TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND EARTH SCIENCE (TIJBEES)
VOL. 11 (4) NOVEMBER, 2022 EDITION. ISSN: 2623-7861
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
AN ASSESSMENT OF OFF AND MINI-GRID ELECTRICITY BENEFICIARIES AND AVERAGE CAPACITY OF ELECTRICITY CONSUMED PER MONTH IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES WITHIN NORTH CENTRAL, NIGERIA
NANEN D. HEMBE1 AND KAMA, HOSEA GOBAK2
Dept. of Geography, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria1
Department of Environmental Science; Faculty of Sciences National Open University of Nigeria, Jabi-Abuja2
Electric power supply from mini-grids is gaining prominence as a strategy with great potential to contribute meaningfully at improving access to electricity globally, especially to rural areas. However, there is substantial evidence to suggest that policy and development initiatives focus more on increasing generation alone and this is not enough to resolve the inefficiencies in the power sector. This study undertakes an impact assessment of mini grids on the most important stakeholders in the sector, the beneficiaries. The mixed method approach involving both qualitative and quantitative data collection was adopted to achieve the aim. The sample size is all the projects executed by REA between 2016 and 2021 in North Central, Nigeria. The study revealed that residential connections use an average of 1-3kWh/day, Business connections use an average of 3-5 kWh/day, while productive users such as welders and millers use 12-15 kWh/day. Sources of fuels used for cooking by beneficiaries in the study area was assessed and it was found that only 6% used electricity for cooking. The study concludes that the performance of off or mini-grid projects within communities in the study area differs significantly from community to community, even when executed under the same policy framework or by the same agency. The study recommends REA and their development consultants to prioritize energizing productive uses and incorporate the Beneficiary Assessment model in PPPs to accommodate local circumstances and beneficiary preferences.
Keywords: Off-Grid Electricity, Community, REA, Beneficiaries, capacity, Kilo Watts hour.
ENGAGING TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS VIS-À-VIS THE INDUSTRY TO IMPROVE PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS
1ODETOYE SUNDAY ADEOLA, 2ABUBAKAR ALIYU MUNKAILA & 3KABIRU ZAKARI 4OSUNKUNLE ABDULMAGEED
1Department of Architecture, Ladoke Akintola University, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. 2,3 &4Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
Education is central to all physical, social and economic growth. In most African countries, especially some states in Nigeria, quite large numbers of existing government tertiary schools are existing in isolation and the management and operation of such school facilities are too much of a heavy burden to bear due to some circumstances. To cushion the effects of such burdens, Public Private Partnership (PPP) has been suggested as a way out in transforming the linkages of tertiary institution to the industries. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to examine the issues and challenges facing the linkages of tertiary institutions to the industry and to proffer evidence based solution to the menace of deteriorating school facilities through a sustainable PPP intervention. In conclusion, a detailed study with relevant qualitative analysis showed an acceptable positive result. It was then recommended among others that at all levels, public-private participation should be embraced to fund, develop and promote educational sector of the economy in terms of school facilities, school renovations and provision of instructional materials towards a sustainable educational development in Nigeria.
Key words: African, development, materials, participation and sector
EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION, MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION AMONG THE PEOPLE OF YOBE STATE, NIGERIA
1ABBA, BABAKURA MOHAMMED, 2MOHAMMED, B.3AHMED, RABI SALEH
Desert Research, Monitoring and Control Centre, Yobe State University, Damaturu.
Climate change environmental degradation and human activities have become a major challenge in Nigeria and have several direct and indirect impacts on health, and are a massive threat to human development and in some places it is already undermining the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the international community’s efforts to reduce extreme poverty. The issue of climate change is global and Nigeria is not excluded from its threat. Environmental degradation, climate change impacts are extremely upset and shocked due to their vulnerability and low coping capability. The Sources of data used in the study are, primary and secondary source of data. The primary includes observation, interview and questionnaire while the secondary used related literatures and journals to justify the findings. Thus, about 500 structured questionnaires were used to source data from respondents. The study found that the primary cause of the menace include burning of fossil fuel, greenhouse emission, increase in temperature, rainfall, extreme weather. These increased health risks such as chronic sickness, Sickle Cell Anemia more also Malaria, high blood pressure, skin cancer, Cerebra Meningitis were also direct consequences of climate change. Lastly, the study found that very few in the study area are using local adaptation method to limit the menace of climate change and environmental degradation through Multiple Cropping, Adjusting Farming, Applying Irrigation, Tree Planting and changing Cropping. It concludes by identifying the reasons for the effect of climate change. Finally the study recommends that Government should raise awareness on the adverse effect of climate change which is common among the vulnerable in Nigeria, Implement laws and regulations based on the existing regulations on land use.
Keywords: Climate change, Degradation, Environment, Effect, Mitigation, Adaptation, Yobe, Nigeria
ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF STRESS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CONSTRUCTION PRACTITIONERS IN KADUNA STATE
YUSUF, I; & OLA-AWO, A. W.
