TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY (TIJERAT)
VOL. 9 (5) MAY, 2022 EDITIONS. ISSN: 2707-5654
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies,
Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
SHORT TERM ENERGY ALGORITHM FOR EFFECTIVE CONCATENATIVE SYNTHESIS OF YORUBA SYLLABLES
YEKEEN, SURAJUDEEN ADÉWÁLÉ 1, ÌBÍYẸMÍ, TÚNJÍ SAMUEL2 OMEIZA, ISAAC O.A.3 AND AJÍBÓYÈ AYE T.4
1Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, The Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Nigeria. 2,3Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, University of Ilorin, Nigeria. 4Department of Computer Engineering, University of Ilorin, Nigeria.
The existing method of reading the Yorùbá document is manual, thereby limiting the benefit of automatic reading machines and automation of other human endeavours. Most of the existing Text-To-Speech (TTS) applications takes their input from computer peripherals e.g. keyboard, there is the need for a Yorùbá document reader which takes input from other source and produce TTS with high intelligibility and naturalness. The paper elucidates limitations of concatenative synthesis being the most effective TTS method that produces the best natural and intelligible speech synthesis. Particularly the limitation of co-articulation of concatenated segments. Short Term Energy (STE) of frames in recorded syllables was used to improve the co-articulation of concatenated segments thereby reducing the prosodic discontinuity and improving the naturalness factors (intonation and rhythm). Fifty native speakers were engaged to listen to synthesized concatenated syllables, a Mean Opinion Score (MOS) of 3.8 and 4.2 were achieved for both intelligibility and naturalness respectively.
Keywords: Concatenative, Reader, speech, STE (Short Term Energy), Text-to-Speech (TTS)
PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC) – BASED RADIATION AREA ACCESS CONTROL AND WARNING SYSTEM
HAMZA ABBA, ABDULLAHI K. MU’AZU AND UMAR MOHAMMED
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State.
Radiation from radioactive particles causes intensive harm to lives, depending on the intensity and type of the radiation. Various types of cancer leukemia can occur due to radiation. So nuclear power plants or the laboratories for nuclear research works need well apprehensible system that has the ability to deal with an emergency evacuation arrangement. This paper present the design and simulation as well as hardware configuration of a PLC-based access control system with emergency evacuation warning such that if the radiation level exceeds a critical threshold, the warning message will alert occupant to take their exit through one of the available doors.
Keywords: Radiation, access control, Logo soft, Logo PLC
PERFORMANCE ATTRIBUTES OF A FREE PISTON LINEAR GENERATOR FUELLED USING SYNGAS
AYANDOTUN B. WASIU1,2, A. RASHID B. A. AZIZ1, MIOR A. M. SAID1
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia. 2Federal Polytechnic Kaura, P.M.B. 1012, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria.
In this paper, the experimental test rig working on a single-cylinder principle has been developed and operated as a free-piston linear generator (FPLG). The engine was powered using syngas as the fuel and the results obtained from the experimental tests are presented. The performance and combustion attributes of the engine were investigated under a steady-state and at the best operating performance. Experimental results reveal the optimal conditions at which the rarely combusted fuel could operate thereby exhibiting the capability and flexibility of free-piston engines to utilize various fuels. The engine demonstrates low incylinder pressure of 14.34 bar due to the slow flame propagation speed caused by the noncombustible components of the mixture thereby diminishing the flame front surface that led to the 111.37 kJ/s rate of heat release obtained. The maximum piston velocity of 3.75 m/s generates a lower peak output power of 518.6 W due to the lower energy content available to drive the translator. The combustion and indicated efficiencies attained by the engine are 22.56% and 10%, respectively.
Keywords— free-piston engine, syngas, combustion, engine performance, linear generator.
EFFECT OF ANNEALING TEMPERATURE AND SOAKING TIME ON THE MACHINABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF NODULAR CAST IRON
*YAKUBU O. H., WOLI T. O., IBRAHIM L. A., SAM OBU V. S. AND MAKUN B. A.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Offa Nigeria
The machinability of nodular cast iron annealed at different temperatures and soaking times has been investigated. A total of nine samples were used for the experiment. Four of the samples were austenized at a temperature of 750oC, 800oC, 850oC and 900oC and then soaked for 30 minutes at the selected temperatures and then furnace cooled to room temperature. The other four samples were also austenized at the same temperatures mentioned above and soaked for 60 minutes. One sample was left in as-cast state. Orthogonal turning operation was carried out on the samples at different cutting speeds (30 – 500 rpm) where the feed and depth of cut were maintained constant and the surface finish produced were measured in terms of average surface roughness. The hardness and microstructure of the nodular cast iron were also conducted. From the results obtained, it was observed that at lower annealing teperatures (750oC – 800oC), the materials soaked for 30 minutes have a better surface finish whereas at higher annealing temperatures (850oC – 900oC), good surface finish was obtained for the material soaked for 60 at any cutting speed. The lowest hardness value (100BHv) was recorded for the material annealed at 900oC and soaking time of 60 minutes. It was further observed that the effect of annealing heat treatment is mostly to lower the hardness of metal so that they can be machined at a relative ease.
