INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY (TIJERT)
VOL. 14 (5) AUGUST, 2023
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
STUDY OF CARBON FOOTPRINT FROM MARINE TRANSPORTATION FOR LOW POLLUTION AND HIGH-EFFICIENCY EMISSION CONTROL OPERATIONAL MEASURES
PROFESSOR DR OLADOKUN SULAIMAN OLANREWAJU
In recent times has seen the emission of carbon footprint to the environment has increased continuously. the emissions come from the shipping industry around the world. Marine transportation has become a source of carbon footprint emissions. Maritime shipping is the world’s most carbon-efficient form of transporting goods, compared to road, or air transport. Yet, the industry seeks to improve its vessels’ fuel efficiency and carbon footprint further. Today’s container ships and vehicle carriers enable the movement of tremendous volumes of goods across the world, this has increased global economic growth in a manner considered implausible only 50 or 60 years ago. This study is to measure the amount of carbon footprint emission from marine transportation and to find the factor that increases the rate of the emission. The pilot study was conducted to determine the amount of carbon footprint emission from the exhaust of the boat by using the Gas Detector Analysis IQ-1000. Based on the result, the highest amount of C02 released from the boat is 2000 ppm. This study also discussed the control optional measure of marine transportation and how to increase the performance so that the emission will be low.
Keywords: Carbon footprint, marine transportation, shipping industry
ROUTING BLACK FLOOD HYDROGRAPH OF RIVER NIGER INTO KAINJI RESERVOIR
1EYA, S. A., 2SALEH, J. Y., 3JIMOH, O. D. AND 4DAUDU, E. S.
1Civil Engineering Department, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. 2Civil Engineering Department, Taraba State University, Janligo. 3Civil Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna. 4Permanent Secretary (most senior Civil Engineer) Nasarawa State Ministry of Works, Housing and Transport, Lafia
Flood routing and hydrograph generation form key elements of Flood plain management. Flood routing reveals the magnitude of peak discharge, the time of the peak discharge and depth. Flooding along the river plain, especially river Niger and Benue is annual event. This attributed to both inflows within the country and transboundary flow. This study routed the inflow during the dry season at Jiderebode to Kainji reservoir. The study was carried out using kinematic wave model approach for flow between Jiderebode and Kainji on River Niger. The period of data gaps in flow record was filled using recession equation. Advection equation and Kinematic wave model were coded in Microsoft excel. The length between Jiderebode and Kainji was divided into different sub reaches, each sub reach is 10000m. The catchment characteristics such as vegetation, topography and soil (manning’s roughness coefficient) were captured. The study revealed that kinematic wave model could be used to route the flow in river Niger. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) is 0.009, indicating that it is closely match with the observed inflow record at Kainji. The findings of these work would give better understand of the contribution of flow from upper and middle Niger Basins into Nigeria, during the dry season (black flood).
Keywords: Black flood, hydrograph, Jiderebode, Kainji Reservoir, kinematic wave, River Niger, routing.
HYPERPARAMETER TUNING OF MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS FOR PREDICTION OF HEART DISEASE
MUHAMMED KULIYA; BENISEMENI ZAKKA ESTHER; & ZAHRADDEEN BALA
Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
Heart disease is one of the global causes of death which has continued to threaten human existence globally. This paper proposes a Hyperparameter tuning technique called GridSearch which is used to best optimize Machine learning algorithms to obtain the best parameters that will result in the best performance of a given model. This experiment was conducted on 5 Machine learning classification algorithms namely, Support Vector Machine, Random Forest, Logistic Regression, Decision Tree and Naïve Bayes. Using Python, the classifiers were first trained and tested individually where we obtained accuracy scores of 78.0%, 74.7%, 80.2%, 71.4% and 79.1% for Support Vector Machine, Random Forest, Logistic Regression, Decision Tree and Naïve Bayes respectively. In the second phase of the experiment, we conducted Hyperparameter tuning on all the Machine learning classifiers where we obtained the best combination of parameters that will give the best accuracy score. The new set of parameters where later implemented on each Machine learning model using the training and test data which gave us accuracy score of 94.8% for Support Vector Machine, 90.8% for Random Forest, 92.2% for Logistic Regression, 80.7% for Decision Tree and 82.3% for Naïve Bayes. The proposed hyperparameter tuning technique used on all the Machine learning prediction algorithms obviously revealed a significant improvement of the accuracy score on all the all the 5 Machine learning classification algorithms used in this paper. As a result, the Support Vector Machine gave the best accuracy score of 94.8% revealing that the GridSearch hyperparameter tuning technique used has proven to be reliable and can be adopted in predicting if a patient is having heart disease or not.
