INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND BIOTECHNOLOGY (TIJARBT)
VOL. 14 (1) AUGUST, 2023
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
EVALUATION OF THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF SOME CEREAL STRAW (ACHA, RICE) AND LEGUME HAULMS (GROUNDNUT AND BEANS STRAWS) FOUND IN JOS AND ITS ENVIRONS
EMMANUELLA-DOEKO’OS Z. AWANG1; UCHELE OKPANACHI2, DAVID T. SHAAHU1; COMFORT D. TULEUN1
Department of Animal Production, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, Makurdi Nigeria1 and Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, University of Jos, Nigeria2.
To supply animals the nutrient required for their physiological and anatomy body processes a study was carried out to determine the nutrients composition for some straws (acha, rice, groundnut and beans) readily available in Jos and environs which were all arranged in a complete randomized designed (CRD). In this finding the values recorded were 4.13 -14.27 % (CP), 3.35 – 6.05 % (EE), 6.80 – 12.12 % (Ash), 21.57 – 36.14 % (CF), 30.13 – 51.95 % (NFE), 95.11 – 96.73 % (DM) and 899.48 – 1320.21 kcal/kg (ME),1.22 – 4.51 % (Ca), 0.02 – 4.12 % (K), 0.76 – 0.90 % (P), 0.33 – 1.24 % (Cl), 0.61 – 1.01 % (S), and 0.00 – 2.05 % (Mg), 36.4 – 40.3 % (ADF), 58.7 – 64.1 % (NDF),010.3 – 14.5 % (ADL),12.9 – 18.4 % (Cellulose),12.9 – 18.4 % (hemicellulose),4.0 – 5.0 % (pH). The phytochemical in the straws were oxalate 0.31 – 2.52 mg/100g, saponin 0.28 – 0.71 %, alkaloid 5.35 – 7.92 %, flavonoids 0.80 – 3.18 %, tannins 0.04 – 0.10 %, cyanide 1.38 – 4.36 mg/100g and phytate 0.11 – 0.35 %. Acha straw which is readily available in large quantity is recommended due to its high dry matter and nutrient content and has the lowest phytochemicals.
Keywords: Straw, haulms, acha, rice, groundnut and beans.
DETERMINATION OF LEVELS OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN LEAFY VEGETABLE SAMPLES FROM JERE BOWL, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
1MUSA, A; 1MALA, B.M; 2ALIYU, A; AND 1 YAGANA, Z.T
1Department of Basic Science and Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 1427, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 2Department of Forestry and Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 1427, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
Pesticides residues levels were assessed in three vegetable samples (roselle, lettuce and cabbage) collected from three agricultural areas in Jere Bowl. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the vegetable samples were determined using GC/MS SHIMADZU (GC-17A) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD) and standard operating procedures were followed. The pesticides (Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethene, Dichlorvos, Chlorpyrifos and Cypermethrin) were analyzed. Findings revealed higher concentrations of Cypermethrin (51.20 µg/g) and Diclorvos (52.11 µg/g) residues in the leaf of cabbage at Bololo and Gongulon agricultural areas. Significant concentrations of Chlorpyfos (41.13 µg/g) and Diclorvos (33.09 µg/g) were observed in the leaf of lettuce at Gongulon agricultural site. The study further reveals concentrations of Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethene (36.10 µg/g) and Dichlorvos (33.16 µg/g) were observed in the leaf of roselle at Bololo and Dusuman agricultural area. The concentrations of all the pesticide in the vegetable samples from the three agricultural areas were observed to be at alarming levels, above the maximum residue limits (MRLs) for vegetables. Routine monitoring of pesticide residues in these study areas is imperative for control and reduction of environmental pollution and health risk.
Keywords: Concentration, Pesticide residues, Vegetables, Bololo, Dusuman, Gongulon
ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATION OF AIR POLLUTION FROM QUARRY AND STONE CUTTING INDUSTRIES ON AGRICULTURE AND PLANT BIODIVERSITY IN MPAPE, FCT, ABUJA
*MUHAMMED RABIU; **OLUYOMI S. MOSES Ph.D.; & *jOSHUA OLORUNDARE
*Department of Geography, Kogi State College of Education Ankpa, Nigeria. **Department of Agricultural Education, Kogi State College of Education Ankpa
Quarry activities are important to modern day life and the socio-economic development of local communities. Unfortunately, this industry is usually associated with air pollution. To assess the impact of quarry dust on plant biodiversity and agriculture, PM2.5, PM10 and some meteorological parameters were measured using Gas analyzer, handheld thermometer and Multifunction Anemometer (PCE-EM 888) as well as taking a social survey. High amount of particulate matters that exceeded the international standard were recorded at the study locations which include the Julius Berger Quarry and 1km away from the quarry site which serve as the base for the farmlands. The correlation coefficient between the particulate matters with the meteorological parameters of the locations all show a strong relationship with temperature recording a stronger value of 0.952 and 0.931 for PM2.5 and PM10 respectively. Similarly, the coefficient of determination 0.906 and 0.866 shows that temperature has the highest meteorological percentage variation on PM2.5 and PM10. Furthermore, a notable negative impact of quarrying on plant biodiversity and local farm crops are also revealed based on respondents’ results where wide range of local plants were affected with Maize and Azadiracta indica (Neem) been the most with respondent of 31.5% and 27.5%. According to the obtained results, it is highly recommended to develop green belt surrounding the quarrying using pollutant-tolerant trees (usually with broad leaves) in order to restrict spreading of quarrying dust via intercepting, filtering and absorbing pollutants.
