TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND BIOTECHNOLOGY (TIJARBT)
VOL. 12 (1) FEBRUARY, 2023. ISSN: 3438-2901
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
FUNCTIONAL FOODS AND POST-MENOPAUSAL OSTEOPOROSIS: A REVIEW
A ABDULLAHI1*, J. NDIFE2, Z.N BAMALLI,1
1Department of Food Science and Technology, Aliko Dangote University of Science and Technology Wudil, Kano State Nigeria; 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State Nigeria.
Remodeling process of bone formation by osteoblast (bone cell) and resorption by osteoclast (bone cell) is continuous process of maintaining bone health, aging lead to low production of natural hormones estrogen which play a critical role in osteoblast maturation and proliferation as imbalance of remodeling process occur which trigger a disease called postmenopausal osteoporosis, estrogen replacement therapy was the first line of action as its deficiency lead to the disease however this therapy comes with several side effects such as breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancers which is inadvisable due to these side effect. The current antiresorptive therapies drugs such as bisphosphonates, denosumab and strontium, showed desirable therapeutic effectiveness, however, semi-permanent use of them brought about many adverse events in the long run, like gastrointestinal problems and some drug-specific infections. Aged women with traditional soy-based diet, suffer less from the effects of menopause related disease including postmenopausal osteoporosis which was later found is due to the isoflavones attributed to the soy beans. Therefore, fruits, vegetables and their components attract more attention to the researchers as they have less side effects when compared to the current treatments. Several functional foods shown their potentials in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis by acting as phytoestrogens which binds to estrogen receptors in the osteoblast and play important role in bone formation, also acting as anti-inflammatory by reducing the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines which play important role in bone resorption or as an antioxidant which fight against oxidative stress as it has effect on osteoclast maturation to resorb bone.
Keywords: osteoporosis, remodeling process, functional foods/ nutraceuticals
ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION BY WOMEN IN JERE COMMUNITY OF BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
*YAKAKA BABA ABBA; **ASHIGAR A.K SATOMI; & ***KAUMI ALKALI KALLI
*Department of Sociology, Borno State University. **Department of Languages and Liberal Studies, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State. ***Department of Industrial & Labour Relations, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State
This research examines how women use agricultural technology to improve farming practices. The patriarchal character of society may be one explanation for the gender gap in technological adoption. While patriarchy may be partially to blame for women’s absence of or limited adoption of agricultural technology and consequently their inaccessibility to it, it is not the only contributing factor. The study found that among other things, variables such as farm size, labour supply, human capital, and access to credit facilities are thought to be behind the lower adoption of agricultural technology by women in the Jere community of Borno State, Nigeria.
Keywords: Agriculture, Technology Adoption, Farming, Women
IMPACT OF SOLID-STATE FERMENTED RICE HUSK AS REPLACEMENT FOR WHEAT OFFAL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWING PIGS
MAFIMIDIWO AYOTUNDE NATHANAEL1*, WILLIAMS GABRIEL ADEDOTUN2, ADESANYA OLAYINKA FLORENCE3, ROSIJI, COMFORT OLUWASEYI4, SANWO, KEHINDE ATINUKE5, SOBAYO, RICHARD.ABAYOMI6 AND ELEGBEDE MICHAEL OLAMILEKAN7
1Department of Agricultural Technology, Yaba College of Technology, Lagos. Nigeria. 2Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture, Lagos State University. Lagos. Nigeria. 3Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, Moor Plantation, Ibadan. Nigeria. 4School of Health Technology, Ilese, Ijebu, Ogun State, Nigeria. 5Department of Animal Production and health, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta Ogun state. 6Department of Animal Nutrition, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta Ogun state. 7Ministry of Agriculture, Ogun State, Abeokuta.