Department of Quantity Surveying, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
In today’s workplace, across different industries, stress has become one of the world’s most common health concerns requiring considerable attention. Therefore, this study assessed the impact of work stress on the performance of construction practitioners with a view to suggesting strategies for effective management of stress. 201 questionnaires were administered to the research population and 200 were retrieved representing a response rate of 95.5 %. Analysis of the data was carried out with the use of Percentages, Mean Item Score (MIS), and Pearson product correlation. The study found that poor working conditions (MIS = 3.72); and work overload (MIS = 3.72) are the most prevalent factors contributing to stress among practitioners in the construction industry. Findings from the study also revealed that reduced job satisfaction (MIS = 3.90) is the most significant impact stress has on construction practitioners performance while task performance (MIS = 3.80) and technical performance (MIS = 3.76) are the most commonly used performance measures for construction practitioners. The study also found that work stress has a significant positive and slightly strong relationship with performance of construction practitioners with a value of 0.393. It was therefore concluded that workplace stress is a double edge sword and has both positive and negative impacts on the performance of professionals in the construction industry. The major recommendation from the study was that management should ensure that personnel are up-to-date and get sufficient training in order to effectively execute their jobs and track their progress.
Keywords: Construction practitioner, Performance, Stress,
ASSESSMENT OF SECURITY MEASURES IN THE DESIGN OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL IN KASTINA STATE, NIGERIA
MOMOH THANKGOD; & DR CHARLES MAKUN
Department of Architecture, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
Over the years there have being a global increase in terrorist attacks, the last few years, Nigeria as a country has have its own fair share of terrorism attacks, ranging from kidnapping to terrorist attacks and most of this attacks are carried out by terrorist forcing their way through unsecured public buildings, we conclude that the effect of these attacks especially bomb blast attacks on buildings affects the overall safety of building occupants and other important structure. It is therefore become a matter to take seriously. This recent wave of abductions follows other notorious incidents of mass abduction and murder of students, most prominently the cases of the Chibok and Dapchi girls. We should take all aspects and consideration to increase the architectural and structural resistance by advanced methods of designing, advanced materials and different security procedure of implication. It is mainly because of these are manmade disaster that’s why it’s an exceptional case. furthermore it is discovered that most public buildings mostly in the northern part of the country are not designed with some innovative security measures as to be adopted in such structures to safe guard it. Hence the need for proper security measure in public buildings through the use of crime prevention through environment control (CPTED) cannot be overemphasized, therefore this research is embarked upon exploring different measure through crime prevention can be actualized in public building through the use of crime prevention through environmental control, so as to reduce or counter terrorist’s attacks in public schools in northern part of the country, we will be adopting qualitative research approach, which entails participating, observing and also conducting interviews, the results of the findings will be incorporated as a serious measure in public schools to enhance security against terrorism in public structures.
Keywords: Innovative, Environmental, Terrorist, Kidnapping, Terrorism.
ASSESSMENT OF THE APPLICATION OF ECO-FRIENDLY STRATEGIES IN RESORT BUILDINGS IN NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA
TSADO, S. B.; & AKANDE, K. O.
Department of Architecture, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
It has been observed that the built environment contributes to the relationship between humanity and nature. To achieve this, researchers suggest that the desires of humans, the integrity of both natural and managed ecosystems, the design of nature, economic sustainability, the ecological economics, various indigenous biodiversity, and the environmental literacy available for sustainable development, resource conservation, and protection of the natural world; all have need to be considered. This paper aims to weigh the use of eco-friendly strategies in resort buildings in Nigeria as it affects the relationship between humans and nature. This would be carried out through the use of questionnaires which were administered to 250 building design team members, visitors and users of resort buildings in North-central Nigeria. Analysis helping software like the SPSS and MS-Excel were used in analysing the data through the Likert-scale and Mann-Whitney U-test while presentations made through charts and figures. This evaluation considered the progress made from previous researches in the identification of eco-friendly strategies as well as the synergy of both ecology and the built-environment. It is recommended that the relationship and the responsively of the stakeholders is considered in Biophilic design. This research would help in guiding building designers and landscape specialists in enhancing ecology in resort design in Nigeria.