Keywords: Quarry, Air Pollution, Agriculture, Biodiversity
A REVIEW OF BIOCHEMISTRY OF BIOPESTICIDES EFFECTIVENESS
SIKIRU GBENGA K., OBIDOLA SHAKIRDEEN M., OLORUNDARE OLUFUNKE.O.,OLADEJO AFOLABI O., AYORINDE JAMES., ADEDIRE O.
Department of Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.
Biopesticides are typically derived from living organisms, of plant or microbial origin. Biopesticides have the potential to play an important role in sustainable, environmentally safe pest control. A diverse range of biopesticides employ chemical modes of action. This review explores three such biopesticides: a fungus used in weed control, beneficial bacteria controlling fungal and bacterial disease and a virus active against insect pests. Through these case studies, we demonstrate that biopesticides rely on both chemical and biochemical approaches and complementary biological modalities. Hence, biopesticides are more complex than synthetic pesticides. The latter typically utilize a single chemical with a single mode of action, while the former often have more complex or holistic modes of action. The success of current and future biopesticides could be enhanced through increased research focusing on the chemistry involved. Thus, research into the chemistry behind biopesticides has great potential to enhance the development of useful biopesticides.
Keywords: Biopesticide, Bioherbicide, Biofungicide, Bioinsecticide, Secondary metabolites, Effectiveness
PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF SELECTED PLANTS SPECIES GROWN ON CONTAMINATED SOIL WITH SOME HEAVY METALS
Department of chemical Science and Technology Federal Polytechnic Mubi Adamawa State
Phytoremediation potential of some selected plant was study after 60 days. All these three plants (spinach, okra and huckleberry) was studied with their respective control. Assessing the naturally enhanced phyto-remediation of these three plants in an artificial contaminated soil with zinc, copper and iron was studied. The sample of plants collected for analysis was root, stem and leaf from respective plant for these heavy metals. Analysis of heavy metal was done in HNO3 digested sample by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer-VGP210. The heavy metals concentrations in the soil sample before contamination in mg/kg are 5.37 ± 0.01 for Zn, 21.12 ± 0.01 for Fe and 2.21 ± 0.01 for Cu. The heavy metals concentrations after contaminating the soil in mg/kg are .37 ± 0.01 (Zn), 35.12 ± 0.01(Fe) and 35.21 ± 0.01 (Cu). From the analysis, okra root was found to has the highest remediation ability of 22.80 ± 1.17 (Zn), 28.86 ± 3.01(Fe) and 15.47 ± 3.01 (Cu) for the test compared to control sample for okra root 1.90 ± 0.01 (Zn), 16.10 ± 0.13(Fe) and 0.64 ± 0.01 (Cu). With these results, okra was found to have higher phytoremediation potential compare to blackberry and spinach. That is, the root of respective plant has the highest concentrations of heavy metals.
Keywords: Phytoremediation, contaminant, heavy-metals, plants, waste.
PROXIMATE, FUNCTIONAL AND PASTING PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE FLOUR FROM MALTED SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR), TIGER NUT (CYPERUS ESCULENTUS) AND CASHEW NUT (ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE) FOR PASTRIES AND BREAKFAST CEREALS PRODUCTION
1AKAGU G.O, 2EKE, M.O AND 3OKLO, A.D.
1Department of Home Economics Education, Amino Saleh College of Education Azare, Bauchi State, 2Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State, 3Department of Chemistry, Benue State University Makurdi, Benue state.