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary replacement of solid state fermented rice husk (SSFRH) as replacement for wheat offal on performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs. A total of 30 male mixed breed (Landrace × large white) pigs of about 8-10kg weight were used for the study and the pigs were allotted on weight equalization basis into five dietary treatments. Random allotment was done into 15 pens and each treatment contains 6 pigs with 3 replicates of 2 pigs each. The diets formulated consists of a standard basal diet (Control; wheat offal based without SSFRH) and SSFRH replaced wheat offal in other diets at 25, 50, 75, and 100% levels in a standardized grower pigs diet. Performance was measured for 16 weeks of the feeding trial and carcass measurement was done at the end of 16th week of the experiment. The cut parts and organs were expressed as % of live weight (% LW). All data collected were subjected to analysis of variance in a completely randomized design. The total weight gain (TWG) increased (P<0.05) for pigs fed control diet (66.47 kg) followed by those fed diets containing 25% (65.83 kg) and 75% (65.67 kg) SSFRH. The replacement of SSFRH at 25 and 75% for wheat offal in the diet of pigs resulted in better (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR). The inclusion of 50% SSFRH in the diet of pigs resulted in live weight (LW) and dress weight (DW) gain comparable to the control while pigs fed diet with 100% SSFRH had reduced (P<0.05) LW and DW. It was concluded that SSFRH can replace wheat offal up to 75% in the diet of growing pigs without any adverse effect on performance and carcass weight.
KEYWORDS: Pigs, rice husks, solid state fermentation, growth performance, carcass characteristics
EFFECTS OF FARM WASTE COMPOST ON THE GROWTH, YIELD AND PROTEIN CONTENT OF FLUTED PUMPKIN (TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS HOOK F.) IN FEDERAL COLLEGE OF FORESTRY, JOS
1OBIDOLA, M. SHAKIRDEEN*, 1YAROSON, A. YUSUF, 2HENRY, M. UBONG, 1HENRY, I. UBONG, 3LAWAL, A. ABDULRAUF
1Department of Crop Production Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State. 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State. 3Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State
This research was conducted in Federal College of Forestry Jos, to determine the effect of farm waste composts on the growth, yield and protein content of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F). The treatments consist of T0 which means no manure was added, (T1) 40g of Urea fertilizer 20:10:10, (T2) 4kg of digested cassava peel, (T3) 4kg of digested sawdust, (T4) 4kg of digested cabbage waste and (T5) 4kg of digested maize peel over 4m2 plot each. The parameters measured were leaf count, vine length, number of branches and leaf diameter. Data collected from each treatment were subjected to statistical analysis, making use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS) Version 23. The data were analyzed using One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The means were separated for their level of significant difference where differences occur in the means and this was done at 95% confidence interval. The result showed that the effect of farm waste composts on the growth parameters started to be expressed from 2 WAP on the T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. The effect continued to be expressed at 3 WAP, 4 WAP and it was fully manifested at 6 WAP, where all the treatments were significantly different from the negative control. The resultant effects were expressed in the leaf diameter, number of branches, vine length and leaf count of fluted pumpkin and this was evidenced in the significant effects expressed by all treatments in comparison to the negative control. The result of the yield showed that treatment T2 (31.79 Kg) gave the highest yield, followed by T4 (30.75 Kg) which were significantly different from that of the negative control (18.73 Kg). The protein concentration result showed that treatments T1 (24.75), T2 (29.71), T3 (27.71), T4 (29.48) and T5 (26.02) did better than the negative control (T0), which gave a mean value of 18.36. However, application of cassava peel is considered to be the best treatment for the growth and yield of fluted pumpkin, as its stands out in terms of leaf diameter. In view of the result obtained from the research carried out, it is recommended that the use of cassava peel should be adopted as a farm waste compost for the growth, yield and protein content of fluted pumpkin, which can lead to increase productivity and improve the market value.
