TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND EARTH SCIENCE (TIJBEES)
VOL. 10 (4) AUGUST, 2022 EDITION. ISSN: 2623-7861
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
ASSESSMENT OF MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN SELECTED SECONDARY AND TERTIARY HEATH CARE FACILITIES IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
1JIBRIN S. L, 1 AHMED F. A AND 2 ABUBAKAR A
1Department of Environmental Management, Bayero University, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. 2Department of Geography Edusoko University Bida, Niger State, Nigeria
Medical waste management is a complex subject that affects people all around the world. Mismanagement and ignorance of its have resulted in a variety of environmental issues in developing countries especially in many urban areas with high numbers of health centers. This study assessed the current medical waste management practices in selected secondary and tertiary healthcare facilities in Niger State, Nigeria. A semi- questionnaire, self-administered questionnaire, focus group discussions (FGD), field observations and descriptive analysis were used. The samples for this study comprised of healthcare workers, key ministries and residents near healthcare centers. The results showed that about 1285(77.8%) of the respondents agreed that, only syringes and needles waste and human body parts and placentas wastes were segregated. 1616 respondents, equivalent to (97.7 %) agreed that there were non-availability of labelling and colour coding of hospitals wastes, neither was there segregation of hazardous waste. 100% of all the selected hospitals in this study used open surface burning and open fire pits were the major methods of treatment and disposal practices. These could contaminate the environment and affected their well-being and health. There should be proper management of medical wastes through adequate retraining of staff, provision of colour coded bins and global best waste treatment before final disposal.
Keywords: Assessment, burning, disposal, treatment, environmental and public health, medical waste.
EXAMINATION OF COMMERCIAL PROPERTY PRICES IN SOKOTO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA
*FARIN AINI BINTI ISMAIL KASSIM; **RILWANU BELLO; & **HAMZA UMAR YARO
*Department of Real Estate, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor. **Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Directorate of Environmental Programs, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi.
Commercial real estate investment is one of the cardinal aspect of the general real estate investment in Nigeria, and it has made an enormous contribution to the Nigerian economy. Majority of the investors put a reasonable amount of money into real estate investment without having sufficient knowledge on the level of profit/return expectation. In sokoto metropolis, return on investment of shops is now affected. The commercial properties are oversupplied leaving some of the properties vacant. Shops were poorly designed and cannot accommodate even small scale enterprise. This dissertation, therefore attempts to analyses the factors influencing change in the return of investment of commercial properties in sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. The objectives of the study includes to determine the current average capital values and rental values in sokoto metropolis, to examine the facilities and amenities provided around the shop premises. Data was collected through the use of questionnaire instrument (Goggle form questionnaire) from estate surveyors and valuers, estate agents and tenants. Simple random sampling techniques was adopted in selecting the sample frame. Simple percentage table, charts and graphs were used in analyzing and presenting the data. Findings from the research revealed that single shops has the average capital value of 2250,000 and rental value of 150,000, Single story shop has the average capital value of 4,500,000 and the rental value of 400,000, while two story shops has the average capital value of 6000,000 and rental value of 600,000 as at 2021. The study also found that electricity, water supply and parking space were the facilities adequately provided in the shop premises while cleaning activities and waste collection were poorly provided. The study recommends that prudent investors and owners of commercial properties should always involve the services of experts in determination of values of their commercial (shops) properties and also provide adequate cleaning and waste collection and disposal services within their shops premises so as to make the properties more attractive and livable and also make it earn higher income.
Keywords: Real Estate, Property Investment, Property prices, Investment return, commercial property.
EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF VEGETATION ON CAMPUS OUTDOOR AIR TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY IN A HOT AND DRY CLIMATES: A CASE STUDY AT UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA
KABIRU HARUNA ABDULKARIM1,2, ISMA’IL ISAH SULEIMAN4, SA’AD YALWA2, YAKUBU YOHANNA ADAMU2, AND LEE YOKE LAI3
1Architecture Program, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia 2Architecture Department, School of Environment Technology, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, 100989, Bauchi, Nigeria. 3Landscape Architecture Program, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia. 4Department of Building Technology, School of Environment Technology, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, 100989, Bauchi, Nigeria
Campuses located in urban centers in a Hot and dry climate has been characterized by an intense rise in the diurnal temperature. Consequently, students on campuses within such urban centers have been affected by the thermal condition of the microclimates. Thereby, negatively affects their well-being, as well as their learning capacities. Fewer strategic emphases were put in place to improve the situation. The use of greeneries lacks emphasis on such campuses. Equally, empirical studies were less conducted on the thermal improvement of the campuses. This study is aimed at evaluating the impacts of different vegetation situations on outdoor thermal improvement. The study was conducted on a university campus located in the city of Maiduguri, Nigeria. For capturing the influence of different situation of vegetation on air temperature and relative humidity, HOBO UX100-011 data loggers were used. It was found that the thermal reduction proportionally improves with the increase in the vegetation cover most especially in the day time. Conversely, the thermal reduction proportionally improves with the decrease in the vegetation cover at night. The study suggests more vegetation cover at areas where students spend their day time. While less of vegetation cover, in the areas where students engage at night.
