INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY (TIJSRAT)
VOL. 15 (9) NOVEMBER, 2023
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
FLEXIBLE JOB SHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEM USING THE PHP GENETIC ALGORITHM APPROACH
*EBOJOH E.; **AMGBARI C.O.; AND *ODIBOH-JOHN G.
*Department of Production Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria. **Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Ekowe, Bayelsa State.
Various manufacturing industries are concerned with scheduling jobs; hence several techniques have evolved and have been devised to control the flow of goods through the plant. A flexible job-shop production scheduling problem (FJSSP) is investigated in this study. In a flexible job shop, one of the biggest problems encountered is that of scheduling, which an NP-hard problem is. To solve the problem, the Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach was adopted.GA is a theory of natural selection that uses operators such as reproduction, cross-over, and mutation in searching for the best global optimum solution to any optimization problem. Hence this paper aims to minimise the tardiness of the jobs and the makespan the methodology used for this research is the First in First out (FIFO) rule combined with the shortest processing time (SPT) and longest processing time (LPT) to generate a sequence and calculate the makespan and tardiness. A computer program was written using PHP to solve the GA of the flexible job shops. The results obtained show how robust the GA is, in solving both partial and total flexibility systems. Three cases were considered from the literature. In the case first, a three-job, nine-operation, four-machine flexible job shop is considered. In the second case, a total flexible job shop problem with three jobs, four machines, and eight operations while in the third case, a partial flexible job shop problem is considered. The FIFO-SPT rule gave a makespan and tardiness value of 17 and 10 respectively, while the FIFO-LPT rule got makespan and tardiness values of 51 and 35 respectively. The genetic algorithm program provided an optimal value of 12 for makespan and 2 for tardiness.
Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, FJSSP, Scheduling, Makespan, Tardiness, Optimization.
THE ROLE OF ICT EDUCATION IN A PERIOD OF SOCIO – POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC UNCERTAINTY FOR BUSINESS, SCIENCE AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION LEARNING IN NIGERIA
*DOPEMU, OLUSHOLA AFOLABI; **OKE, LEKE; & ***AKA, BABATUNDE EMMANUEL
*Department of Automobile Technology, Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi – Kano State, Nigeria. **Department of Office Technology and Management, Kogi State College of Education (Technical), Kabba – Kogi State, Nigeria. ***Department of Physics, Kogi State College of Education (Technical), Kabba, Kogi State, Nigeria.
Information Communication Technologies (ICT) Education currently is influencing every aspect of human life playing salient roles in work places, entertainment, business, political, social, science, technology and education just to mention but a few. Moreover, many people recognize ICT as catalysts for change; change in working conditions, handling and exchanging information, teaching methods, learning approaches, scientific research, and in accessing information communication technologies. In this digital era, the use of ICT in the classroom is providing supreme opportunities for students to learn and apply the required twenty first century skills. This paper explores the advantages of Information Communication Technology (ICT) use in education towards social-political, economic system and quantitative research method used for results and concluded the effective implementation of ICT as an essential means to improve teaching and learning processes. The paper concludes by exposing the impact and benefits of ICT in education which has positive impact on socio-political and economic system for Business, Science and Technical Education learning.
Keywords: ICT, Impact of ICT, Role of ICT, Learning, Teaching Process
ETHICAL AI: STRIKING THE BALANCE BETWEEN INNOVATION AND PRIVACY IN DATA PROTECTION LAWS
*JIBRIN,ADAMU; & **AHMAD TIJJANI GARBA
*Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Borno State University, Maiduguri, Nigeria. **Department of Information Technology, Faculty of Computing, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.
