INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY (TIJSRAT)
VOL. 14 (9) AUGUST, 2023
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
TESTING OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF OFFSHORE AQUACULTURE TECHNOLOGY FOR BLUE ECONOMY
OLADOKUN SULAIMAN OLANREWAJU
An optimization framework for design of planing craft is presented in this paper. The data of an available planing craft is used to retrieve the control points of the B-spline surfaces through inverse fitting, while a commercial code Maxsurf is used to calculate the hydrostatics and the hydrodynamic performance of the craft. The optimization process is controlled by an evolutionary algorithm via the variable’s length, breadth and draft which in turn invokes the parametric transformation scheme of Maxsurf to generate various planing craft like hull forms as candidate solutions. The paper also introduces a surrogate assisted scheme, where the number of candidate design evaluations is reduced through the use of approximations. Examples involving the identification of a vessel within 5% of a target vessel’s resistance, displacement and metacentric height, a single objective problem of resistance minimization and a surrogate assisted single objective resistance minimization case is presented in this paper. In the first example, a solution of goal-based design problem is presented to identify the basis ship within 5% of the target performance indicators while for the resistance minimization examples, a reduction of 14.03% of resistance was achieved while meeting the design constraints.
Keyword: Material, seaweed, aquaculture, marine, reliability
MODELING MIXED DATA SAMPLING FREQUENCY: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW AND FURTHER RESEARCH
UMARU HASSAN1,2 AND MOHD TAHIR ISMAIL1
1School of Mathematical Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia. 2Department of Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe, Nigeria
Mixed data sampling analysis (MIDAS) is a popular technique for modeling and forecasting economic time series data that have mixed frequencies. This systematic literature review provides an overview of the key concepts, methods, and applications of MIDAS analysis in economics and finance literature. The review covers the period from 2004 to 2023 and includes 74 articles published in peer-reviewed journals extracted from Google scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. We employed the method of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), and bibliometric analysis was conducted. The method has been used to model a wide range of economic variables, including inflation, GDP, stock prices, exchange rates, and tourism. The review also discusses the different types of MIDAS models, including the regression-based, time series-based, and state-space models. It has several advantages over traditional methods, including its ability to handle different frequencies and capture short-term dynamics in the data. However, it also has limitations, such as the need for careful selection of the appropriate MIDAS model and the potential for overfitting when using complex models. The review provides guidance on best practices and future directions for MIDAS analysis research. In order to compare MIDAS’ performance with those of other approaches to processing mixed-frequency data, more investigation is required on the robustness of MIDAS in various contexts.
Keywords: Mixed data sampling, modeling, forecasting, Systematic literature review
THE STUDY OF STREET BEGGARS MOVEMENT USING MARKOV CHAIN (A CASE STUDY OF ALMAJIRIS)
OLARINOYE, S.B.; ZUBAIR, O.R.; AND ELEPO, T.A
Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin
The paper Study the movement of street beggars using the Almajiris. A sample size of two hundred and eighty nine was obtained through direct interview method of sampling(Primary Source) using three states as a strata. The method of analysis was done with the use of Markov Chain (Stochastic Process) using the transition probability. In the course of the study, six states was established which are the Almajiri School(AS), Regular School(RS), House Helper(HH), Farm(FM), Beggars(BG), Freely Expose(FE). The six states are not absorbing, they are rather recurrent or Transient. The results from the Markov Chain Algebra indicates that he initial states(First year) and the fourth year(Limit) transition probability for the other five states starting from Almajiri School are RS=(10%,12%), HH=(23%,14%), FM=(11%,7%) BG=(13%,8%),FE=(16% ,10%) respectively. The results show that the movement chance of Almajiris is more high with Regular School(RS), House Help(HH) and Freely Exposed(FE).
Keywords: Almajiris, Beggars, Markov Chain, School, Farm, Transition
PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE ‘MASA’ PRODUCED FROM ACHA, SWEET POTATO AND BAMBARA NUT FLOUR BLENDS
1TANKO O.O, 2HUSSAINA T.O, 1DONALDBEN N,S AND 3ABDULAZIZ M.D
1Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria. 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria. 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria.
