TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND EARTH SCIENCE (TIJBEES)
VOL. 9 (4) MAY, 2022 EDITIONS. ISSN: 1881-2167
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies,
Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES: A PANACEA TO HOUSING RELIEVE IN THE TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA. A CASE STUDY OF THE FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC BIDA, NIGER STATE.NIGERIA
DANGANA ISMAILA AND IDOWU OLUSEGU OWOEYE (PhD)
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal University of Technology, Minna
The paper examined on how cooperative societies operating as a panacea to housing relieve in the tertiary institution in Nigeria. The Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State. There are five cooperative societies in the polytechnic. These are: CT&CS society, MASS cooperative society, SENSTAFF cooperative society, G16 cooperative society and Halal cooperative society. Random Sampling technique was adopted in selection of 355 members of cooperative societies. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive analysis, cross tabulation, charts and Pearson’s moment correlation. The study reveals that majority of the respondents have benefited from the housing loan which amount to 91.27% while only 8.73% said they do not benefit from the housing loan. This implies that the cooperative societies have major role on housing relieve in the study area. It was found out amongst others that G-16 cooperative society records highest amount of housing loan disbursement between years 2015 and 2019 with N234,301,186, N196,021,000, N211,410,111, and N331,018,131. It also reveals that the Pearson’s for the correlation between the total annual housing loan disbursements and total annual number of housing loan beneficiaries variables is -0.483 which means that changes in total annual housing loan disbursements have weak negative correlation with changes in total annual number of housing loan beneficiaries of the cooperative societies in the Polytechnic. It therefore recommended amongst others that management interference with cooperative fund recovery should be totally discouraged henceforth, so that enough capital can be made available at the disposal of the cooperative societies for the cooperative members housing loan disbursement. Also there is the need for the cooperative societies in the Polytechnic to look inward to their fund raising portfolio through linkage with other financial institutions. It is also recommended that cooperatives societies should setup a committee of experts who should be proactive in resolving all contending cooperative issues of loan applications by cooperative members in terms of complaints that are generated from time to time.
Keywords: cooperative society, panacea. Relieve housing and tertiary.
EFFECT OF MOISTURE CONTENT ON CALIFONIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) OF LATERITIC SOIL
1*T.Y. AKANBI, 2*A.M. MUSTAPHA, 1*K.O. KEVIN
1*Dept. of Civil Engineering and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Ground Communication Engineering, Airforce Institute of Technology (AFIT) Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria. 2*Dept. of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger state, Nigeria.
This research investigates the effect of moisture content on California bearing ratio (CBR) of lateritic soil using optimum moisture content and varying moisture content method of conducting CBR test. The evaluation includes index properties of soil, compaction and California bearing ratio test. The lateritic soil was classified as A-7-6 according to AASHTO classification. The compaction characteristics were carried out using British standard light, (BSL), West African standard (WAS), and Modified (ASSHTO) compactive efforts to determine the optimum moisture content (OMC) and maximum dry density (MDD)of the lateritic soil samples which was then use to obtain the corresponding CBR value based on optimum moisture content method. From the study, useful data were obtained showing that the CBR characteristic of each method varies with moisture content, with the OMC method exhibiting lower CBR value of 26% while that of varying moisture content with a value of 86% indicating an increase of 60% in CBR value.