Keywords: Biophilic Design, Built Environment, Ecology, Humans, Nature
RE-INVENTING THE CONCEPT OF FLEXIBLE SPACES FOR SHOPPING MALLS IN KUGBO, ABUJA, NIGERIA
NWODOH, LINDA OGECHUKWU1; & EZE, CHUKWUDUM JASPER 2
Department of Architecture, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria1
The process of reinventing spaces within the mall would deliver a product, be it an office space or social space that would provide tenants with spaces which are valuable, needed and useful. This shows an appreciation of prevailing trends and the need for shopping mall spaces to be transformed to alternative uses that can breathe life into it. As a result of changes in human behaviour and technological advancement, the need for flexible space creation is on the increase. This change is most evident in commercial facilities where rigid and solid wall construction is the norm and poses a limitation for expansion as a result of the growth of commercial establishments. The aim of this paper is to make spaces within the mall flexible so that the spaces can be transformed to serve various purposes as the need arise. The methodology used in this research is the descriptive research method. This study involved literature review and case study of selected shopping malls in Abuja, Nigeria. Content analysis was utilized in analysing and reporting data collected from the literature review and case studies. The result from this show that some of the shopping malls visited are not flexible enough to be used for other purposes. It therefore concludes that the study will promote flexibility of mall spaces for multiple uses thereby making it easily marketable. It therefore recommends that Architects and designers should improve on their design to encourage flexibility of spaces for multiple use.
Keywords: Commercial, Design, Flexible, Shopping Mall, Trends, Re-invent
AWARENESS AND PERCEPTIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AMONG EXTENSION WORKERS OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (ADP) IN PART OF NIGER STATE
HASSAN, IBRAHIM ALHAJI; & DR. T. I. YAHAYA
Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
Given the devastating effects of climate change on agriculture, it is pertinent to determine the level of awareness and perception of climate change among extension workers of the Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) in Niger State. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine the level of awareness and perception of climate change among extension workers of the Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) in part of Niger State. The paper used both primary and secondary data. The methods of data analysis used include both qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods. The Data analysis was analysed utilizing SPSS 22.0. The study shows that conference source ranked the highest with 255 sampled population affirming it, radio source ranked second with 252 sampled population affirming it while cell phone ranked the least with 9 sampled population affirming it. This shows that the major source of climate change information for ADP workers was conference organized by both the government and non governmental organizations. The study also revealed that the major perceived cause of climate change is cutting down of trees. The study also shows that reduced crop yield was the major perceived effect of climate change in the study area which is a factor of decrease soil fertility and increased crop pests and diseases in the study area. The paper concludes that agricultural extension agents in Niger State are aware of climate change but lack sufficient knowledge about it, and thus require training on a variety of climate change-related topics, most notably basic climate change concepts, the use of cultural practices to mitigate and adapt to climate impacts, and environmentally friendly management practices to reduce climate change impact within the study area.
Keywords: Awareness, Perception, Climate Change, Agricultural Development Programme and Extension Workers
AN EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF HOME OWNERS CHARTER (HOC) AS AN ALTERNATIVE LAND REGISTRATION IN OYO STATE
FAYOMI, I1, ADEDOKUN, A. R2. & OLORUNYOMI, O.A3
1&2 Department of Estate Management, Lead City University, Ibadan. 3Department of Estate Management, Federal University of Technology, Minna.
Land registration helps reduce landownership insecurity. Difficulties with conventional land registration required solutions to curb problems. This study evaluated home owners charter (HOC) as an alternative land registration in Oyo State. Simple random sample was employed for Home Owners Charter (HOC) Certificate of Occupancy (C of O) applicants, and respondents were given structured questions utilizing convenience sampling. Frequency tables, mean score, relative important index (RII), and Multiple Regression Analysis were used to analyze data. The study found that process reduction and technology improvements must be made to improve HOC land registration in Oyo State. The study found that HOC’s performance as an alternative land registration in Oyo State was above average but better than the initial practice. Accessibility to land services through current technology (RII=0.99), professionalism and implementation (RII=0.96), and level of openness in land registration process (RII=0.95) influence alternative land registration performance in Oyo state. The study only included candidates who hadn’t obtained their paperwork. Home Owners Charter (HOC) has enhanced conventional land registration, but more work remains to improve the technologies used for service delivery, notably in commercial real estate. The study analyzed the performance of the Home Owners Charter (HOC) as an alternative land registration in Oyo State and found that married persons, professionals, civil servants, and business people benefited the most. Process reduction and technology adoption have helped improve alternative land registration in Oyo state. The data acquired from respondents was part of the researcher’s day-to-day work at the ministry of lands and housing, hence the study is original.
KEYWORDS: Land, Land Registration, Certificate of Occupancy (C of O), Home Owners Charter (HOC)
EFFECTS OF LEAD NITRATES ON THE COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATED LATERITIC SOIL
KEVIN O. K1; ABDULFATAH A.Y2.; SANI J E3; & MOSES G3.
