were over crowdedness, lack of access to health care Centre’s, malnutrition, poverty and illiteracy etc.
Index Terms: Geospatial analysis, GIS, GPS, TB cases, Medical Geography, Spatial Epidemiology.
PREVALENCE OF BACTERIAL PATHOGEN INFESTATION OF SOILS FROM MOTOR PARKS AND OTHER LOCATIONS IN MAKURDI METROPOLIS, BENUE STATE NIGERIA
ORJIME, MARK TERHILE
Biology Unit, School of Basic Sciences, Nigeria Maritime University, Okerenkoko, Delta State
The benefits of the soil to humans cannot be over emphasized. But the soil can be harmful to human health if toxic substances or pathogens enter the human food chain from the soil or by direct contact with the soil or inhalation of dust from the soil. This study sought to find the prevalence of Bacterial Pathogen infestation of soils in Motor Parks and other locations in Makurdi Metropolis. 20 soil samples were collected from 4 motor parks and 20 from other strategic locations in Makurdi town to check for the presence and number of Bacteria. Results showed that the percentage abundance of the 12 bacteria isolated from the samples was Nyanya Motor park Wurukum 27.7%, Yaman motor park Wurukum 21.4%, Under bridge Motor Park Wurukum 11.8%, Barracks Road High level 10.3%, Benue Links Motor park Wurukum 9.9%, Achusa Market area 9.2% while Onitsha street Wurukum and Wadata Market Area along Bank Road Wadata had 5.9% and 4.1% respectively. Staphylococcus spp was most abundant with 25%, Streptococcus spp and Salmonella spp were 20% each, Clostridium spp, Klebsiella spp, Shigella spp, Neisseria gonorrhea, Bacillus spp and E.coli all had 5% each while Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Listeria spp and Proteus spp were at 2.5% abundance each. Statistical analysis (Unpaired t-test; P=0.0432, t=2.0913, CI=95%, df =38) showed that there was significant difference between the soils from motor Parks and those from other Locations. These Motor parks had far more Bacterial pathogen infestation in their soils than the other sites in town.
KEYWORDS: Soil, Pathogen. Motor Park, Bacteria, Infestation
PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE IN KANAM LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF PLATEAU STATE , NIGERIA
*IBRAHIM FRIDAY SULE; & **YUSUF YAHAYA MIYA
*Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi. **Singhania University Pacheri-Bari India
This project give a summary of the entire research study which was designed to find out the way and the way forward in the treatment and prevention of sexually transmitted disease in kanam Local Government Area plateau State. This study include respondents in secondary schools, tertiary institutions, civil servants, traders, which were reviewed were the mode of transmission, factors predisposing youths to STD’s, the symptoms, treatment, diagnosis, prognosis, preventive measures of sexually transmitted disease, others include control and eradication. The questionnaire was used as the research instrument: A total of 343 questionnaires were given to the respondents, analysis of data from the review of the questionnaires showed that abstinence from sex and faithfulness to one partners is the best prevention from STD, various recommendations were given which include the incorporations of sex, faithfulness to one partners, abstinence and parental guidance with regards to the youths.
DETERMINATION OF THE EXTENT OF POLLUTION IN PANYAM FISH FARM USING OXYGEN CONTENT
*TOMA MAINA ANTIP, PhD; **CHRISTIANA FWENJI ZUMJI, PhD; & ***DEBORAH GOTEP MIRI, PhD
*Biology Department Federal University of Education, Pankshin, Plateau State. **Biology Department, Federal College of Education Pankshin, Plateau State. ***Integrated Science Department, Federal College of Education PAnkshin, Plateau State
The study determined the effect of Oxygen in a Water body with particular reference to Panyam fish farm. The concept of oxygen and water pollution and their effect on aquatic lives were highlighted. The study used survey researched design. The result shows too much nutrients in water fosters the growth of plant, weed algae and bacteria which affect the oxygen content of the fish pond. The paper recommended that plants should be installed in fish pond as are used for domestic sewage and for industrial effluents and that the water used in the fish pond should be changed at required period especially when the water becomes dirty and polluted instead of adding chemicals upon chemicals to the water.