Keywords— California bearing ratio, compaction, lateritic soil, Optimum moisture content, Soil
EFFECT OF VALUATION SERVICE QUALITY AND VALUATION RELIABILITY ON REPUTATION AMONG ESTATE SURVEYORS AND VALUERS’ FIRMS IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS
JOSEPHAT CHRISTOPHER; JOHN AZI RICHARD; AND HELEN MUSA
Department of Estate Management and Valuation Faculty of Environmental Technology Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
The issue of demanding for high services quality in valuation and reliability of valuation on reputation among estate surveyors and valuers’ firms is a global problem but, is more in the developing nations such as Nigeria. The study aimed at this study is to examine the effect of valuation service quality and reliability on reputation among estate surveyors and valuers’ firms in Bauchi Metropolis with a view to improving and enhancing the quality of valuation services and reputation of estate surveyors and valuers’ firms in the study area. The population of this study are the commercial banks in Bauchi metropolis. Sample frame of this study are the 21 commercial banks in Bauchi Metropolis.. A survey research was carried out through the use of questionnaire instrument. A total of one 63 questionnaire were administered to clients (banks) stratified random sampling under the probability type of sampling techniques was adopted in this study. Data was analysed using statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS). Result exposed that the that R-Value of 0.699 and R-Square value of 0.488 with F-statistics value of 27.217 were significant as showed by ρ-value of 0.000 far below the recommended maximum of 0.05 (Pallant, 2011). Therefore, independent variables of valuation service quality reliability of valuation explained 48.8% has the effect on reputation with significance. study recommended that the Estate Surveyors and Valuers’ office/firm should be in central business district or along the major road for easy location and Estate Surveyors and Valuers’ should improve in innovation such as an invention, or the practice of developing and introducing new things in firms.
Keywords: Valuation, Service Quality, Reliability, Reputation, Estate Surveyors’, Firms
EFFECT OF PH ON THE STRENGTH OF LOCALLY MADE EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISM CONCRETE
ADAMU SANI ABUBAKAR1, SAGIR ISHAQ2 AND IBRAHIM ADAMU KWAMI3
123Department of Building, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria
Various researches have been carried out to improve the technology of concrete, some of which include the introduction of admixtures in concrete production which include effective microorganisms. The main objective of this research is to experimentally assess the effect of pH on the strength of locally made Effective Microorganism concrete. The Effective Microorganisms were produced locally through the process of natural fermentation of fruits and vegetable wastes. A microbiological analysis was carried out and the compositions of the locally made Effective Microorganisms were identified which are Bacillus spp,; Lactobacillus spp; PseudomonasSpp; Aspergillus niger; Saccharomyces specie; Penicillionspp; Botrytis spp and Rhizopus Spp. The pH values of locally made effective microorganism used were pH 3.9 pH 3.7, pH 2.8 and pH 2.3. 3% of locally made effective microorganism used to replace the mixing water required. 120 cubes were produced for compressive strength, water Absorption and Ultrasonic pulse velocity tests. The results of the tests indicate that the locally made effective microorganisms retards the setting time of cement, and also enhances the workability of concrete. It also indicated that the concrete specimens with of locally made EM-A of pH 3.7 possessed the highest compressive strength than the control specimens by 6.14%, 3.70%, 9.82%, 10.42 and 11.62% at 7, 14, 28 and 90 days respectively. The water absorption of EM concrete specimens decreased with the increase in maturity age and also with decrease in pH values of EM-A used. Ultrasonic pulse velocity increases with the increase in maturity age and also with decrease in pH value of EM-A use. The research recommends that locally sourced fruits can be used to produced effective microorganisms which can further be used as an admixture in concrete production.
Keywords: Concrete, Admixture, Effective Microorganisms, Compressive strength, workability, setting time and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity
ASSESSING FADAMA AGRICULTURE LAND PRODUCTIVITY IN AUCHI
1SEGHOSIME, ABDUL MUTANEBI; 2RILWANI, MOMOH LAWAL; & 3OJEIFO, MAGNUS O.
1Department of Humanities & Social Sciences, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi. 2&3Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.
This paper shows the application of Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (PPMC) in assessing Fadama land agricultural crop production. Data were generated from the field survey carried out in Auchi Fadama Agriculture land, where twenty (20) farm plots were sampled. Measurement of the farm sizes were carried out with the help of measuring tape rule and the unit of measurement was in hectares while three crops (maize, yam & cassava) were sampled. Their output per farm plot measured with a weight scale in Kilogram (kg) and converted to tonnes, maize had 88.8 tonnes, yam had 112.4 tonnes while cassava had over 60% of the total output of 555.3 tonnes of crop yield annually. The results showed a correlation of: maize had 0.85; yam had 0.83 and cassava had 0.96 while the aggregate crop output had 0.98 which means that there is a strong positive relationship between farm size and farm yield. The origin, procedure for calculating the PPMC, its strength and weakness were highlighted too in this paper. It was therefore, concluded that the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient is a good statistical model to assess the strength and direction of association or correlation of two variables (farm size and farm yield).