1 Department of Civil Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna. 2Department of Civil Engineering, Bayero University Kano. 3 Department of Civil Engineering, Nigeria Defense Academy, Kaduna
The moisture-density relationship between Pb-contaminated soil and electrokinetically remediated treated soil is investigated in this study. Five of three kilograms of lateritic soil were contaminated with lead (II) nitrate salts with a maximum 10% lead nitrate concentration at a stepwise rate of 0.2% by weight of dry soil. The mixture was kept in a plastic container for 30 days. Soil samples were remediated using electrokinetic techniques to study the efficiency of this method to extract lead nitrate from soil. 0.1 M ethylenediamine tetraceteacid (EDTA) and 0.1 M acetic acid were used as a purging solution at the cathode and anode compartments, respectively. After testing the removal efficiency of lead nitrate with X-ray fluorescence equipment ranging from – to -, compaction was performed on both natural and lead nitrate-contaminated soil and EKR-treated soil samples at British Standard Light (BSL), West African (WAS), and British Standard Heavy (BSH) compaction energies. The result obtained shows that as lead concentration increases, there is an increase in maximum dry density, with the peak at 0.6%, and thereafter there is a reduction for BSL, WAS, and BSH. For the electrokinetically treated soil, the dry density was greatly increased at all concentrations. Therefore, the electrokinetic method can be used to improve the engineering properties of problematic soils.
Keywords: Compactive Effort, Electro kinetic, Lateritic, Lead, optimum moisture content, maximum dry density.
ASPHALT PAVEMENT RECYCLING WITH SUGERCANE BAGASSE ASH (SBA) AS FILLER
ABAH JOHNSON CANDY; OJO ITODO DANIEL; & DR SANI MAGAJI
Department of civil Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State
Large quantities of agro-based wastes are generated daily and their safe disposal is raising much concern in most part of the world and Nigeria is not an exception being known for its agricultural activities. The recent trends in the stabilization/modification of construction materials have evolved innovative techniques of utilizing these materials. Recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and its modification to meet design specifications is among these techniques. It is in the light of this that a laboratory based investigations on the suitability of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash as filler in Hot-mix asphalt recycling of RAP is being conducted. The oxide composition test of the SCBA was performed using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and from the result, SCBA is adjudged pozzolanic (combined weight of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3) is 76.7 % by weight which is higher than minimum requirement 70% for a material to be pozzolanic (Raheem, et al, 2010). The result of the sieve analysis showed 82.4% of the SCBA passed sieve No. 200 which is greater than 65% – 70% specification which also describes its fineness and pozzolanic characteristics. Marshall Stability Hot-mix asphalt design method was employed to test the performance indices of the blended materials in terms of their known engineering properties. At 70% RAP, 30% fresh aggregate and the addition of SCBA at 3% of the total combined weight of aggregate (RAP + fresh aggregate), a good design mix was obtained. SCBA is adjudged to be pozzolanic; it can therefore be used as filler to provide the stiffening strength requirement like cement. The combination above is considered as the most cost effective.
Keywords: RAP, Sugarcane bagasse ash, recycling, filler, hot-mix asphalt
SUSTAINABILITY OF SANDCRETE BLOCKS AS A RESOURCE FOR DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA
1JIYA V.H.; AKANBI T.Y.; & BROWN D.I
1*Dept. of Civil Engineering and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Ground and Communication Engineering, Airforce Institute of Technology (AFIT), Kaduna State, Nigeria
Sandcrete blocks as a structure part have been used in Nigeria and numerous different countries for quite a while, the construction industry is vital in the sustainability of the demand and supply of the required numbers of sandcrete blocks. These blocks are produced using a combination of sand, concrete, and water in a specific mix ratio. This investigation is pointed toward researching Sandcrete block creation assets for economical improvement in the sustainability and advancement of the construction industry in Nigeria. The goals of this study are to investigate the number of the Sandcrete blocks produced in every long stretch of the year and lay out the proportion of Sandcrete blocks delivered by individual makers against the complete volume for the year. Unstructured surveys were administered to address the exploration questions. A sum of 20 block fabricating industries randomly chosen across four Locality in Kaduna city was utilized. The outcome of the discoveries was investigated utilizing descriptive statistics. The outcome from this study shows that only seven of the twenty producers utilized for the review was able to meet the month-to-month average demand, this shows that the number of produced Sandcrete blocks doesn’t meet the need. All in all, this study shows a need to increase the production of Sandcrete blocks. The research suggests that the needed infrastructure such as Water, Light, and Power required for the creation of Sandcrete blocks ought to be accessible and available.
Keywords: Production, Sandcrete blocks, demand, supply, Sustainability
EVALUATING THE CAUSES AND CONTROL OF VARIATION IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS’ BUILDINGS IN KWARA STATE, NIGERIA
1YARIMA MOHAMMED, 2EBENEHI IBRAHIM YAKUBU, 3RAJI MUDASHIR, 4ADAMU ABDULLAHI AYNI, 5IBRAHIM IDRIS, 6MUNIRUDEEN MONSUR ABAYOMI
[2, 5] Department of Building Technology, The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria 1,3,6] Department of Quantity Surveying, The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria 4Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Kogi State Polytechnic Lokoja, Nigeria
Variation order is observed as one of the most frequently occurring issues in construction projects in Nigeria. These variations are known to impact various aspects of the projects. This study assessed the effect of variation orders on public building projects in Kwara State with a view to reducing them. The objectives of the study include: determining the causes of variation orders; identifying the effects of variation orders; and then recommending strategies to minimize variation orders. A comprehensive review of relevant literature resulted in the identification of 8 common causes of variation orders.