Keywords: GridSearch, Hyperparameter tuning, Machine learning, Prediction, Support Vector Machine
STUDIES OF THE PHYSICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR EXTERIOR WALL APPLICATIONS IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
MOHAMMED AKABE*; IBRAHIM UMAR SHUAIBU; & ABDULLAHI, NURADDEEN BAKORI
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Environmental perception today encourages empiricism worldwide on the learning of plant or natural fiber reinforced polymer composite and cost efficient alternative to synthetic fiber reinforced composites. Replacement of exterior metallic wall of materials with lightweight materials that are low cost, environmental friendly, and high specific thermal properties in building and construction as weight of the metallic insulated panel continues to pose a challenge on external wall of materials and environment is the major focus of this study. As a follow-up to this problem statement, six composite material samples were fabricated as replacement options for metallic exterior sheet for incubator, refrigerator, air condition casing, mobile cart, and so on. The key study of this paper is to investigate the moisture absorption, density, thickness swelling, hardness and the thermal properties tendencies of these composite specimens as these properties determine the suitability of these materials to build the external wall. Part of the methodology adopted in the manufacturing of these composites was based on banana fiber treatment with 15% NaOH, and fiber loading in the composite panel. The experimental investigation reveals that the water absorption behaviour of composites shows significant disparity increases until after 72 hours and became consistent after 96 hours up to 192 hours duration of immersion. In addition, it was observed that the thickness swelling of the composites increases as the immersion period increases until a specific value was attained at 72 hours where no defined thickness swelling occurred. It is observed that the density of composites increases with increase in fiber content with composite sample S-2 (10 wt% fiber content) which has lowest thermal properties. However, the implication of this study is that treated banana fiber reinforced waste polystyrene foam composite material could be adopted as exterior wall of mobile carts, refrigerating system body and others because of its excellent physical and very good thermal properties.
Keywords: Composites, Banana fiber, Waste polystyrene foam, Physical properties, Thermal properties.
EFFECT OF SOLID AND WAKE BLOCKAGE ON LIFT/DRAG CHARACTERISTICS OF THERMO SET CAST NACA 0015 AT LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER
ADAMU J1, ABUBAKAR M.A2, DISINA U.M3, DAHEER A.A4
Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
The determination of lift/ drag characteristics of NACA 0015 as favored by many wind turbine manufacturers at low Reynolds number was carried out. NACA 0015 was cast using thermo set material (fibre glass and polyester resin). Wind tunnel experiments was performed to obtain the lift and drag forces. The size of the cast airfoil is such that it can be mounted in the test section of the wind tunnel. Using the wind speeds of 3.0 m/s to 7.0 m/s at intervals of 1 m/s, the lift and drag forces were measured at seventeen different angles of attack. Corrections were made on the data which account for solid and wake blockage. The characteristics of NACA 0015 airfoil were represented on charts showing the amount of lift and drag obtained at various angle of attack. Corrections were made on the data for solid and wake blockage wind tunnel boundary effect. Prevalent with low Reynolds number, the airfoil generate lesser lift and encounter higher drag, bringing down the performance efficiency of the airfoil.
Keywords: Airfoil, Wake blockage, Solid blockage, Lift/drag characteristics, Wind tunnel.