Keywords: Pearsonia Product Moment Correlation, Fadama, Agriculture, Farm size and Farm Yield
MINERALS CONCENTRATION OF SOIL IN RELATION TO THE PASTURE REQUIREMENTS IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLITAN AREA
1U. T. IZGE; 1M.B. YOUSUF; 2USMAN KOLO; & 2BULAU M,M
1University of Ilorin, 2University of Maiduguri
Information on mineral levels of forages are very important to identify what measures should be taken to improve the nutritional status of grazing livestock. Seasonal variation affects livestock seasonal production in different regions of the world by affecting forage dry matter accumulation. The study was aimed to evaluate the concentration of minerals in relation to pasture requirement of ruminants. The study was conducted in two successive phases. The Soil was collected daily within the vicinity of Maiduguri metropolitan; each wards five different sample was collected at random following the grazing Animal on grazing field. The samples were allowed to dry using hot oven (Model 30GC lab oven) and then ground into fine powder by using a porcelain mortar and pestle. The study discovered that soil minerals are concentrated in 6 local government areas of the 12 studied. These soil minerals relatively complement the growth of forages for ruminant nutrition in those areas.
Keywords: Soil; Mineral Concentrations; Farm Animals; Pasture; Nutrients
FORMAL LAND ACCESSIBILITY CHALLENGES IN ZARIA NIGERIA
LIKITA SAMAILA 1*, BALA ISHIYAKU 2 MUHAMMAD UMAR BELLO3
1,2,3Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B 0248, Bauchi State, Nigeria
The aimed of this research is to assess the formal land accessibility challenges in Zaria Nigeria. The study adopted the use of quantitative design and data were collected through questionnaire survey from staff of the ministry of works and housing who were randomly drawn. 250 structured questionnaires were distributed to the staff of grade 5 to 7, the study adopted convenient simple random sampling technique and SPSS software version 22 was used for data analysis and the results were presented in tables. The study revealed that the formal land accessibility challenges in Zaria, are government policy, registration fees, corruption, taxes, housing policy ranked from 1st to 5th. The study concluded government policy, registration fees, corruption, taxes, housing policy are the challenges formal land accessibility in Zaria. The lower factor are informal market and land availability in the study area. The lower challenges are informal market and land availability ranked from 11th to 12th in the study area. The study recommended that the government should regulates the cost of acquiring land to enable less privilege people to access land and this will lead to solve the issues of lands accessibility. The study recommended that favorable government policy should be formulated to address the issues of lands availability and accessible to every Nigerians. The study recommended that the government should make police to eliminate the corruption practices among the lands officers concern. The study recommended that the government and financial institution should emphasis on interest rate charges reduction so that more individual can be able to obtain loan facilities as lower interest rate.
Keys: Land, Land Accessibility, Formal Land, Challenges, Housing affordability
URBAN PLANNING PRACTICE AND THE CONTROL OF INSECURITY: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS FOR NIGERIA CITY
ADAH, PAUL DANLADI
Department of Urban and Regional Planning School of Environmental Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Kogi State
The research is urban planning practice and the control of insecurity, challenges, and prospect for Nigeria city. The scope of the study is on the activities of urban planning and it influence in the control of insecurity. The objective of the study is to examine ways urban planning practices enhances security in the urban environment. Qualitative approach was adopted for the study. The data collected for the study were from secondary sources and were analysed using content analysis. The finding of the study indicated urban planning practices have the potentials to create an environment that is less susceptible to insecurity. The adoption of crime prevention approach in design could minimise insecurity within the urban environment. In conclusion, to eradicate insecurity, land areas must have defined function, have defined paths for movement, outdoor areas should be juxtaposed with homes, and indoor spaces should visually provide for close watch of outside areas. The paper therefore recommends that appropriate crime prevention strategy be apply in every planning design. The neighbourhoods design concept should be strictly adhere to in any unit of residential development to foster togetherness. The paper also recommends capacity building that would engender innovative design towards hindering operation of people with criminal tendency.