THE ASSESSMENT OF STANDARDS FOR PROVISION OF FIRE SERVICE FACILITIES IN BIDA TOWN
*BLDR. HALIMA A. GOYOL; **TPL. MUIBAT YUSUF; AND **TPL. FUNKE M. JIYAH
*Department of Building Technology, School of Environmental Studies. 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Studies, The Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State
Fire outbreaks and their devastating effects in our cities have had grave consequences on our national economy and indeed national wealth. They have assumed another unappreciated major drain pipe to our national wealth and by extension individual citizen welfare. The aim of this study is to assess the standards for the provision of fire service facilities within Bida and make appropriate recommendations for improvement. Data for the study was collected through field survey, interview with various stakeholders and also through secondary data. There are inadequate fire services facilities for both individual and public use in the study area, the time to reach the disaster areas due to bad and narrow road among others result to severe accidental loss of lives and properties that may not be recovered. Also the fire service outfits available cannot serve the entire populace of the study area (Bida) in terms of the standard and principle of the establishment of fire service outfits in terms of the location, distribution, and availability of complementary infrastructures such as road, high density residential neighborhoods, etc. It is, therefore, recommended that, there should be provision of fire service facilities and substation, provision of hydrants and communication gadgets/facilities among others. This safety management should be considered as an issue of the government and private sectors, even top individual living in residential layout in order to fight the adverse effects of fire disaster in urban areas.
KEYWORD: Fire Disaster, Fire Facilities, Personnel, Standards of Fire Service
EFFECT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON THE RENTAL VALUES OF ACCOMMODATION IN ILORIN METROPOLIS
HASSAN, OLANREWAJU ABDUL; & IBRAHIM, ABDULLAHI TAIYE
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin,
Socio-economic characteristics differs from one household to another within a community such as occupation, income, education and so on. This study therefore seeks to investigate the effect of socio economic factors on the rental values of accommodation in Ilorin metropolis. Eight socio economic factors were considered these includes, the income of the household, the household size, accommodation type, means of transportation, distance between workplace and house, location, locality and infrastructural availability. For the purpose of the study Ilorin metropolis was sub-divided into four local government and areas were selected within each local government. The instrument of data collection was a well develop questionnaire (396) administered to household and real estate professionals but only 302 was properly filled comprises of 73 for Asa, 81 for Ilorin West, 75 for Ilorin East and 74 for Ilorin South. Regression analysis was performed for the model generated for Asa, Ilorin West, Ilorin East and Ilorin South. Results showed that in Asa the correlation coefficient is 0.886 while the R square is 0.784(78.4%) shows variability in the outcome variable accounted for by the independent variables, in Ilorin west the correlation coefficient is 0.836 and R square is 0.698 (69.8%), in Ilorin East the correlation coefficient is 0.831 and the corresponding R square is 0.691(69.1%), in Ilorin South the correlation coefficient is 0.754 and R square is 0.568 (56.8%).In Asa the main factor affecting the rental values of accommodation is individual level of income while in Ilorin East, the main factor affecting the rental values of accommodation is individual level of income, Means of transportation, location and infrastructural availability also, in Ilorin west, the main factor affecting the rental values of accommodation is individual level of income, Means of transportation, location and infrastructural availability and in Ilorin South, the main factors affecting the rental values of accommodation is individual level of income, household size, means of transportation, distance between workplace and individual house, location and locality. The study suggests that government, real estate professional and property owners should take these socioeconomic factors into consideration before determining and reviewing the rental value of properties.
Keywords: accommodation, socio-economic, rental value, Ilorin metropolis, property owner
INVESTIGATING THE IMPLICATION OF POOR VENTILATION ON HEALTH CONDITION OF INFORMAL-SETTLEMENT RESIDENTS: A CASE STUDY OF LUGBE, ABUJA
1OLAREWAJU, FELIX ADEYEMI, 2ONANUGA, OMOTAYO ADEBAYO AND 3FAMILUA, OLUWASEUN SOLOMON
1Department of Architectural Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Nigeria 2 Department of Architecture, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. 3 Department of Architectural Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Nigeria
The formal settlement areas of cities in Nigeria are always infiltrated by informal settlers because of provision of services to the inhabitants of the formal settlement areas. All over the world, including Nigeria, all the major cities are over populated, faced with inadequate housing, buildings in disrepair, traffic jams, bad roads, pressure on infrastructure, etc. To further compound matters, pollution worsens the living conditions of slum residents. Waste dump sites, open incinerators, power generators, vehicle emissions and fossil fuel burning serve as air pollutants that greatly effect slum residents. This study was focused on measures of adequacy of the building structural quality, emphasizing access to natural ventilation for good indoor air quality.