The rapid evolution of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies has led to unprecedented advancements, revolutionizing various industries. However, this progress has raised ethical concerns, particularly in the realm of data protection and privacy. This study explores the delicate equilibrium that must be maintained between fostering innovation in AI and safeguarding individual privacy within the framework of data protection laws. The paper delves into the ethical dimensions of AI development, emphasizing the need for responsible practices that prioritize privacy. As AI systems increasingly rely on vast datasets, concerns about the collection, storage, and usage of personal information have become paramount. Striking an ethical balance requires a comprehensive understanding of the implications of AI on privacy rights. The study reviews existing data protection laws and regulations to assess their adequacy in addressing the ethical challenges posed by AI. It examines the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which serves as a benchmark for privacy laws globally, and evaluates its effectiveness in the context of AI innovations. Additionally, the study considers emerging ethical frameworks and guidelines proposed by industry stakeholders and international organizations. The ethical framework presented in this paper proposes a holistic approach to AI development that incorporates privacy by design and default. It advocates for transparency, accountability, and the empowerment of individuals regarding the use of their data in AI systems. Furthermore, it explores the role of ethical considerations in shaping future legislation and regulatory frameworks. By synthesizing legal perspectives, ethical principles, and technological realities, this study contributes to the ongoing discourse on Ethical AI. The research aims to provide insights for policymakers, industry professionals, and researchers seeking to navigate the ethical complexities of AI innovation while upholding the fundamental right to privacy. Ultimately, it underscores the importance of proactive measures to ensure that advancements in AI align with ethical principles and legal safeguards, fostering a harmonious coexistence of innovation and privacy in the digital age.
Keywords: Transparency, Accountability, Fairness, Privacy, Security, Human rights, Public good
IMPACT OF ILLEGAL REFINING IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND REGULATORY IMPLICATIONS
*JULIET NGOZI CHIJIOKE-CHURUBA; AND **SAHABO MOHAMMED MUSTAPHA
*Antan Producing Limited Sinoki House (2nd floor) Plot 770, Samuel Ademulegun Avenue Cadastral Zone Central Business District Abuja, Nigeria. **Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Air Force Institute of Technology Kaduna.
Nigeria is Africa’s energy behemoth and the continent’s most prolific crude oil producer, However, one of the main causes of oil spills in the area is the illegal refining of stolen oil, which has significant negative social, economic, and environmental effects. Waste from nonstandard refining plants is dumped into adjacent rivers without treatment, causing significant damage to environment. Illegal oil refining is rife in Nigeria’s South-South region, and it is a major cause of environmental degradation, wreaking havoc on estuaries and other bodies of water. Consequently, this review article aims to draw attention to the impact of illicit refineries on the ecosystems of the area, the reasons behind the rise in illegal refineries and potential remedies and also regulatory issues surrounding illegal oil refining. The report reveals the significant impact of illegal refinery activities on the environment in host communities and gives recommendations to all stakeholders in the petroleum industry. Overall, the study supports the necessity for immediate strategic action against illegal refining of crude oil to control the direct impacts of pollution on environment in the Niger Delta. Furthermore, recommendations on how to alleviate the impact of illegal refining on host communities are provided to the Nigerian government.
Keywords: Pollution, Crude oil, Niger Delta, Impact, Illegal refining
ROBUSTNESS OF SOME METHODS OF COINTEGRATION TEST IN NONSTATIONARITY DATA STRUCTURE UNDER NORMAL AND GAMMA DISTIBUTIONS
*MUHAMMAD G. BUKAR; **PROF. NICHOLAS P. DIBAL; AND **DR. YUSUF A. MOHAMMED
*Department of Basic Science and Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri. **Department of Statistics, University of Maiduguri.
The study of cointegration has engaged the attention of researchers like econometricians and statisticians. The possible presence of cointegration must be taken into account when choosing a technique to test hypotheses concerning the relationship between two variables having unit root/ non-stationary [i.e. integrated of at least order one ]. The usual procedure for testing hypotheses concerning the relationship between non-stationary variables was to run ordinary least square (OLS) regressions on data which had been differenced. This method is biased if the non-stationary variables are cointegrated. More so, the standard inference in cointegrating models is fragile because it relies on an assumption of an model for the common stochastic trends, which may not accurately describe the data. In view of this, three methods of cointegration procedure are therefore studied with aim of selecting the best for normal and gamma distributions, correlation level and sample size through simulations, it was found that the data series was stationary after the first differenced. The three tests show that there is cointegration with Phillips–Ouliaris as the best followed by Engle-Granger and Johansen test when sample size is small, medium and large respectively. It was also observed that the strength of determining the existence of the cointegration across the correlation increase as the levels of the correlation confidents increased.