Keywords: Crime, Insecurity, theory, Urban Environment, and Urban Planning Practices
EXPLOITING THE POTENTIALS OF VACANT AND ABANDONED PROPERTIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF NASARAWA, NIGERIA
AYODELE, KAYODE DAVID; & AJANI, USMAN YUSUF
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nigeria.
In many cities, vacant and abandoned properties make up a substantial portion of the urban environment. However, these property types have been identified with negative stigmas thus necessitating a review of the potentials of such properties in the context of achieving a sustainable environment. As a result, the potentials of vacant/abandoned properties for sustainable development in Nasarawa was investigated in this study. The study’s sampled populations were the owners/occupants of residential properties in Nasarawa. Data was gathered using structured questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive statistics, weighted mean score and Factor Analysis. The research found that inaccurate estimates; inadequate funding allocation; current economic situation; rising cost of construction/ building materials and unstable Government Policies are the major factors influencing undeveloped / vacant and abandoned properties. Furthermore, the research revealed that the major potentials of vacant/abandoned properties include utilization of the land resources; re-compliance with adequate building bye-laws and planning standards; ensure proper development and smart city creation; enhance real estate development in the society and availability of land for housing construction. The results of the factor analysis show a KMO of 0.713 which is significant at p value ≤0.005. Furthermore, the potentials of vacant/abandoned properties in Nasarawa were suppressed into four (4) components with a cumulative percentage of 68.359%. The study concluded that Proper policy adoption and execution will undoubtedly secure and improve the management of vacant/abandoned properties with a view to ensuring a sustainable environment.
Keywords: Vacant, Abandoned, Undeveloped, Properties, Sustainable Development
ACTUAL INFLATION AND RETURNS OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY INVESTMENT IN ABUJA, NIGERIA
EKPO, MBOSOWO EBONG; & JEREMIAH, UDUAK OKON
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, Ikot Ekpene. Akwa Ibom State.
The aim of this research was to investigate the returns characteristics and the inflation hedging potentials of residential property investment in Abuja between 2012 and 2022. In order to achieve the stated aim, the objectives included: to investigate the average rental and average capital values as well as returns of residential property in the study area from 2012 to 2021; to ascertain the trend of actual inflation in the study area from 2012 to 2021 and to analyse the inflation-hedging potentials of the investment in the study area. This research work adopted the cross-sectional survey type of design. Primary data used for this study was obtained through questionnaire survey. The data collected was used to calculate the returns. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data while the Holding Period Returns formula was employed to determine the returns of the properties. The study revealed that there was a consistent increase in the rate of returns of residential properties in the study area from year to year except a sudden decline in 2019 and 2020. The study also found out that throughout the study period, the actual inflation had been in the double-digit range with the exception of 2013, 2014 and 2015. The study also found out that the returns in the study area indicated a perverse hedge against inflation. This implies that the returns from residential property investment in Phase 2 of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, does not have the ability to hedge against inflation. Based on the research findings, it was recommended and concluded that further research be carried out to ascertain the relationship between returns and other components of inflation. The investment information provided in this study has significant implications for both local and foreign investors desiring to invest in the Nigerian property market, with particular reference to residential property market in Abuja.
Keywords: Returns, Inflation, Investment, Residential property, Abuja.