REGIONAL RESOURCE PLANNING AS A TOOL FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND SAFETY FOR SONG L.G.A
FATIMA S MEDUGU; RABIU .M. USMAN; & JAMES JESSE SHINGU
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Mubi
This paper seeks to examine the rural are efforts of producing the highest percentage of the food and raw materials required in the country and even beyond. The low condition of the rural areas due to neglect of such area has led to low standard of living. To improve and develop the rural area and its resources, the study considered the various information about the resource produced in some environment, the population and facility distribution: it is observed through the result of the findings that some settlement are being neglected in the allocation and distribution of rural resources. Primary and Secondary source of data collection was employed of some village heads, Government officials where interview were conducted. Existing maps including study area map was collected. Information were also gathered from textbooks, downloaded website materials/ magazine for the secondary data. The result of the findings were presented in tables and maps. The study revealed that despite the rural development programs by both the federal, state and local government in the rural area, the gap between the urban and rural area is still wide. Therefore, in view of this proposals and recommendation were suggested. Economic activities, social and other resources should encouraged for higher production through the decentralization of the administration site so as to develop and expand the area. This can be done through the judiciary law, orders and policies be revisited and enforced.
Keywords: Regional Resource, Development, Rural Planning, Rural Development.
REFLECTING ON THE ARCHITECTURAL CURRICULUM OF NIGERIAN POLYTECHNICS TOWARDS MEETING THE CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN THE NIGERIAN BUILDING INDUSTRY
ABDULLAHI SADAUKI; BLESSED MAZADU ZAKI; IBRAHIM ABUBAKAR; & AI’AMEEN IBRAHIM BAMBALE
Department of Architecture, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria
The Architectural Educational Curriculum is a minimum guide towards the training/education of students in various schools of architecture. It epitomizes the symbiotic relationship between education and practice, and so determines to a great extend how the graduates cope with the practice in the industry. Hence, this study assesses the current curriculum in relation to the contemporary challenges of the Nigerian Building Industry with a view of ascertaining how much it prepares the graduates to the task ahead. A descriptive survey and purposive sampling is used, which a structured questionnaire was used to get the necessary data. The study found out that the curriculum covers most of the issues faced by the graduates in the industry, but there is a need to further integrate more on site management practices, specialization, sustainability and room to accommodate future challenges.
KEYWORDS: Architecture; Architectural curriculum; Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic; Nigerian Building Industry
RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM EXPOSED TO FIRE BASED ON EUROCODE 2
YAKUBU BUNU MELEH1, AHMED TIJANI GUBIO1, HASSAN SANI BIU1, AND ZARA KYARI KOLO1
Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri. Borno State.
Structures are expected to have satisfactory performance in their expected lifetime, making the design of structures a challenging task for civil and structural engineers. Safety of the structures and economy are the main issues in the design but the earlier (that is, safety) must be given higher priority. As failure of the structure or any of the structural element such as beam either at normal condition or when prone to accident, might results into loss of lives and property. Thus, the need for reliability analysis of the structures and structural elements. Reliability simply put, is the ability of a structural element to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time. Reliability analysis was carried out on a simply supported reinforced concrete beam exposed to fire based on Eurocode 2 (2004) using First Order Reliability Method (FORM) approach to evaluate the reliability index. Sensitivity analysis was also carried out on the design parameters, such as span of section, depth of the section, Breadth of the section, characteristics strength of concrete and characteristics strength of steel of the reinforced concrete beam. Reliability design methods are very attractive as they allow a systematic treatment of uncertainties and set performance requirements in terms of explicit safety targets.
MANAGING PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACTS OF FLOOD DISASTER IN NIGERIA
*EDIDIONG USIP; **TIMOTHY EDEM; & ***NSEMO UKPONG
*Department of Urban & Regional Planning, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic. **Department of Architecture, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic. ***Department of Building Technology, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic
Floods have proven devastating in Nigeria in the last few decades, destroying buildings, infrastructure, farmlands, and fatalities. While such impacts are easily quantified monetarily, the affected people are exposed to different psychosocial impacts which can last a lifetime, depending on their level of exposure to the disaster, their resilience level, and the availability of recovery facilities. This paper aims at assessing the management of psychosocial impacts of flood disasters in Nigeria. The objectives include identification of the impacts of flood disaster in human settlements, evaluation of the psychosocial impacts of flood disaster and assessment the management strategies for psychosocial impacts of disaster. A Survey research design was adopted for the work, utilizing questionnaires, interviews and observations as primary data sources, and other secondary sources in communities in Itu L.G.A, Akwa Ibom State. Relative effective Index used for the analysis disclosed that psychosocial impacts – stress, grief, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are experienced during, and after the flood disaster. Related literatures revealed how these impacts are managed globally, thereby forming bases for policy implication for Nigeria.