Keywords: Campus Outdoor, Thermal improvement, HOBO data logger, Air temperature, Relative humidity
EXPECTATION OF OUTCOME AND PROCESS VALUATION SERVICES QUALITY ON CLIENTS’ SATISFACTION
DOGARA ISHAYA NUMA; M. M. ISHAQ; M. U. BELLO AND JOSEPHAT CHRISTOPHER
Department of Estate Management and Valuation Faculty of Environmental Technology Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
The study aimed to investigate expectation of outcome and process valuation services quality on clients’ satisfaction in Bauchi metropolis with a view to enhancing valuers’ credibility and valuation practice in the study area. A survey research was carried out through the use of questionnaire instrument. A total of one hundred and fifty four (154) questionnaire were administered to clients (banks and insurance companies) out of which 0ne hundred and three (103) were retrieved. The proportional Stratified sampling technique was adopted for the method of data collection. Data was analysed using statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS) version. The result of regression model summary and the ANOVA revealed that R-Value of 0.750 and R-Square value of 0.562 with F-statistics value of 36.544 were significant as showed by ρ-value of 0.000 far below the recommended maximum of 0.05 (Pallant, 2011) while, the beta coefficient results of outcome service quality and process service quality are the significant determinant of valuation users’ satisfaction as indicated by the standardized beta coefficient of 0.337 and 0.483 and a t-statistics of 2.879 and 4.123 which is significant at 0.004 and 0.000 significance level. However, the result also demonstrated that outcome service quality and process service quality has strong effect size on clients’ satisfaction. The study recommended that the ESV institutions’ should put more effort in monitoring the duties of ESVs so as to ensure all valuation works are of high quality. ESVs are expected to follow the entire valuation standard as it is provided in the green book for Nigerians valuers and for others it should be base on the country standard.
Keywords: Expectation; Outcome Services Quality; Process Services Quality; Valuation and Clients’ Satisfaction
RECAPITALIZATION AND REAL ESTATE FINANCING-SITUATION IN IBADAN
*ABIOYE OLATUNDE KEHINDE; *ELEGBEDE OLUFOLA TOYOSI; & **MUILI A. B.
*Department of Estate Management and Valuation, the Polytechnic, Ibadan. **Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho
Recapitalization in Nigeria was achieved primarily through merger and acquisition which shrink eighty nine (89) banks into twenty five (25) banks at the end of the exercise. The exercise has been ongoing and currently the number of banks has been further reduced to twenty one (21). This study examines the impacts of the recapitalization policy on real estate finance considering the situation in Ibadan metropolis. Sixty questionnaires were administered on estate firms and property development companies while interview was also conducted with real estate finance institutions. Data obtained was analyzed using descriptive analysis such as tables and percentages. We equally employed using Relative Importance Index (RII) ranking model to reveal the significance of each and every factors. The findings show that there is significant improvement in the way the financial institutions have been performing their roles in financing real estate development.
Keyword: Real Estate Property, Development, Recapitalization, Financial Institution, Government policy.
CONSTRUCTION COST REDUCTION THROUGH PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CEMENT USING CALCINED CLAY
YUSUF MUHAMMAD WAZIRI; BLDR. ABDULRASHID SIRAJO; BLDR. AKANBI IBRAHIM T.
Department of Building, Kaduna Federal Polytechnic, Kaduna.