CAUSES OF SKILLED LABOUR SHORTAGE AND EFFECTS ON PROJECT PRODUCTIVITY ON CONSTRUCTION SITES IN LAGOS, NIGERIA
ABDULLAHI, AMEENAH HAJA1, MOHAMMED, ISAH LEJE2, SULEIMAN, SULEIMAN3
1,2Quantity Surveying Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bida. 3Quantity Surveying Department Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru
On construction sites, employment is characterized by a relatively high rate of attrition, such as a gradual, natural reduction in personnel membership through retirement, resignation, or death among subcontractors as well as waged workers, resulting in a periodic shortage of skilled labour, which has an effect on project productivity. The effects of a skilled labour shortage on project productivity has been identified as one of the most difficult challenges that the construction industry, particularly in developing countries, faces. Therefore, this study investigated the causes of skilled labour shortages on construction sites, the effects of skilled labour shortages on project productivity, and the measures to mitigate skilled labour shortages. The questionnaire was used as a data collection tool in the study, which took a quantitative approach. Descriptive methods were used to analyse the collected data. The survey concluded that tool and equipment shortages, government policies, lack of training and retraining, and lack of motivation were factors that contributed to the shortage of skilled labour on construction sites in Lagos, while poor quality of work and time overruns were the major effects of skilled labour shortage on construction sites in Lagos, and the study’s recommendations for mitigating skilled labour shortage on construction sites in Lagos included the provision of good specifications, training and retraining on a regular basis to keep up with the latest project management trends, and that employers should devise various motivational strategies for their employees.
Keywords: Construction sites, Skilled labour shortage, Project productivity
GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF CRIME INCIDENCE IN JALINGO METROPOLIS, TARABA STATE, NIGERIA
ATEGBE, D.1; AKPU, B.2; ADEFILA, J. O.3; & DASHE, P. Y.4
1Department of Cartography & GIS, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. 2 ,3Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 4Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna
Crime is a common phenomenon in all urban cities around the world. This study applied geospatial techniques in analyzing crime in Jalingo Metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria. The data on crime were obtained from the Taraba State Police Command. ArcGIS version 10.8 and SPSS software were used to analyzed the data using Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis, Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) and Questionnaire survey to show the spatio-temporal analysis of crime and critical factors contributing to crime in the study area. The findings of the study revealed the general crime incidence within the study area with the highest crime incidence occurring in Kona ward with 15.14% while the figure in Turaki-A ward shows low crime incidence rate with 3.57%. The temporal analysis of crime shows that the months August and September witness a very low crime rate, while those with high and very high are April, May and December. The year 2019 recorded the highest crimes with 983 representing about 20.13% of the total crimes recorded as against year 2016 with the lowest with 290 incidences representing 5.93% of the total crimes recorded. The hotspots result shows that Stadium is the most dangerous location in the study area with 17.73% of the crime cases. The study also revealed the major factors contributing to crime rates, with unemployment having the highest coefficient of 0.987 and the lowest is inflation with the coefficient of 0.277. The study, therefore recommends that government and non-governmental organization should create job opportunity for the masses, community policing should be established, more security personnel should be deployed to such areas with high crime incidence and tackle the menace of illicit drug abuse among the teeming youth in the study area.
Keywords: Co-efficient, Crime, Geospatial, Incidence, Spatio-temporal
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CORN COB ASH (CCA) AND SAW DUST ASH (SDA) AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CEMENT IN CONCRETE
BLDR. DR. OLOWOAKE, MOHAMMED ADELAJA; & KASALI MOSES OLANIYI
Department of Building Technology, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Ogun State
The study premeditated on the daily skyrocketing cost of buying cements for the production of concrete, mortal and so on. The study experimented on the use of CCA, SDA and the combination of the duo as alternative materials to cement. The objectives entail the comparison of the use of SDA, CCA and the combination of the duo as partial cob ash, curing, saw dust ash, partial replacement, and workability. replacement for cement in concrete via scientific analysis as well as proffering probable solution to the use of alternative materials as partial replacement for cement in concrete with guidance from the review of related literatures, laboratory experiments conducted based on a research methodology that entailed replacement of cement by weight at varying percentages of 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% with SDA, CCA and equal combination of the two, as well as the chemical composition, slump test, sieve analysis test, compressive strength test and 100% cement concrete mix ratio 1:2:4 – 19mm aggregate. and water and cement ratio of 6.0 which was later increased to 7.0 was examined and compared. Findings from the laboratory experiment revealed that the average compressive strength of the control concrete cubes were compared to other substituted samples of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days respectively. At 7 days, duo at 15% has the highest average of compressive strength of 6.3N/mn2 while saw dust ash and corn cob ash at 60% has the lowest average strength of 1.1N/mn2. At 14 days, duo at 15% has the highest average of compressive strength of 9.4N/mn2 while saw dust ash and corn cob ash at 60% has the lowest average strength of 3.5N/mn2 and 3.0N/mn2 At 21 days, duo at 15% has the highest average of compressive strength of 10.3N/mn2 while saw dust ash and corn cob ash at 60% has the lowest average strength of 3.7N/mn2 and 3.0N/mn2 At 28 days, duo at 15% has the highest average of compressive strength of 12.0N/mn2 while saw dust ash and corn cob ash at 60% has the lowest average strength of 3.8N/mn2. Although no partial replacement of cement concrete cub had more compressive strength than the partial replacement concrete cubes sample had the closest results to the control experiment mix. From the results, it was recommended that only 15% partial replacement of cement of the duo sample enjoys adequate strength.