THE EFFECT OF BIFURCATION POINT ON HYDROGEN NATURAL GAS MIXTURE FLOW IN A PIPELINE SYSTEM
*1LUKA JOSHUA, 2BABA G A, 3UMAR FAROUK ABBAS, 4ABDULLAHI M. AUWAL
1Mathematics/Statistics Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. 2Mathematics Department, Federal University Dutse. 3Gombe State Polytechnic. 4Mathematics/Statistics Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
Bifurcations lead to head losses in a fluid system and necessary on flow parameter predictions. One dimensional model for fluid flow in pipeline is frequently used in fluid flow problems and also sufficient on complex systems model, such as bifurcations pipes. Non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations on Blevins modified equation to analyses the transient behavior of hydrogen natural gas mixture through pipe bifurcation. The geometry of bifurcation is accounted by modified transmission conditions and treated at the two outlets differently. Finite difference method is used to analysis the transient behavior of bifurcation point and shows produce head loss coefficients, due to amount hydrogen presents.
Keywords: Bifurcation, hydrogen, Blevins, Mixture Natural gas, Flux
ARP BINDING APPROACH FOR MITIGATING INTERNET WORMS AND PACKET SNIFFING IN WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK
OTUNIYI, M. OTUKELU1; OLABISI G. SEKONI2; & ABIODUN O. ADEPOJU3
1Department of Computer Engineering, D.S Adegbenro ICT Polytechnic, Itori Ewekoro, Nigeria. 2Department of Computer Engineering, D.S Adegbenro ICT Polytechnic, Itori Ewekoro, Nigeria. 3Department of Computer Science, D.S Adegbenro ICT Polytechnic, Itori Ewekoro, Nigeria.
Internet worms and packet sniffing are major threats to network usage and communication channel; at times, they could be associated with extensive economic damage emanating from ransom ware, spoofing, spyware and other attacks. The traffic that compromised internet connected devices also brings about network service unavailability when accessing potential resources; launching spamming to steal security information and destroying key data. In this paper, address resolution protocol (ARP) binding approach was explored in mitigation of security threats relating to internet worms and packet sniffing. ARP binding was adopted as logical technicality of associating internet protocol (IP) of every ad hoc device or requesting host with its corresponding media access control (MAC) address for source authentication. Experimental process involves special configuration of root router with access point, and domain hotspot which correlates the IP and MAC addresses of any requesting client’s device.
Keywords: Internet Worms, Security Threats, Wireless Network, Packet Sniffing, Mitigation
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF 2 POINT- BLOCK SUPER CLASS OF BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION FORMULA FOR SOLVING STIFF IVPs
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
A Refitted- block super class of backward differentiation formula for integrating first order stiff ODE’s (R2SBBDF) is derived. The proposed method approximate two solution values at a time per integration step. The stability properties are achieved by obtaining both zero and A-stability and of order 3 capable of solving stiff ODEs.
Keywords: Block, Backward differentiation formula, implicit, ODEs, zero stable.
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF NITRIC ACID ON PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE AND FLY ASH MODIFIED CONCRETE PERFORMANCE
SANNI JACOB ENEWO1, ALABI, J.O1., SESUGH TERLUMUN,2 MICHAEL OKAH CHUKWU2
1Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal polytechnic Nasarawa, Nigeria. 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna, Nigeria
Some soils contains some aggressive chemicals such as acids, bases, etc. Cement when used in such environment tends to react with the chemical composition of the soil, in the reaction process, cement composition may be altered which affects the performance of cement in such environment. This research focus on determining the performance of Portland cement concrete in nitrates environment. For this purpose, concrete cube samples were casted and cured for 28 days to achieve strength, thereafter, some concrete samples were selected and tested to evaluate the compressive strength while others were cured in aggressive media prepared by diluting 2% nitrate acid in water. At the end, both samples were tested to investigate the effects of nitrates on the compressive strength of the modified concrete. The results shows a significance reduction in the strength of the concrete under the aggressive media, though the modified concrete has reasonable resistance to nitrates attack.