Malted sorghum, tiger nut and cashew nut were processed into flour and composite mixed in the ratio 65:05:30, 60:10:30, 55:15:30, 50:20:30 of malted sorghum, tiger nut, and cashew nut respectively and one hundred percent (100) sorghum flour served as control. The samples were analyzed for proximate, functional, and pasting properties. The proximate properties of the composite flour ranged as follows: moisture content (7.00 to 7.83 %), ash (1.07 to 1.47 %), fat (2.03 to 15.70 %), crude protein (6.43 to 10.37 %), crude fibre (1.47 to 2.50 %), carbohydrate (61.80 to 81.67 %), and energy (370.70 to 429.97 Kcal/100g). The functional properties of the flour ranged thus; bulk density (0.60 to 0.71 g/ml), water absorption capacity (2.33 to 4.5 g/ml), wettability (13.65 to 23.06 sec) dispersibility (80.83 to 84.67 %) and gelatinization temperature (69.00 to 72.69 oC). The pasting properties ranged thus peak viscosity (162.51 to 193.23 RVU), trough viscosity (152.70 to 178.55 RVU), breakdown viscosity (9.84 to 14.68 RVU), final viscosity (207.31 to 253.12 RVU) setback viscosity (54.63 to 74.57), pasting time (6.44 to 7.85 min) and pasting temperature from (68.42 to 65.00 oC). The proximate, functional and pasting properties improved with increase addition of tiger nut flour and constant cashew nut flour. The functional properties revealed flour can be used in food formulation and baking, the pasting properties presented flour with good paste stability. The composite flour can be used in different pastries and breakfast cereals especially for people with gluten allergy.
Keywords: Composite flour, Breakfast cereals, Malted Sorghum, Tiger nut, Cashew Nut.
YIELD ANALYSIS OF ZEA MAY FROM SMELLING AMARANTH PESTICIDE IN FALL ARMYWORM CONTROL
AWONIYI, G. O1., 2ADENIRAN, K. A. & 3AWONIYI, O. O.
1Department of Agricultural and Bio-environmental Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, University of Ilorin, Nigeria. 3Department of Quality Control and Assuarance, TwinsFaja Group of Companies, Lagos, Nigeria.
Fall armyworm is widely known to be one of the most dangerous pests that attacks maize farm in North Central Nigeria. It has been identified to always cause untold difficulties to maize cultivation around the world due to its ability to develop adaptation to already designed pest control. Even as it is difficult to control, its activities increase more in an area of moderate rainfall in which North Central Nigeria is highly characterized with. This paper therefore entails the use of organic based pesticide as treatment of irrigation water aimed at eradicating fall army warm pests and eventually obtain the desired crop yield. The yield obtained was hence analyzed at selected concentration of treated irrigation water for further predicting maximized yield of maize production in the pest invaded maize farm. The experiment conducted made use of four treatments A, B, C, D which corresponds to 0.06 cc/l, 0.07 cc/l, 0.08 cc/l and 0.09 cc/l pesticide treatment respectively; in addition to a separate control experiment with no pesticide application. Experimental layout made use of Latin Square Design (LSD) with four replicates. The yields in the field were subcategorized into ten categories and recorded highest yield of 0.2 tons/ha and 1.4 tons/ha in yield category 2 and 10 respectively. Upon analysis, the percentage comparative analysis of the treatment effects on the yield recorded highest yield in treatment D (34%) followed by C (27%) then B (28%) and least in A (16%) while 2% for control experiment. Meanwhile, randomized effects of the treatment had R2 0.9876 and adjusted R2 of 0.9876 with F-value of less than 0.005. This adjudged the model fit for generalization.
Keywords: Fall Armyworm, Irrigation water, Smelling Amaranth, Maize, Pesticide, Crop yield, Treatment, Analysis
INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF PROBIOTICS AGAINST MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS OF PACKAGED AND EXPOSED SOY BEANS FLOUR
1IHUM, T.A, 1KURRAH, I.A., 1OLALEKAN M.R AND 2OLEDIBE C.F
1Durable crops research department, Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute. 2Department of Research Operations, Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute
Probiotic strains such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB), have been used for centuries in food production processes. When these isolates compete for nutrients, they produce metabolites which often include active antimicrobials such as lactic acid, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and peptide bacteriocins. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory activities of microorganisms isolated from fermented cow milk against microbial contaminants of packaged and exposed Soybean flour from three markets in Ilorin, Kwara state. The inhibitory activity of the probiotics strains was evaluated against the test bacteria using the agar diffusion method. Five (5) isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp, Klebsiella spp, and Bacillus spp were isolated from both exposed and packaged flour while a total of six (6) bacteria isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp, Klebsiella spp, Bacillus spp and Proteus species were isolated from packaged flour. Molecular characterization of these isolates confirmed them as S. aureus CIP 9973, P. carotovorum Pec1, E. cloacae AS10, K. aerogenes OFM28, P. mirabilis UPMSD3, E. coli 2013C-3342, L. plantarum NRIC 0383 and L. plantarum NCU116. Moulds isolated from packaged and exposed soybean flour include Mucor spp Fusarium spp , Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium spp,, and Aspergillus niger. Metabolites of Lactobacillus isolates can be utilized as health and safe alternate inhibitory agents against food spoilage microorganisms especially due to their probiotics characteristics. These probiotics (Lactic acid bacteria) isolates can be utilized as alternate inhibitory agents against food spoilage bacteria.