Overtime cost of construction have been on the rise several attempts have been made to reduce cost. It has been discovered that cement that occupy a paramount space in construction contribute largely to construction cost. Research has pointed to the fact that there are viable naturally existing materials that can take the place of cement there by leading to cost reduction. The Research looks into exploring a local cementitious building material in lateritic clay that has been in use since time immemorial in the indigenous building industry to partially replace cement to reduce the cost of construction. This research extends the investigation on calcined clay for partial replacement of cement. Samples of Calcined Clay (CC) were prepared from Natural Kaolinite clay and were blended with Portland Cement (PC) of 20%, 30% and 50% were replaced with Calcined Clay and compared to 100% Ordinary Portland Cement. Samples of lateritic clay were used and calcined (heated) to about 800°. Each specimen produced were cured, weighed and tested, an interval of 7, 14, 21 and 28days were adopted. The 28th day compressive strength test carried out on the samples shows that 20% and 30% calcined clay were better stabilizers; this translates to environmentally friendly alternative to cement. Of the three specimens produced, the effect of the blend of 20% and 30% replacement were more pronounced as they had higher crushing strength than 50% replacement. With this replacement it is envisaged that equal concrete strength is achieved and cost is reduced. The two samples made the gauge for the research and partial replacement of cement is recommended for high strength concrete and also a solution for cost reduction in concrete production.
Keywords: Add-mixtures, Calcination, Cement-based materials, Decarbonation of clay, Low-carbon economy proposal, Low-cost building materials, Supplementary cementitious material.
APPROACHES FOR ERADICATING CORRUPTION IN LAND REGISTRATION TITLES IN DEVELOPING AFRICAN COUNTRIES
ANTHONY ABBEY TINUFA
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, the Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Kogi State
Land registry remains a cesspit for bribery and corruption in most emerging economic worlds. This challenge has been an obstacle in the wheel of effective land management. Land’s unique characteristics makes it attractive to all, everyone wants it at all cost including those that could not afford it, hence high increase in land grabbers. The only legitimate mean of providing authority and exercising ownership conveyed on land is by registration of land titles with government. In most of developing African countries the machineries for land monitoring and management is inadequately available. Many forms of corruptions evident in different stages of registration of land titles. This paper however, reviews the multifaceted corruption in land titles registration in developing African countries and efforts made by some African to ameliorate corruptions by some land related laws and Acts of parliaments. Other approaches for eradicating corruptions in land title registrations were also established and explained.
Keywords: Land management, Registry, Corruption, Land title, Land grabbers
GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF HOTELS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
ATEGBE, D. 1; DANUNG, I. J. 2; LAWAL, A. M. 3; ANDALABI, J. 4
1Department of Cartography & GIS, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. 2Department of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. 3,4Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna
The development of the tourism industry in any city around the world is hinged on the success of the hospitality industry of that particular country. This research analyzed the spatial distribution of hotels in Kaduna metropolis. The data used are Satellite Imagery and Administrative map from Kaduna State Geographic Information Service (KADGIS), geographic coordinates of hotels from the field using Promark 3 Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver while hotels facilities and types of services offered were collected from Kaduna State Ministry of Culture and Tourism. The findings of the study show One hundred and ninety (190) hotels were identified with 23.1% of the hotels located in Kawo/Mando area, closely follow by Barnawa/Narayi with 22.1% while the areas with fewer number of hotels in the metropolis are Gonin-Gora/Ungwan Romi and Kurmin Mashi with 7.4% and 5.3% respectively. The results further reveals that 39.5% of the hotels in the metropolis fall within the category of one (1) star hotel, while 15.8% were in the category of two (2) star hotel and 9.5% of the hotels in the metropolis were in the three (3) star category. It is worthy of note that the result reveals that about 32.2% of the hotels in the metropolis fall below the category of one (1) star hotel which is indeed worrisome. The result of the distribution pattern reveals clustering in the pattern of distribution of hotels in Kaduna metropolis with the nearest neighbour index of 0.484211 and z-score of -21.85611. The study, therefore recommends that government should invest in infrastructures, because it has a direct impact on the hospitality industry and it is also pertinent that hoteliers in the metropolis should upgrade their services to meet the international standards.