Keywords: Cement, compressive strength, corn
AN INVESTIGATION INTO MORTGAGE VALUATION PRACTICE IN IBADAN METROPOLIS
OLOJEDE, I. O., MURITALA, A. O., AJIBADE, N. A.
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki.
This paper examined mortgage valuation practice in Ibadan metropolis with a view to enhancing effective mortgage valuation practice within real estate and valuation industry in Nigeria. This study utilized primary data that were obtained through random sampling of 53 Registered Estate surveyors and Valuers in Ibadan Metropolis. Data collected were analyzed with the use of descriptive and inferential statistics. The study has found out that mortgage valuation briefs are being received on most frequently basis in the study area. The study has also shown that the major source of mortgage valuation brief is through financial institutions. The study indicated that property valuation firms are not currently adopting appropriate bases in their mortgage valuation practice. Also, most of the valuation firms are currently adopting blindly, cost or contractor’s method instead of investment and market comparison methods in mortgage valuation which are recommended in the literature. The study showed that the principal problem associated with mortgage valuation identified in the study area is big influential clients who might want to obtain their self-desired result. It was also shown that property valuation firms are not currently reflecting appropriate bases and methods in their mortgage valuation. Based on the outcome of the study, the following recommendations are made. It is recommended that Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers should make it mandatory for all property valuation firms to set up a data bank which will collate all important property facts from these firms and to submit such data bank so as to assist researchers in obtaining relevant facts on the frequency of mortgage valuation briefs and other property market indices. It is also recommended that the property valuation firms should expedite actions to reflection appropriate bases and methods in their mortgage valuation practice.
Keywords: Property Valuation, Mortgage Valuation, Open market Value, Ibadan Metropolis.
EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY OF BIOSAND FILTER FOR POLLUTED SURFACE WATER TREATMENTS IN HOMES OF RURAL AND URBAN COMMUNITIES
1SALAUDEEN, S., 1AZEEZ, M.O., 2ASIMI, M.A., 3ASHIRU, A. R., 2MUIDEEN, R. A., AND 3OLANITE, W. A.,
1Department of Civil Engineering, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki. 2Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engnr, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki. 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki.
Foofo River receives fetchers from far and near the site every day for various domestic use without considering the possibility of the water being contaminated as well as humans being affected by the water. This study investigates the suitability of the water for the various uses, likely contaminants and the treatment with locally constructed and loaded biosand filter (BSF) materials indigenous to our local environment. Raw water samples S1 and S2 collected at mid and downstream respectively indicates that the water has been contaminated. The BSF was used to treat the water and compared with WHO, (2022) guideline values. The BSF was able to eliminate all the harmful substances in the samples except ammonia whose reduction was still slightly above the stipulated limit though 76.8 % and 98.7% removal was achieved respectively. Consuming ammonia in water does not pose any serious health challenges except when the consumption becomes prolonged at higher quantity. The biosand filter raises the DO level from 2.00 to 11.20mg/l and 3.00 to 12.00mg/l at S1 respectively which is an indication of improved freshness and quality of the water. The E-coli was 100% removed in S1 but in S2, it was reduced from a huge amount of 3×103mg/l to a paltry 4.00mg/l which was approximately 99.90% removal. The sources of ammonia and fecal inputs should be traced and prevented from entering the water body.