Keywords: Time Series, Cointegration, Stationarity, Non-Stationarity, Correlation, Order Of Integration
REVIEW: THE ROLE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY IN CURTAILING INSECURITY IN NIGERIA
SUNDAY AYIGUN; & ROMANUS I.O
Department of Physical Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
This research is focused on the role of Satellite communication and advanced technology in curtailing insecurity in Nigeria, with the objective to reduce the insecurity challenges in Nigeria, to reduce the consequences of insecurity in Nigeria and to reduce proliferation of arms through Nigeria borders. Principle of Physics that governs the operation of satellites communication was examined. Utilization of Military satellite and other advanced technological equipment as it is obtainable in other part of the world was examined and discussed. The application of military satellite and other advanced technology will assist the Nigeria Armed Forces to defeat the issues of insecurity challenges in Nigeria. The Federal Government of Nigeria should provide more vital tools for military operations and other paramilitary in the country for proper discharge of their duties. Provision of good welfare package and robust salary for military personnel and paramilitary will boost their moral and the personnel should discharge their duty faithfully and there should be further research on how to defeat insecurity in Nigeria.
Keywords: Physics, Satellite communication, Military satellite, Advance technology, Paramilitary, Insecurity
EVALUATION OF THE SAFE FACTOR INDICES OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN THE SOILS OF SAND FILTER BED OF DUTSIN-MA WATER TREATMENT PLANT
YARGAMJI, G.I. & ABUBAKAR, T.
Department of Chemistry, Isa Kaita College of Education, Dutsin-ma, Katsina State, Nigeria.
The safe factor indices and percentage variations of ten heavy metals were evaluated based on their levels in the sand filter bed of the Dutsin-ma water treatment plant. The heavy metal levels were determined using standard laboratory procedure and high Tech. AAS machine. The results obtained revealed that the safe factor indices for the heavy metals were Cd(1.19), Cr(0.45). Co(2.26), Cu(12.50), Fe(3.84), Pb(5.31), Mn(3.92), Hg(1.04), Ni(4.00) and Zn(0.38) with only Cr and Zn having values that were within good safety limit (Ai < 1), all other metals had values that exceeded the approved safety limits. Copper, Lead, Nickel, Manganese and Iron were observed to have Azuka index (Ai) values that were extra ordinarily far above the safety limit of their presence in the filter bed. For the percentage variations, the values obtained indicated that all the metal levels varied widely except for Ni (17.65%), Cd (20.00%) and Mn (27.42%). All others had %variations exceeding 50 percent each. Based on these results, it was concluded that there were high level heavy metals pollution activities emanating from natural geologic factors and from anthropogenic activities around the water sources that supplies the treatment plant. The high values for some of the metals calls for immediate heavy metal remediation especially in the filter bed and at the water reservoir to mitigate the heavy metal pollution of the water.
Keywords: Heavy metals, Safe factor index, Pollution, %Variation, Sand filter, Water treatment plant
GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION FOR THE PROPOSED BOOSTER STATION AT WUNTIN DADA IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS, NORTH WEST, NIGERIA
J ABIMIKU1; K. U. OTARU1; M. T. IBRAHIM2; & T. Y. AHMAD2
1Civil Engineering Department, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria. 2Department of Civil Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria.