Keywords: Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Eutrofication, Fish, Pollutant, Pollution
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA, AZADIRACHTA INDICA, NAUCLEA LATIFOLIA and VERNONIA AMBIGUA
MUHAMMAD Z.1, APPAH J.1, VANTSAWA P.A.1, ABAH J.2, RIDWAN A.3
1Department of Biology, Nigerian Defence Academy. 2Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Kaduna State University. 3Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Kaduna State University
Medicinal plants are plants considered with medicinal activities that are used in herbalism. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Artemisia annua, Azadirachta indica, Nauclea latifolia and Vernonia ambigua. The volatile constituents of these plants were extracted using steam distillation. The phytochemical constituents were qualitatively determined using the standard methods and its results indicate the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenoids, alkaloid, and glycosides. Flavonoids was absent in all the distillates while anthraquinone was absent in Artemisia annua and Nauclea latifolia. The antioxidant analysis of the distilled was carried out using DPPH, from the data obtained, %inhibition and 50% inhibition IC50 were calculated. It was concluded that the distillates of the plants studied possess significant antioxidant activity. Further studies are needed for the isolation and identification of bioactive compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity.
Keywords: Medicinal plants, volatile constituents, Phytochemical, Antioxidant.
ASSESSMENT OF NUTRIENT AND ANTI-NUTRIENTS PROPERTIES OF VALUE-ADDED INDIGENOUS PRODUCTS
NDALIMAN, M. B1, SADIQ, U.M3 ADENIRAN, S2,
1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. 2Department of Biological Sciences, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Malnutrition has become a public health issues which impact on child’s proper development and cognitive function by impeding a child’s ability to reach maximum potential and productivity, hence slows down national development. To curb this menace, fortification of indigenous snacks has been identified as a viable mechanism to increase nutrient bioavailability among children especially in rural communities. The aim of this study is to evaluate the nutritional quality of rice gbuarwagi fortified with soybeans. The method of processing of Gbuarwagi include steeping of paddy rice in water for 6 hours after which the grains were wet milled, sieved and dewatered using Muslin cloth. Thereafter, it was cut into desirables sizes and subjected to steaming 60OC in order to produce rice gbuarwagi. Rice gbuarwagi were produced in the following ratio Sample A (100:0), Sample B (87.5:12.5), Sample C (62.5:37.5) and Sample D (50:50). The mean values of proximate composition of the developed samples are shown in Table 1. The result of moisture content ranges from (5.01±0.13 to 6.30±0.19) with highest values observed in sample D formulations (6.30±0.19). The result of protein content revealed that sample D (21.2 ± 0.07) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than value observed in sample A (18.5 ± 0.03). Also, the results of in vitro protein digestibility obtained in this study showed that sample D (80.4 ± 0.09) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than value observed in sample A (65.0 ± 0.20) after cooking. Carbohydrate fractions were found to be 2.15 mg/100 g, 2.02 mg/ 100 g, 0.91 mg/100g and 4.36 mg/100 g in sample A, which increased significantly (p < 0.05) to 2.97 mg/100 g, 2.72 mg/100 g, 2.00 mg/100g and 3.00 mg/100 g after cooking for glucose, fructose maltose and sucrose in sample D, respectively. Results also showed that of the four soluble sugars present in all the samples, sucrose was present in the highest quantity and maltose being the least; and there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the contents of the sugars (glucose, maltose and sucrose) among the samples. While for the anti-nutrient properties, Tannin ranged from 28.64 ± 0.24 to 31.90 ±0.68, Trypsin ranged from 6.96 ± 0.06 to 8.74± 0.00 and Pytate ranged from 51.21± 0.09 to 53.75 ± 0.21 respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that Fortified Gbuarwagi made from Rice-Soybeans is cheap and could provide nutritional wellbeing to both infant and adult when consumed as diet/breakfast cereals since it has high nutritive value.
Keywords: Snack, Indigenous Products, Value added Nutrients, Anti-nutrients
PREVALENCE OF OPPORTUNISTIC PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS ATTENDING BAYARA GENERAL HOSPITAL, BAUCHI
1DANYA’U, M., 2SAMAILA, A.B., 2PANDA, S. M., 3YUSUF, U.
1School of Public Health Tech., College of Health Technology Ningi, Bauchi State. 2Biological Science Department, School of Science, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi. 3School of General Health Science, College of Health Technolgy Ningi, Bauchi State.