This research work highlight the possibilities of producing “masa” from flour blends of Acha, Sweet potatoes and Bambara nut. The Acha, sweet potato and Bambara-nut were into composite flours and formulated into various blends of ratios; and labeled Samples A, B, C, D and E. functional analysis was conducted on the flour blends and proximate and sensory evaluation on the products. The bulk density, swelling index, water absorption capacity, foam capacity and gelatinazation temperature were determined; the bulk density ranges from 0.58±0.01 to 0.80±0.02 for samples E and sample A respectively, the water absorption capacity also indicated that the blends will be good for the production it ranges from 1.43±0.01 for sample E to 1.79±0.00 for sample B. The proximate analysis conducted on the products; for the protein, ash, fibre and fat content there was a significant increase in the values with increase in the Bambara nut. The protein contents were from 8.26±0.02 to 15.69±0.02, the moisture content was from 38.44±0.12 to 42.20±0.11, the high moisture content can be attributed to the nature of the product, the fat content were from 2.73±0.03 to 5.69±0.07 and the carbohydrate was from 33.84±0.01 to48.68±0.06, of which the statistical analysis conducted on the duplicate samples of the results indicated that there was significant difference among the samples at 5% probability level. The sensory evaluation results of the samples show that there were significant (p<0.05) differences in the colour, Taste, aroma, texture and overall acceptability, although some of the parameters are not significantly difference from each other.
ASSESSMENT OF THE ESSENTIAL HEAVY METALS LEVEL COPPER AND ZINC IN SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM SPP) SAMPLES SOLD AROUND KANO METROPOLIS
1NURA T., 2M. A. DIKKO.,2YUSUF SALE B. 3SURAJ A. 3ABUBAKAR M. G.
1Department of chemistry, federal college of education (Technical) Bichi Kano State Nigeria. 2Department of chemistry/biochemistry, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa State, Nigeria. 3Department of Community Health, College of Health Sciences and Technology Nguru Yobe
This study presents the results obtained from essential metals analysis in raw sugarcane (Saccharum spp) being sold around Kano metropolis. Sampling was done in 4 market areas where raw sugarcane is being sold for direct consumption in Kano city and its environs, and the level of essential metals, copper (Cu), and, zinc (Zn), were assessed in the sugarcane juice using atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis (AAS). The lowest concentrations of Zinc was 2.36± 0.563(mg/kg ) in Jakara market while highest concentration of 3.707±0.021in Yan’rake market was obtained in the sugarcane juice, concentration of Cu,1.487 ±0.015 to 0.063± 0.00(mg/kg ) respectively was also found. Although Zinc and copper are essential metals however, their concentration in level beyond recommendable safe limit may also lead to health risk. Copper and zinc content in sugarcane were lower than the guideline value of World health Organization (WHO)/Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) at 73.3 mg/kg and 99.4 mg/kg respectively. Sugarcane juice is consumed by rural and urban people; thus, the human health risk was measured using the concentration of total essential metals in sugarcane juice by comparing with the national and international standard. But long-term consumption of sugarcane juice containing excess concentration of these essential metals can create serious human health issues in the metropolis. Results suggest anthropogenic load of heavy metal in cultivated lands of rural areas were this crops are grown does not have an excessive sources of metals in their farming fields.
Keywords: FAO, AAS, WHO, Saccharum SPP, Kano
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITIONS OF SOME SELECTED TUBERS AND CEREALS
*LAWAL I.A.; *IMRAN M.O.; *AHMED W.A.; & **BOLANLE E.O
*Science Laboratory Technology Department, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki. **Science Laboratory Technology Department, Adeseun Ogundoyin Polytechnic, Eruwa
Human body requires a number of nutrients to maintain good health. study was carried out to determine the levels of carbohydrate, protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash content, few phytochemical constituents (saponins, Flavonoids, alkanoids, phenolic, phytate and tannins), minerals elements(calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and phosphorus) and vitamins(A and E) in five different flours using Association of Analytical chemist(AOAC). The results obtained show that carbohydrate was found in appreciable amount in all samples and there is no significant difference (p<0.05) in all samples and ranges from (82.59±1.0) to (87.63±1.00). Cocoyam presented the highest protein content (7.65±1.00), while yam flour contained only (3.83±1.00) and ranked the lowest. The ash content ranged from 0.75±0.10 in sorghum to 1.71±1.00 in wheat. There is no significant difference in crude fiber for all samples and it ranges from 0.46±0.10 in sorghum to 1.05±1.00 in wheat. The crude fat levels ranging from 0.26±0.10 to 0.59±0.10 and the highest level was observed in wheat. Saponin levels were high in wheat and millet (0.38±0.01) and sorghum having the lowest value of (0.09±0.00). A considerable level of alkaloids was present in yam flour (1.41±0.01) and wheat having the highest amount of 1.81±1.00. There is no significant difference in oxalate present in all samples and it ranges from 0.63±0.01 for yam flour to 0.80± 0.01for wheat. Flavonoids content ranges from 0.12±0.01 in yams flour to 0.90±0.01 in millet flour. Phenolic was highest in sorghum flour and lowest in yam flour with mean values of 0.84 ±0.01to 0.15±0.01 respectively. Vitamin E ranges from 0.67±0.01 in sorghum flour to 0.31±0.01 in wheat flour. Yam flour with highest vitamin A level 0.23±0.01 and sorghum with 0.05±0.00 is ranked lowest. All the cereals flour were riched in magnesium, iron and phosphorus while a high level of calcium was observed in sorghum(91.50±1.00). Considerate amount of zinc was found in all samples. Cadmium is almost absent in all samples with sorghum and wheat having value of 0.01±0.00 each. Lead is absent in all sample. From the results obtained, the cereals flours can be considered to be ranked the best when compared with the tuber samples analyzed, notwithstanding tubers flour also contain nutrients needed by the body.