Keywords: Flood, Disaster, Psychosocial Impacts, Resilience and Strategies.
THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAMIC CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS VALUES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONTRACTUAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PARTIES IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS IN NORTHERN NIGERIA
*IBRAHIM SANI YAR’ADUA; & **PROFESSOR SALIH ELHADI MOHAMED AHMED
*College of Environmental Studies, Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic, Katsina. **College of Graduate Studies, University of Bahri, Republic of Sudan
Islam, among the Muslims is a complete way of life. The behavior and conduct of the Muslims is guided by the tenets enshrined in the Muslims’ holy book, the Quran and the traditions of the Holy prophet. Good relationships among other things, between parties are therefore guided by these tenets. In the construction industry, this is vital for the success of any organization. However, in Nigeria, and particularly during the last two decades of democratic dispensation, several projects suffered setbacks due to a number of bad client/contractor relationships leading to project suspensions, terminations and disputes. This work aims to investigate the influence of Islamic religion, the religion of the larger population of the people of this region, on the development of good and lasting contractual relationships among parties in the construction industry. The population for this research comprised of stake holders in the construction companies operating in the North West geo-political zone of Northern Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used for the study. Six different case studies of construction projects consisting of 70 interviews were undertaken. Data collection involving-structured interviews and questionnaires were adopted to satisfy the requirements of the study. Questionnaires and interviews were administered randomly on the management, other employees of the construction companies and construction stake holders in the study area. The results of the statistical analysis have shown that Islamic cultural and religious values have played significant roles. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results shows that Good relationships among construction parties developed from the interplay of a number of religious values. Religious etiquettes and Hausa Fulani cultural emotions were very important in relationship development. This study recommends that religious values and emotions should continue to be respected by parties for mutual understanding and successful relationships. The Islamic tenets and the Christian values should remain to be the basic guiding principles for the major religious groups of the region. Contractual agreements should be guided by religious provisions among the Muslims and Christians of the region. Further research should aim at assessing the strength of the various Islamic religious and cultural values on the development and promotion of successful contractual relationships among parties in the study area.
Keywords: Construction Projects, Norms, Northern Nigeria, Parties, Religious Influences
IMPROVING THE AFFORDABILITY OF HOUSING FOR URBAN DWELLERS THROUGH HOUSING DELIVERY
ANYANWU I.U, KALU CHINEDU IJEKPA, ALLWELL ANABA, MBA MBA KALU, VICTOR ONYELE, DIMKPA C.C, UWOMA BLESSING AND OJIAKU EVELYN
Department of urban and Regional Planning, Architecture, Estate Management, Quantity Surveying, Civil Engineering, Geo Informatics and Mass Communication; Abia State Polytechnic Aba, and Temple Gate Polytechnic Aba, Nigeria.
The relationship between housing and productivity are two phenomena that are related in a linear way, as the quality of affordable housing increases, productivity increases. Good quality housing results in relaxed state of mind of the individual, physical and psychological balance and creates a conducive environment for full realization of potentials, which translates to greater productivity. This has been proven ergonomic research. Effective national housing policy should provide conducive environment that will enable beneficiaries to live life in comfort. The failure and abandonment of the rent control policy led to the policy of urban housing production in the urban centers. The debate on urban housing programme in Nigeria has been abandoned largely on the guise of the exercise being a luxury, the economic pressure brought about by the structural adjustment programme of economic recovery of the 1990s and the inefficacy of the previous public housing programme. This research work look at the different approaches to housing delivery with a view to appreciating those that can provide the greatest benefits in terms of affordable housing, which improves productivity. This paper attempts to examine the problem and challenges of urban housing delivery in Nigeria. It highlights the nature and dimension of Nigeria’s housing problems. The various government responses at solving the housing problems are identified. The achievements of government past housing governments are examined. Finally factors inhibiting urban housing delivery and the challenges of housing in the future are presented.
KEYWORDS: Affordability, Housing, Housing Delivery and Urban Dwellers.
PLANNING FOR URBAN CEMETRIES IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
*BAKO KOZAH KEVIN; *BAKO PARAH EMMANUEL; **BULUS DAMINA; & ***ABDUL HUSAINI
*Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. **Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Waziru Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi. ***Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
Strategic planning for cemeteries should be one of the easier tasks for planners. Supply and demand can be estimated with some certainty from death rate. For the dead to rest in peace, Planners need to begin to see reason for planning for the death. The research was conducted via a reconnaissance and physical survey. The existing population of the study area was provided by the National Population Commission and information regarding death people was sourced from Kaduna State Ministry of Health. The inventory of the spatial distribution of cemeteries in Kaduna metropolis was done via physical survey and update of Google images of study area and digitization. The data were presented and analyzed using descriptive statistics techniques. The study identified 25 cemeteries spatially distributed within the metropolis and the facilities within the identified cemeteries were grossly inadequate and unplanned. The result also showed that the cemeteries are over utilized with regards to their capacity as about 70% of the cemeteries were filled beyond capacity with 80% of them totally in poor condition. Major recommendation and design proposal, which include provision of cemeteries within 1.5km radius for better service delivery as well as provision of land by government for additional grave sites.