Keywords: Biosand filter, River, Contamination, Water Treatment, Filter Bed, Flow Rate.
URBAN DEVELOPMENT THROUGH SUSTAINABLE WETLANDS MANAGEMENT – A STUDY OF OGBA-IWAYA GREEN CORRIDOR IN LAGOS MAINLAND
UDUMA-OLUGU NNEZI; AND ADESINA ADEKUNLE JOHN
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka-Yaba Lagos State, Nigeria.
Adopting a new paradigm in the urban planning process helps to create a resilient metropolitan city and functional urban open spaces. Lagos State Government is worried about the increasing volume of greenhouse gases emission in the metropolis, hence there is a need to remedy the degrading settlements. Mitigation measures traceable to over-reliance on hydrocarbon-based facilities and equipment call for the redevelopment of the green corridors and wetlands. These green corridors are the existing thin strip of land within Lagos Mainland which are habitats for wildlife and biodiversity. They include wetlands and canal routes which fall within the setbacks of Agidingbi, Opebi, Oregun, Maryland, Yaba and Iwaya rivers flood plain with a distance of about 17km. Urban development in the past has not articulated these sustainable components in the environmental design but this paper is guided by the use of afforestation and urban greening solutions. The study examines and identified the various land uses existing in the study area to evaluate their level of compliance with the Global Climate Change policies that address low carbon emissions through eco-friendly green infrastructures that enhance the environmental air quality for a more sustainable Lagos. The study is underpinned by the green urbanism dictum. Following the qualitative and descriptive analysis of the on-site data collection, observations and evaluations, the developmental and adaptive strategies were mapped out through GIS-based network mapping. The land use data were obtained from various analyses conducted by the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), used to take twenty-six (26) Points at about 500m intervals along the green corridors and wetlands. The socioeconomic information and details were gotten through various observations, interviews and personal deductions. The well-being of a city cannot be separated from the well-being of its environment therefore the study recognised the role of a healthy ecosystem and reduced reliance on fossil fuel, increased green open spaces, restoration of habitats, water and air purity. The study proposed carbon sequestration through restoration, conservation of existing wetlands and other strategic adaptive solutions toward a sustainable and resilient city development in the form of; urban green infrastructures, non-motorized transportation mode, urban agriculture along the wetlands, restoration of the wetlands and waterways, conservation and inclusive landscape regeneration of the open spaces and concludes by stressing the reality of sustainable low carbon philosophy within the landscape and built environment pedagogy.
Keywords: greenhouse gases; green corridors; climate change; landscape regeneration; urban green infrastructure.
EVOLUTION OF KIRIGAMI AND ORIGAMI TOWARDS ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT- A REVIEW
IBRAHIM MUSAA, BELLO MUSBAU ADEWUMIB, KABIRU ZAKARIC AND OSUNKUNLE ABDULMAGEEDD
a,c&dDepartment of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi state. bDepartment of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara state
Origami, from ‘oru’, meaning ‘fold’ and ‘kami’, meaning `paper’, is an ancient Japanese art of making objects for decoration by folding sheets of paper into shapes and forms without joining with adhesives. While kirigami involves folding and cutting of papers and modelling boards joined together with adhesives as a relief. Origami and kirigami structures at the micro/nanoscale in relation to architecture were established as a conceptual system suggesting further use of both techniques and methods for exploring the transformation of three-dimensional entities in the design of spatial structures. In Islamic art and Japanese architecture, origami plays a very important role in the evolution of design thoughts both in theory and practice. As a result of the above, this paper is aimed at studying the various concept development in architecture, using origami and kirigami. The methodology entails qualitative analysis by both compare and contrast method, using the iterations at the general views and specific views vis- a-vis the raised questions. As a result of the above, this paper reviews as well as appraises the issues such as innovative designs systems, bio-architecture (biophyllic, biomimicry, e.t.c) amphibian architecture systems, digital intelligent building systems, 3d printed homes or hybrid, vertical and modular systems etc. for implementation in day-to-day architectural concept development.
Keywords: art, concept, building, transformation, theory and practice.