Keywords: Annealing, machinability, hardness, microstructure, surface finish.
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF AN EVAPORATIVE COOLER AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR STORING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
*ADEYOLANU, A.S.1, MUIDEEN, R.A.1 AND OLANITE, W.A.2, ASHIRU, A.R.2 AND ARIWOOLA, L.A.2
1Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Department, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki. 2Mechanical Engineering Department, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki
Fresh fruits and vegetables deteriorate easily when stored under ambient condition, mainly due to physiological and microbial activities, which are accelerated at high temperature and low relative humidity of the storage environment. This work designed, constructed and tested an evaporative cooling system using solar battery for storage of fruits and vegetables. The design of the evaporative system was based on the principle of evaporation being always accompanied by a cooling effect to its surrounding reducing the temperature of ambient air hence the shelf life of the tomatoes was improved. Locally-sourced materials that won’t contaminate the produce were used and powered by solar energy. The evaporative cooling system was able to lower the temperatures of the interior by a noticeable amount of celcius degree (about 70C) and cooling efficiency as high as necessary to temporarily preserve the common fruits and vegetables in Nigeria especially under the harsh climatic conditions of derived savanna region of Oke-Ogun in Oyo State hence reducing post-harvest loses of fruits and vegetables thus increasing fruits and vegetables supply on the market. Although the performance of the evaporative cooling facility fell slightly short of expectations, it can however be used to prolong the storage life of fruits and vegetables better than keeping them under ambient conditions. Produce quality shows a delay in firmness and colour change when compared with produce kept at ambient conditions. The evaporative cooler can be used as a temporary means of storage for fruits and vegetables thereby reducing postharvest losses.
Keywords: Design, Fabrication, Tomatoes, Evaporative cooler, Performance evaluation.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A SELF OPERATED SINGLE PHASE CHANGE OVER SWITCH WITH VOLTAGE LEVEL MONITOR AND PHASE SELECTION AND ALARM SYSTEM
KENNETH UGO UDEZE; & CHIEGBOKA JOSEPH EZEILO
Department of Electrical Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko.
Power supply in Nigeria and most developing countries of the world is anything but stable. This has adverse effects on the consumers of the electricity and the equipment that are operated from the mains sources of electricity supply in these parts of the world . The main aim of any electric power supply in the world is to provide uninterrupted power supply at all times to all its consumers. Although, in developing countries like Nigeria, the electric power generated to meet the demands of the growing consumers of electricity is insufficient, hence power instability or outage. Power instability and outage in general does not promote development in the public and private sector of the country’s economy. The investors do not feel secure to come into a country with constant power failure. These limit the development of industries, in addition, there are processes that cannot be interrupted because of their importance for instance, surgery operation in hospitals, transfer of money between banks and lots more. Power instability and outage in Nigeria creates a need for alternative source of power to back up the mains supply. A microcontroller-based automatic power changeover finds a wide application scope wherever the reliability of electrical supply from the utilities is low and it is used in areas wherever continuity of power supply is necessary, for switching to an alternative source from main supply and vice versa. This project is a design and construction of a microcontroller-based automatic power changeover, that means the automatic changeover switch will change to an alternative power supply (generator), and back to the main supply when it is restored. In this paper, we provide an automatic switching mechanism that transfers the consumer loads to a power source from a generator in the case of power failure in the mains supply. It automatically detects when power has been restored to the mains supply and returns the loads to this source while turning off the power from the generator set. This mechanism has been tested and we recorded a great result. It thus holds an important key in the provision of a continuous power supply through a near seamless switching between the mains supply and an alternative standby source like the generator set. The purpose of this project is to maintain constant supply to the main circuit that is being supplied by making-up for the time lapse or delay that usually accompanies the manual switching from one source to another. But every system has its pros and cons. Our proposed system is easy to implement and understand.