Keywords: Clustering, Geospatial, Hotels, Pattern, Star
THE IMPACT OF CONSTRUCTION RISKS ON PROJECT DELIVERY AMONG CONTRACTORS IN NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA
BAHAGO MARKUS DANIEL; JOHN ILIYA SASETU: & STEPHEN INJI MAKAMA
Department of Architectural Technology, School of Environmental Studies, Isa Mustapha Agwai 1 Polytechnic Lafiyai, Nasarawa state, Nigeria
In Nigeria, construction industry is important in the country’s economy growth. Construction industry has been contributing immensely towards the Gross Domestic Product, and employment. Despite this acclaim, studies in recent years have shown poor performance of construction projects. This has among other things provoked increased interest in the nature and mechanism of risk analysis and management. The main objective of this study was to determine the extent to which construction risk affects project delivery among contractors in Nasarawa. The study assessed the likelihood of occurrence of construction risks and their impact on project namely cost, time, quality, environment and health and safety. Risks were ranked thus determining the key risks influencing project delivery. This study was conducted through a review of literature and a self-administered structured questionnaire to the contractors. Contractors registered by the National Construction Authority in category NCA 5 and above were targeted. A sample of 190 respondents were selected through stratified random sampling to participate in this study. Senior managers, project managers, technical managers, architects, quantity surveyors and engineers were the respondents in this study; one professional was selected from every contractor included in the sample. Data analysis involved cleaning, sorting and coding of raw data collected from the field and processing for purposes of interpretation by use of statistical package for social science (SPSS) and Microsoft Office Excel. T he study recommends that Professionals in the construction field should be educated in risk management and thus both formal and informal system of risk management training needs to be developed. In the graduate level of education in construction project management, formal education on risk management should be provided. In the training curricula for building professionals i.e. Architecture, Quantity Surveying and Engineering students should be exposed to risk management concepts and practices. Informal education on construction risk management can be provided by career development programmes, trainings through workshops and seminars on risk-awareness, risk assessments, safety and legislative requirement. Such trainings can be organized by academic institutions or professional organizations such as Architectural Association of Nigeria (AAN); Institute of Quantity Surveyorsof Nigeria (IQSN);. The study also recommends that the Ministry of works should ensure full implementation of its training policy by objectively identifying the training needs for project supervisors. tools and should be done regularly
Keywords: Contractions risk, construction projects, project delivery, contractors, construction industries.
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE PERFORMANCE OF PRIVATE HOUSING ESTATE DEVELOPERS IN KWARA STATE
ESV ALLI KEHINDE ABDULRASHEED; ESV AJIBADE RASHEED KAYODE; ESV IBRAHIM ABDULLAHI TAIYE; & ESV OLATUNJI SAMSON OLANREWAJU
Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin.
This study examined the contribution of Private Real Estate Developers in housing provision in Kwara state. The study addressed the ineffectiveness of the private sector to deliver housing to the citizen. The aim of the study examined both the contribution as well as the problems confronting PHED in Kwara State. Some of the objectives of the study were to examine the relationship between the profile of PHED in Kwara State and their performances, assess their effectiveness of the delivery process and to examine the satisfaction of occupiers of the private estate. The research methodology revealed the quantity of housing units developed by the PHED and allowed in evaluating their contribution to the housing provision in the study area. In the study, 255 housing units were selected out of the total 2,547 housing units in the developers’ estates. Primary data was collected through questionnaires administration and secondary data were collected from related documents, publications, textbooks, journals, research works, seminars/conference papers and internet. The findings revealed that PHED have established their business with some years of involvement in housing provision in the study area. It was also discovered that the PHED delivery process is very costly because housing provision is capital-intensive and their delivery process could not take place without availability of capital resources. Their performances have been found out not to be effective as it is supposed to be due to certain factors which instigate their effective participation in housing delivery. It was also found out that despite the limited housing provision, the occupiers expressed satisfaction with the quality of the developed estates both in terms of structure and function.
KEYWORDS: Housing, Developers, Private Developers, Housing Development, Housing Delivery, Participation, Housing Provision.
LEAST SQUARE ADJUSTMENT OF SECOND ORDER CONTROL STATIONS USING GLOBAL NAVIGATIONAL SATELLITE SYSTEM (GNSS) SOLUTION
ZAKARI, DANLADI; AHMED, BABAYO; ADAMU, MAKAMA PINDIGA; MOHAMMED OSHOMAH KASHETU
Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
The early days of surveying work of a country basically depended on the geodetic triangulation network. The development of all triangulation activity can be done systematically by establishing triangulation network. Triangulation is the one of the most important process in surveying for establishment of control points. The aim of this study is to establish second order control stations using least square adjustment method. The objectives designed in order to achieve the aim of the study are, to carry out Global Navigational Satellite System field observation, download the collected field data and process the collected data using Spectrum Survey Office (SSO), data processing and adjusting the observations by employing rigorous computations using Least Square adjustment method and as well carry out analysis by comparing the collected coordinates and the observed coordinates of the established control points, to present the results (Final coordinates of the control points and a plan showing the positions of these control points is presented with respect to prominent features. This research work, deals with establishment of the horizontal control point network, within the study area (Bauchi metropolis). Conventional methods/GPS techniques were used to carry out the process. The least square adjustment theory was used to adjust the network of triangles. The Geodetic calculations of this task were done with respect to Everest Ellipsoid and the observation equations method of Least Square adjustments was used to adjust the triangulation network. National Grid System of Minna was used as reference system. It is recommended that comparative study of the relative accuracies between single baseline solution and GPS network adjustment methods of observation/processing should be carried out. At the end of this research, seven stations were computed and adjusted for random errors associated with the observational procedure.