Keywords: cocoyam flour, yam flour, sorghum flour, wheat flour, millet flour, nutrients
DISTRIBUTION OF SOME TOXIC HEAVY METALS IN THE DIFFERENT LAYERS OF SAND IN THE FILTRATION CHAMBER OF DUTSIN-MA WATER TREATMENT PLANT
YARGAMJI, G.I. AND ABUBAKAR, T.
Department of Chemistry, Isa Kaita College of Education Dutsin-ma, Katsina State, Nigeria
The distribution of ten heavy metals in the three layers of sand in the sand filter bed of Dutsin-ma water treatment plant was investigated. Soil samples were collected from the filtration chamber of the treatment plant, divided into three layers, top, middle and bottom layers corresponding to sandy soil layer, coarse layer and gravels layer. The heavy metal levels were determined using high tech. AAS machine after HNO3 / HCl digestion. Results obtained revealed the following heavy metal distributions among the layers: Top layer: Cd(0.010), Cr(0.002), Co(0.063), Cu(0.038), Fe(4.940), Pb(0.340), Mn(0.570), Hg(246.3), Ni(0.0340) and Zn(0.0992), Middle layer: Cd(0.007), Cr(0.049), Co(0.091), Cu(0.027), Fe(6.380), Pb(0.970), Mn(0.605), Hg(54.1), Ni(0.034) and Zn(0.0655 ppm) and the bottom layer: Cd(0.008), Cr(0.279), Co(0.003), Cu(0.009), Fe(14.622), Pb(0.760), Mn(0.744), Hg(217.3), Ni(0.028) and Zn(0.0416 ppm). The mean levels of the metals in the filter were: Cd(0.00833), Cr(0.110), Co(0.052), Cu(0.025), Fe(8.647), Pb(0.690), Mn(1.919), Hg(172.57), Ni(0.032) and Zn(0.069 ppm). Based on their levels, the metals exhibited the trends, top later: Hg > Fe > Mn > Pb > Zn > Co > Cu > Ni > Cd > Cr; Middle layer: : Hg > Fe > Pb > Mn > Co > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cu > Cd and bottom layer: Hg > Fe > Pb > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Cd > Co in descending order while the trend in the mean levels of the metals in the filter was: Cd < Cu < Ni < Co < Zn < Cr < Pb < Mn < Fe < Hg in ascending order of magnitude. Some of the metal levels were observed to be excessively high, Cd was 1.78 times greater than its permissible level, Mn was 37.38 times greater, Pb was 68 times greater, Fe was 85.47 times greater while Hg, a highly toxic metal was 2,156.125 times greater than its permissible level. Based on these observations, it was concluded that the different soil layers in the sand filter bed were heavily polluted with most of the metals studied and that the pollution comes from two major sources namely, the soil itself (geologic) and the water coming into the filter from the dam. It was therefore recommended among others that the filter should be immediately evacuated and the soil layers be totally replaced with new good ones free of heavy metal contaminants and that the dam water be assessed for heavy metals and remediation measures be taken to reduce the heavy metal levels in the water and that should be monitored on continuous basis.
DIGITAL TERRAIN MODEL AS A TOOL FOR PLANNING OF DRAINAGE CONSTRUCTION
SURV. ABUBAKAR ABDULLAHI YAKUBU1; SURV. MOHAMMED JAWALUDDEEN SANI2; & MOHAMMED OSHOMA KASHETU3
Department Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
This study was aimed at producing a Digital Terrain Model (DTM), of Federal Low-Cost Housing Estate Bauchi, using Geographic Information System (GIS). The research was conducted due to insufficient and up to date information needed for planning, civil engineering work, building engineering, of the study area. These problems make standard of living difficult and hinders its meaningful development. The spatial data was observed at the field using total station and it was processed using surfer 10 versions to generate the different topographical configurations such as Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Contour map, and aspect map which are the end product for presentation. Therefore, this paper is significant to all development that concerns land; for planning purpose, civil engineering work and building engineering within the study area. It is recommended that the authority concerned should rehabilitate the roads, clear and construct new drainages.
Keyword: surfer, contour map, aspect map, planning, DTM,