Geotechnical as well as geophysical investigation methods were used to provide information for the assessment of the subsurface soil at BOOSTER STATION proposed site at Wuntin Dada near Abubakar Tatari Ali polytechnic gate. Percussion drilling was used to drilled the boreholes to the depths of 4 m and disturbed soil samples were obtained from the boreholes for different laboratory tests at the site. Natural moisture content, specific gravity, Atterberg Limits, Triaxial tests and Permeability Test were conducted. Borehole numbers 1, 2 and 3 have percentages of fines less than 10 %, this indicates that the influence of fine content is negligible on their engineering properties. The grain size analysis of the samples indicates that the total fine content ranges from 1.5 – 20 %, Sand 52.5 – 86.8 %, and Gravel 2.9 – 46.0 %. These values account for the moderate permeability values (1.76 ×10-6 – 3.50×10-6). The OMC was 5.90 – 13.00 % while MDD range was 1.77 – 2.01 Mg/m3. The soils’ cohesion ranges from 8.0 kN/m2 to 75.0 bkN/m2 and the angle of internal friction range between 25o to 35o. with these values, the range of computed bearing capacity was 222 – 1132 kN/m2. The results of particle size distribution analysis indicate that very negligible consolidation settlement should be expected. It finally concluded that the material is of high quality with regard to strength and the integrity of the foundation.
Keywords: Compaction, Consistency, Triaxial tests, Permeability
ASSESSMENT OF THE ESSENTIAL HEAVY METALS LEVEL COPPER AND ZINC IN SUGARCANE (Saccharum spp) SAMPLES SOLD AROUND KANO METROPOLIS
1NURA T.; 2M. A. DIKKO; 2YUSUF M.; 3SURAJ A.; & 3ABUBAKAR M.G.
1Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education (Technical) Bichi Kano State Nigeria. 2Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa State, Nigeria. 3Department of Community Health, College of Health Sciences and Technology Nguru Yobe.
This study presents the results obtained from essential metals analysis in raw sugarcane (Saccharum spp ) being sold around Kano metropolis. Sampling was done in 4 market areas where raw sugarcane is being sold for direct consumption in Kano city and its environs, and the level of essential metals, copper (Cu), and, zinc (Zn), were assessed in the sugarcane juice using atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis (AAS). The lowest concentrations of Zinc was 2.36± 0.563(mg/kg ) in Jakara market while highest concentration of 3.707±0.021in Yan’rake market was obtained in the sugarcane juice, concentration of Cu,1.487 ±0.015 to 0.063± 0.00(mg/kg ) respectively was also found. Although Zinc and copper are essential metals however, their concentration in level beyond recommendable safe limit may also lead to health risk. Copper and zinc content in sugarcane were lower than the guideline value of World health Organization (WHO)/Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) at 73.3 mg/kg and 99.4 mg/kg respectively. Sugarcane juice is consumed by rural and urban people, thus the human health risk was measured using the concentration of total essential metals in sugarcane juice by comparing with the national and international standard. But long-term consumption of sugarcane juice containing excess concentration of these essential metals can create serious human health issues in the metropolis. Results suggest anthropogenic load of heavy metal in cultivated lands of rural areas were this crops are grown does not have an excessive sources of metals in their farming fields.
Keywords: FAO, AAS, W.H.O. Saccharum spp, Kano
PROPOSING ‘ONAHDO’ SINUSOIDAL SERIES FOR THE EXPANSION OF THE NTH ORDER SINE FUNCTIONS WITH SOME APPLICATIONS FROM LITERATURE
OGWUMU ONAH DAVID
Mathematics and Statistics Department, Federal University Wukari, Nigeria.
The study proposed an algorithm for expanding the nth order Sine Functions via the knowledge of Demoivre’s and Binomial Theorems. Similarly, the polar form of the complex Number, and its associated conjugate (where, ) was employed operating in a unit circle. Thereafter, the series derived in the study was tested on few examples in literature. And the test confirmed that the algorithm proposed is suitable in handling the family of problems considered. This is because, the algorithm required fewer steps as compared to some approaches like reduction formula and substitution formula for integration any nth or power Sine Functions. It was further observed that the algorithm could be suitably used for such array of problems in real life.
Keywords: Binomial Theorem, Demoivre’s Theorem, Complex Analysis, Complex Conjugate, nth Order, Sine Function