One of the major health problems among immunocompromised patients are opportunistic infections due to the deficient immunity. Furthermore, intestinal opportunistic parasitic infections, which are also one of the basic health problems in tropical regions, are common in these patients. Infection by opportunistic pathogens, including various forms of intestinal opportunistic parasites has been the major problem of HIV since the beginning of the epidemic. This work aimed to study the Prevalence of Opportunistic Parasitic Infections in Immunocompromised Patients Attending Bayara General Hospital, Bauchi. Patient stool specimens were examined as fresh wet mounts, formal-ether concentration technique and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Data was obtained from 200 study patients selected by convenience sampling method. The overall prevalence of opportunistic parasitic infections was found to be 23(11.5%). Four types of intestinal opportunistic parasites were identified, the most dominant being Cryptospridium parvum 11(5.5%), Isospora belli 9(4.5%), Cyclospora cayetanensis 2(1%) and Microsporidium (Septata intestinalis) 1(0.5%). The study indicated the higher prevalence in patients with <200 CD4+ count. The research also found that socioeconomic conditions such as educational background had significant relationship with the parasitic infections. Use of portable drinking, observance of good sanitation and hygiene were also recorded in the study area. Severe Infections recorded during the study were 234.8 degree, lights infections, 93.9 degrees and moderate infections were only 31.3degrees.
Keyword: HIV/AID, Severe infection, Immuno-compromised, Opportunistic infections, public Health.
EFFECT OF CATIONS AND ANIONS CO-ALLOYED Cu2ZnSnS4 KESTERITE MATERIAL ON STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES: A DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY STUDY
1ALIYU ABUBAKAR MASANAWA, 2ALHASSAN SHUAIBU, 2MUHAMMED MANNIR ALIYU, 2ISMAIL MAGAJI AND 3 ABDULAZEEZ RIDWAN
1 Applied Physics Department, Kaduna Polytechnic. 2Department of Physics, Kaduna State University, Kaduna PMB 2339, Kaduna, Nigeria.3Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Kaduna State University
Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) has the potential to be applied as an earth-relatively abundant and non-toxic material in thin-film solar cells, based on its suitable electrical and optical properties. However, many challenges have prevented the achievable efficiencies from exceeding 12.6%, which is well below desirable efficiencies compared to other competing solar cell technologies. One of the problems with the development of Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells is the number of defects leading to severe potential fluctuations. This research work investigates the effect of alloying CZTS with Silver (Ag) (Cation) and Selenium (Se) (Anion) theoretically using Density Functional Theory (DFT). The optimized lattice parameters were found to increase from 5.26 to 5.85 and 10.60 to 12.32 respectively due to the introduction of Ag and Se. The volume of the crystal unit cell increased from 162.747 3 to 219.472 3 respectively. The formation energy was found to be reduced from 0.663eV to 0.476eV. From the obtained results, it can be seen that the alloyed Ag2ZnSnSe4 compound has a low-range energy structure and its stable within a low temperature range. This result is expected to enhance the properties of kesterite due to the alloying.
Keywords: Kesterite, DFT (Density Functional Theory), Solar cell, Chalcogenide, Alloying.
MICROBIAL ENZYMES AND ITS INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS
ALHASSAN, A. A.
Department of Biological Sciences, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State. Nigeria.
ABSTRACT Biocatalytic potential of microorganisms have been employed for centuries to produce bread, wine, vinegar and other common products without understanding the biochemical basis of their ingredients. Microbial enzymes have gained interest for their widespread uses in industries and medicine owing to their stability, catalytic activity, and ease of production and optimization than plant and animal enzymes. The use of enzymes in various industries (e.g., food, agriculture, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals) is increasing rapidly due to reduced processing time, low energy input, cost effectiveness, nontoxic and eco-friendly characteristics. Microbial enzymes are capable of degrading toxic chemical compounds of industrial and domestic wastes (phenolic compounds, nitriles, amines etc.) either via degradation or conversion. Here in this review, we highlight and discuss current technical and scientific involvement of microorganisms in enzyme production and their present status in worldwide enzyme market.