KEYWORDS: least squares adjustment, global navigation, satellite system and spectrum survey office
A REVIEW OF THE IMPACT OF USED TYRES ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND PROPERTY VALUE
IBRAHIM GARBA1, JAFAR SANI ALIYU2 AND SALISU MAGAJI1
1Estate Management Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. 2Urban and Regional Planning Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
End of Use tyre also know as end of life tyres, are form of tyres that have already used its life time and are no longer in use for the purpose they were made for. The used tyres have become threat to the environment because it does not under go degradation easily. As the population of the world is increasing with over 7.74billion people on earth The need for the use of automobile increases . In the year 2020 more than 2 billion tyres are being produced annually and research show that by 2026 more than 2.7 billion tyres will be produced annually. In Nigeria, More than 10 million tyres are used annually and this end of use tyres are becoming problem to the environment if not property stored, handled and disposed. The common means for disposing the end use tyres are mostly landfill and burning. Which eventually courses environmental degradation like flooding, soil erosion and air pollution there by affecting the inhabitants of that area and in extension affects the Property Value , capital infrastructure and advanced effect to health and environment.
Keyword: environment, used tyres, property value and waste management.
STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE ON THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BLENDED WITH RICE HUSK AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF FINE AGGREGATE
EMMANUEL JOSEPH; & BRIDGET MBATA
Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Department of building, School of Environmental sciences
The utilization of pozzolanic materials such as Rice Husk (RH) as partial replacement for fine aggregate in concrete production has received attention in recent years. Little is known about the mechanical behaviour of these new composite when exposed to elevated temperatures. In this study, the compressive strength of four categories of 150mm concrete cubes specimens were considered, comprising; first, as control mix consisting of plain fine aggregate of 1:2:4 mix; Second as concrete specimen with 10% of fine aggregate were replaced by RH; third, as concrete specimens with 20% fine aggregate were replaced by RH; fourth as concrete with 30% fine aggregate were replaced by RH ; Water/binder ratio for all the mixtures was fixed at 0.60.The 150mm concrete cubes specimens were cured, dried and subjected to varying elevated temperature 2500C, 5000C, 7500C and 10000C for exposure duration of 2 hours each. The result revealed that between temperatures of 2500C and10000C, the concrete specimens with 20% and 30% replacement showed good thermal stability than the control mix, but recorded 25% reduction in compressive strength at elevated temperature of 1000oC. While control recorded 32% reduction in compressive strength at elevated temperature of 1000oC.It was determined that 20% replacement fine aggregate with RH is recommended for structural elements requiring thermal stability, due to the reduction of the effect of temperature noticed on them.
Keywords: Compressive strength, Elevated Temperature, Composite Concrete, Rice Husk and fine aggregate
UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT, PRINCIPLES AND STANDARDS OF LANDSCAPING AND LANDSCAPE DESIGN
1PUNYI PETER; 1JAMES JEFFERY WILLIAMS; & 2LAWAL KABIR TUNAU
1Department of Geography, Adamawa State College of Education, Hong, Hong, Adamawa State. 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi Adamawa State – Nigeria.
Landscape comprises visible features of an area of land, including the physical element of landform such as mountains, hills, water bodies such as river, lakes ponds and sea, living elements of land cover including indigenous vegetation, human element including different form of land uses, building and structures, and transitory elements such as lighting and weather conditions. This paper attempts to examine the concept, principles and standards of landscaping, landscape design, historical background of the landscaping, the elements of landscape as well as the types of landscaping. Data collection was carried out through literature review. The study discusses scope and historical sketches of landscape, history, elements of landscaping and principles of landscape design. Finally, the study concludes that from various issues discussed, it is advisable that the issue of landscaping in all residential, institutional, commercial areas etc should be addressed adequately so as to enhance quality of the environment for liveability, aesthetics and learning.
Keywords: Concept, elements, principles, standards, landscaping, landscape design