Keywords: Power Supply; Alternative Power Source; Direct current; IEEE; Change-over Switch; Generator, Microcontroller
EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF PROPOSED GRID-TIED SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM FOR SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
*OKOTIE LUCKY EDAFE; *STEVE O. IKHELOA; & **IMHABEKHAI GREGORY
*Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, National Institute of Construction Technology and Management (NICTM), Uromi, Edo State. **Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, University of Benin (Uniben), Benin City, Edo State
Electrification of Scchool of Engineering Technology (SET) located in Amedoshian Campus in the Institute of Construction Technology and Management (NICTM) is realized through distribution network from Benin Electricity Distribution Company (BEDC). SET building blocks consist of 2 nos Profile. PV Module, PV Panel. of each three floors building structure with basement, academic staff offices, administrative rooms, lecture/classrooms and public facilities. Huge sum of money is spent daily to run generators and noise pollution has come to live with us. Meanwhile, Nigeria has immense exposure to solar radiation all through the year. It has highest daily solar radiation of 7.0KWh/m2/day and lowest of 3.5KWh/m2/day. The Uromi community where the institute is situated has an average radiation of 4.55kWh/m2/day and temperature of 27.230C. Uromi is at latitude 4049’27’’ North and longitude 702’1’’ East and altitude (elevation) of 20m (64ft). Load profile for SET was carried out to determine the number of solar panels and inverter rating. Monthly average radiation was obtained from Nigeria meteorological agency between January 2016 to December 2020.The proposed PV system plant capacity is estimated at 100kW based on estimated load profile. Various tools such as system yield factor, capacity utilization factor, performance ratio were used in carrying out performance of 100kW PV system. Plots of I-V characteristics at constant irradiance, P-V characteristics at constant temperature and irradiance and efficiency curve of P-V panels were obtained. The PV is expected to meet 123,228.38kWh annual load demand for SET, using PVsyst software. This supply period of electricity is between official hours of 8am to 4pm daily and estimated that annual DC energy generated from the system is 126619kWh/year, whereas available energy exported is 121914kWh/year.
Keywords: Solar irradiance, power system, Photovoltaic system, Nigerian Grid, Load Demand, Generated Power. Load
HYBRID INCUBATION SYSTEM: DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
D M NAZIF *1, ALIYU ABDULRAHMAN2, MUHAMMAD AMINU AHMAD3, AHMAD M. Y. JUMBA4, MUHAMMAD YAHAYA YARDA5
*1,3&4Dept. of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria; 2Dept. of Computer Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria; 5Dept. of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, Gombe State Polytechnic Bajoga, Gombe State, Nigeria.
The Hybrid GSM-based egg incubator system was designed to reduce the risk of damage and abnormal egg incubation caused by uncertain environmental conditions. The principle of operation of the system is based on temperature and humidity manipulation where a sensor is employed in the system. The system consists of a motor which rotates the eggs at specified period of time to prevent the embryo from sticking to the shell and the measured temperature and humidity will be processed by the microprocessor. The microprocessor is the main controller that controls the overall system. The system was also equipped with a unique feature to alert the user on the system performance by sending an SMS when the need arises. The system has the capability of not only hatching chicken eggs but that of Guinea Fowl and Turkey. A keypad is provided to select the type of Egg to hatch and the system automatically selects the features of such Egg selected. As a backup to the system, a solar and an inverter as subsystems are also incorporated to provide an uninterruptible power supply to the system. The system was found to have performed as expected with improved performance which is attributed to the presence of the solar and inverter system. The best hatching results was attained within the normal oxygen level in the atmosphere.
Keywords: GSM Module, Inverter, DHT Sensor, Incubation, Solar system.
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEM NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR A MOBILE ROBOT IN AN UNKNOWN ENVIRONMENT
1ALIYU BUBA DAHIRU 2MOHAMMED KABIRU HALIDU 3MOHAMMED SANDA MARIBE
1,2Department of Computer Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 3Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria
Due to their better mobility, autonomous mobile robots have potential uses in a variety of situations, including indoor, outdoor, industrial, undersea exploration, and many more. Mobile robot navigation relies heavily on obstacle avoidance and path planning. In this paper, a hybridized variation of AIS has been used to navigate a mobile robot, which switches between idiotypic network theory and clonal selection theory depending on the situation. This is a good countermeasure for getting out of concave-shaped obstacles like U traps and other local minima scenarios. Any robot navigational system’s goal is to get the mobile robot to its destination in the most efficient way possible, without colliding with any impediments. This article proposes an algorithm that leverages both the idiotypic network theory and the clonal selection theory of the artificial immune system to solve the problem of obstacle avoidance for mobile robots in an unknown environment. While the former is utilized for general navigation, the latter is used when there is a local minimum. In addition, the antibody concentrations were calculated using a modified version of Farmer’s equation for Jerne’s idiotypic network model. The proposed algorithm’s navigation simulation results are shown. The results shown that our method may successfully escape a variety of barriers, including local minima traps. A comparison of the suggested algorithm to a number of different algorithms is also provided. Finally, a physical robot is used to do experimental validation of the simulation results for the proposed approach.
Keywords: Mobility: Autonomous Mobile Robots: Artificial immune system, robot Navigation, Clonal selection theory: Obstacle avoidance, Path planning