Keywords: Microbial, Enzymes, Application, Industry and molecules
BACTERIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF WELL WATER QUALITY WITHIN DIGIL WARD MUBI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT, ADAMAWA STATE
*IBRAHIM USMAN KASHIM; *ABUBAKAR ISA; *ISA LABARAN; & **MERCY OSATO OMOIFO-IREFO
*Science laboratory Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State Nigeria. **Industrial Safety and Environmental Department, Petroleum Training Institute Effurun, Delta State Nigeria
The relationship between demand for adequate clean drinking water and its pollution related problems which is a serious cause of ill-health among the third world nations within the circumstance called developing countries such as Nigeria.Water because of its importance serves as means for transmission of diseases such as; diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid fever, hepatitis, cholera, schistosomiasis, urinary tract infection and ascariasis etc. this has led to economic downturn of so many countries. Bacteriological assessment of well water conducted within digil ward is to determine the water quality consumed on daily basis at the area. The sources of water from wells, lakes, streams and hand drilled boreholes are not mechanically and chemically pure; even though chemistry has thought us use of hygienic than pure in water analysis because even the rainfall contains dust particles sometimes mixed with microorganisms and dissolved materials from the atmosphere. With the collection of ten samples from ten different wells in five different locations of digil ward using 200ml sterile screwed copped glass bottles, the glass bottles was carefully covered and labeled for easy identification, the bottles were kept inside cool box under frozen temperature and transported to Microbiology laboratory Biological Science Federal Polytechnic Mubi for analysis. The pour plate method was used to determine Total hetetrophic bacterial count and Hanging drop method was used to test the motility of bacteria in the 10 samples of well water collected in Digil ward, very high bacterial count show presence between 28.5 – 13.30 x 102 which is more than the recommended accepted zero coliform/ml. The study has clearly shown that there is high level of contamination caused by bacteria in the well water as a result of pathogenic organisms in Digil ward. To reduce the high prevalence of well water contamination, it is recommended that wells must be dug must be deeper and must be far away from latrines and adequately covered.
Keywords: Bacteriological Assessment, Hetetrophic count, Pathogenic Organisms, Well Water, Digil ward
BACTERIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF TIGER NUT DRINK (KUNU AYA) SOLD IN SHEHU IDRIS COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY MAKARFI, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
MBOCHI C. A2, LABBO, Z1., OLUKOTUN, G.B1*., SHANU M. A2, BAMAI, E. A., ADEOYE, B.A.1, EGBULEFU, C. S.1, MAKANJUOLA, D.O.5, ZAMANI, P. A.4, ADEGBITE, I.A.1, OLUYOMI, C. D. AND AHMADU J. H.1
1National Biotechnology Development Agency, Musa Yaradua Express Way, Lugbe, FCT, Abuja, Nigeria. 2Nutrition and Dietetics dept., School of health, Makarfi, Kaduna State, Nigeria. 3Ministry of Agriculture, Divisional Veterinary Clinic, Keffi, Nassarawa State, Nigeria. 4Environmental Health Science Department, School of Environmental Health Sciences, SICHST, Makarfi, Kaduna State, Nigeria. 5Department of Environmental Science, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria
Kunu Aya (tiger nut drink) is regarded as one of the popular indigenous drinks produced mostly in the North. The research aim to determine the bacteriological properties of Kunu Aya sold in Shehu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology Makarfi Kaduna State. Objectives included to determine the microbial properties, the bacteriological load of the drink, and the health implications associated with its consumption and to carry out intervention in educating the local beverage producers on hygiene practices. Study design was experimental. Four samples bought, coded (A,B,C, and D) are taken for bacteriological analysis. The result revealed the presence of staphylococci species, Eschericheria coli and Coliform in all the samples. Bacteriological load varies in ranges of 4.5 x 103, 5.0 x 103, 6.0 x 103and 7.0 x 103for Staphylococcus aureus in sample C,A,B, and D respectively. Coliform species was in the range of 1.3 x 104, 1.4 x 104, 1.0 x 104 and 1.8 x 104. Sample D had the highest coliform species while the least was in sample C with 1.0 x 104. Health issues associated with the consumption of these drinks include diarrhea, fever, stomach cramp which if not handled properly can be fatal. Hence, the need for producers and vendors of Kunu Aya to take hygienic measures in preparation, storage of the product to avoid food infection and intoxication associated with the micro-organism.