Keywords: Burial grounds, cemeteries, spatial, internment, planning standards, characteristics.
ROUTE DESIGN: A GUIDE FOR ENGINEERING BILL OF QUANTITY
ZAKARI, DANLADI; AHMED, BABAYO; & ADAMU MAKAMA PINDIGA
Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
Road is an assets of nations economy and the driving force of integration and development. Road network plays a vital role in the social economic and political development of any country. Nigeria is aggregation state where most of its produced is concentrated in the rural area that are mostly in accessible due to inadequate road network, it became imperative to explore the means of providing sufficient road network to link rural areas with it adjourning city centers, in view of the important role played by adequate road networks in the economy of this nation as well as availability of survey data in the construction of such road networks. It provide data for the heighting, alignment, as well as for the setting out curves, culverts, bridges where necessary along communication routes such as road networks, railroads, canals, transmission lines, and pipelines. The proposed route starts from Yelwan Duguri to Birim village in Alkaleri Local Government Area of Bauchi State, covering a distance of habitants of both villages are mainly farmers and are in daring need of good roads, specifically this particular project if utilized, could facilitate the conveyance of their farm produces to the city centre. Sokkia SET 600 Total Station instruments was used to carry out the route survey along the proposed road to provide data on the existing Position and heights as well as the topographic features within the corridor for the plotting of the longitudinal profile of the road and subsequent Engineering design of the Geometry of the road. Levelling was carried out along the proposed route at 20m interval to provide vertical controls for the alignment of the centre-line of the route and for the design of the longitudinal profile. Hydraulic structure such as culvert and concrete line drain were designed in this research for road construction. Engineering bill of quantity was also produced for appropriate costing of engineering work. This research work is recommended for used by the Bauchi state Government as well as the Federal Government of Nigeria.
Keywords: Profile, Cross section, Engineering bill, Quantity, Costing and Road network,
A REVIEW OF THE IMPACT OF USED TYRES ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND PROPERTY VALUE
*IBRAHIM GARBA; **JAFAR SANI ALIYU; & *SALISU MAGAJI
*Estate Management Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. **Urban and Regional Planning Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
End of Use tyre also know as end of life tyres, are form of tyres that have already used its life time and are no longer in use for the purpose they were made for. The used tyres have become threat to the environment because it does not under go degradation easily. As the population of the world is increasing with over 7.74billion people on earth The need for the use of automobile increases . In the year 2020 more than 2 billion tyres are being produced annually and research show that by 2026 more than 2.7 billion tyres will be produced annually. In Nigeria, More than 10 million tyres are used annually and this end of use tyres are becoming problem to the environment if not property stored, handled and disposed. The common means for disposing the end use tyres are mostly landfill and burning. Which eventually courses environmental degradation like flooding, soil erosion and air pollution there by affecting the inhabitants of that area and in extension affects the Property Value , capital infrastructure and advanced effect to health and environment.
Key word: environment, used tyres, property value and waste management.
THE EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL ON BARAMA ENVIRONMENT OF LOKUWA WARD, MUBI, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA
FATIMA S MEDUGU; TPL. RABIU M. USMAN; & TPL. JAMES JESSE SHINGGU
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Mubi
The paper examines the effects of solid waste on drainages and roads in Barama ward of Mubi North local government area. The study was based on the methods of waste disposal, the effects on the area and the steps to be taken in order to control hazards it may likely pose on Barama. Survey design was employed where secondary and primary sources of data collected were adopted. Structured questionnaire and personal observation were used. 80 questionnaires were designed and administered to residents that were selected through systematic random sampling method in the area to collect primary data, while information were gathered from textbooks, downloaded websites, materials/ magazines for secondary data. The field data gathered was analyzed using frequency counts and simple percentage methods. The results of the findings were presented on tables. The study however revealed that reckless solid waste dumping in Barama is as a result of absence of official refuse dump in the neighborhood. This therefore makes people to dump refuse indiscriminately thereby blocking drainages and littering the surrounding which, give an ugly picture of the area. This situation can likely affect the air, the land, the ground water and other resources. In view of the above, recommendations and proposals were made: six (6) refuse dumps were suggested to be sited as shown on the map of the area. People should be educated on how to exhibit good attitudes towards the environment and new laws should be enacted and existing ones revisited and enforced strictly on the need to have a healthy environment. Government and residents should join hands to improve the drainage conditions in the area.
Key Words: Solid waste, solid waste disposal, Road network, Environment, Degradation