Keywords: inhibitory, microorganisms packaged, exposed, Soy Beans
ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED SOIL PROPERTIES IN TWO AGROECOLOGICAL ZONES OF YOBE STATE FOR IMPROVED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY
MAIRO A.W. AND ABBAS S.
Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P. M. B. 1006, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria.
An experiment was carried out in 2023 with the objective of assessing the physical and chemical properties of soils in two agroecological zones of Yobe State, Nigeria. Representative composite soil samples were collected at a plough layer of 0-15cm from different cultivable farms in ten (10) different wards across the Sudan and Sahel savanna zones of the state. All samples collected were subjected to laboratory analysis for particle distribution, bulk density (Bd), total porosity (Tp), organic matter (OM) organic carbon (OC), soil reaction (pH), total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (Avail. P), exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg, K, Na), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and percentage base saturation (BS). The results showed significant difference (p≤0.05) in all parameters studied across the experimental area except for Bd and TP. The textural classes are sandy clay loam and sandy loam in the Sudan and Sahel regions respectively. The sand values ranged from 527.63 – 695.10 gkg-1 silt values ranged from 10510 – 268.00gkg-1 while clay values ranged from 59.44 – 330.84 gkg-1 across the study locations. The Bd values across the locations ranged between 1.61 and 1.64 Mgcm-3 while that for Tp were 37.76 – 39.47%. These values across the study locations were rated as moderate and considered favourable for optimum crop yield. The soil pH values across all the experimental locations were slightly acid to neutral (6.5 – 6.68) and could be considered appropriate for plant growth and development. The Available P (2.10 – 4.15 mgkg-1) levels were low and TN (0.58 – 1.80 gkg-1), low to medium across the study sites. The exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and Na were found to be medium (2.84 – 4.07 Cmolkg-1), high (1.21 – 1.86 Cmolkg-1), medium – high (0.23 – 0.32 Cmolkg-1), and high (0.46 – 0.68) across the study locations respectively. The CEC (4.91 – 6.19 Cmolkg-1) in all study locations was predominantly low while percentage BS was high (86.00 – 91.00 %). It was therefore, concluded that the soils in the two agroecological zones may need the addition of organic residues and proper soil management practices for improved agricultural productivity.
Keywords: Soil Properties, Agroecological zones, Agricultural productivity Locations
GENETIC VARIATION IN FRUITS AND SEEDS MORPHOLOGY OF GAMBEYA ALBIDA (DON) IN SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA
*ARUWAJOYE, D. A. & **OLAJUYIGBE, S.O.
*Department of Forestry, Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, **Department of Forest Production and Products, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
The demand for fruits tree has increase across the Africa as well as Nigeria. The young and the old people do search for the location of any fruit tree especially for Gambeya albida. The fruit can easily consume and enjoy by everyone without any side effects. Gambeya albida is a unique tree that grow in wild mostly, but have vitamins c for proper growth of children and body maintenance of the older ones. The establishment of the plantation are scares across the country. This brings about sources for the seeds to know which state have the best morphological characteristics for the establishment of the plantation in Nigeria. The research was carried out at Federal College of Agriculture, Akure but there were visitations to Osun, Oyo, Ekiti and Ondo state to collect the fruits in which the seeds were watched, extracted and the measurement were done. The materials used for this experiment were top loading balance, digital venire caliper and water to clean the fruits and seeds. The results were analyzed using minitab 17. After the analysis, the fruits and seeds from Ekiti and Ondo state have the highest values in weight, diameter of fruit, fruit length while seed the number of seeds in each fruits across the four selected states are between 4 to 5 compare to Oyo and Osun state with the least value across the parameters. Base on this experiment for establishment of Gambeya albida the best seeds should be acquired from either Ekiti or Ondo state of Nigeria.
Keywords: Gambeya albida, parameters, morphological
LEVERAGING AGRICULTURE TO BUILD RESILIENCE: RECALLING FADAMA PROJECT INITIATIVES IN KATSINA STATE
DR SANI MAIUNGUWA
Geography Department, Isa Kaita College of Education, PMB 5007 Dutsinma, Katsina State Nigeria.
With global malnutrition growing since 2014, the global community has identified agricultural development as effective tool to enhance the flexibility of susceptible, fragile society. In Nigeria and Katsina state in particular World Bank in partnership with Federal, State, local authorities and benefitting communities carried out agricultural project to empower participants in rising their income from 2003-2011. This paper recalls the achievements observed the current challenges and offer some solutions on way forward.
Keywords: Leveraging Agriculture, Fadama Farming, and Animals production.