Keywords: Farm waste compost, Fluted pumpkin, Leaf count, Protein concentration and Vine length
OBSERVATIONS ON THE MAJOR PROBLEMS OF POULTRY PRODUCTION IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS, BAUCHI STATE
SAMAILA BASHIR SULEIMAN1, AMINU GONIWA BOBBO2, MUSA ISA MABU3, ABDUL-SALAM IBRAHIM4 AND BELLO ABUBAKAR5
1Tafawa Balewa Housing Estate, Bauchi State. 2Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola. 3Desert Research Monitoring and Control Center, Yobe State University Damaturu. 4Federal Polytechnic Damaturu. 5State Polytechnic Yola.
A survey study was conducted in Bauchi metropolis of Bauchi state to assess the major problems of poultry production. Structured questionnaire was administered to 21 poultry farmers in 21 different poultry farms who kept at least one type of bird as at the time of the study. Result indicated that most of the poultry farmers in Bauchi metropolis were educated and had acquired either NCE/ND (33.3%), higher diploma and equivalent (28.6%) and secondary school certificate (38.1%). Most of the farmers were large scale producers (1,000-10,000) 76.2% and usually reared layers (57.1%) or broilers (38.1%). Most of the farmers raised their birds on either deep litter (47.6%) or battery cages (52.4%). Commercial feeds (100%) were generally used for poultry feeding. Most of the farmers adhered to bio-security measures such as disinfectant, restriction to visitors, good sanitary practices, foot bath and staff uniform to minimize the risk of diseases transmission. The common diseases of poultry include Coccidiosis, New castle disease (NCD), Gumboro, Infectious Coryza, Fowl typhoid, Fowl cholera and Flu or common Cold. The major problems of poultry farmers were high cost of commercial feeds, diseases outbreak, marketing problems, inadequate funds for expansion and maintenance of their farm, high cost of drugs and inadequate equipment. It is recommended that poultry production can be improved in the study area if government would provide low interest loans, subsidized inputs in conjunction with sound extension services and provisions of palliatives to the poultry farmers so as to combat the problems in line with the management.
Keywords: Observations, Problems, Poultry Production, Bauchi Metropolis, Bauchi State
THE USE OF AZOLLA AS BIO-FERTILIZER FOR MAIZE PRODUCTION
1AKINOLA OLADAYO, 2AWODUN, M.A. AND 3AYENI LEYE SAMUEL
1Department of Agricultural science, Osun State College of Education, P.M.B. 207, Ila – Orangun, Osun State, Nigeria. 2Department of crop, soil and pest management, Federal university of Technology, Akure Ondo State, Nigeria. 3Department of Agricultural science, Adeyemi College of Education, P.M.B. 520, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria.
Maize, the family of Gramminae serves as staple human food that is widely consumed because it is relatively cheap with high amount of carbohydrates that gives energy to the body to perform its day to day activities and needs fertile land to perform well. Hence, this study aims at evaluating the response of different rates of Azolla caronilliana on soil chemical properties, growth components and yield of maize, in Ila Orangun and Ondo, southwestern Nigeria. The research was sited at the teaching and research farms of Osun State College of Education, Ila Orangun and the teaching and research farm of The Federal University of Technology ( FUTA) Akure, Ondo state. Azolla was applied at 0, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500kg/ha of Azolla using 250 kg/ha NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer as control experiment . The experiments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated three times. The parameters observed were: soil chemical properties, numbers of leaves, plant height, leave area, total dry weight , total shoot weight and maize yield. Results showed that application of Azolla enhances the production of maize grains at 300kg/ha. Application of 300 kg/ha of Azolla had the highest growth and yield. Soil pH, N, P, K, Na, Mg, Ca, Mg and Na increased with increased rates of Azolla.
Keywords: growth parameters, nutrients, maize yield, pH, organic matter
AN APPRAISAL OF INSECURITY AND ITS EFFECTS ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN NORTHERN NIGERIA
*OKPANACHI EKELE; *LIMAN YAHAYA; *WADA ENEJO; & **JOSEPH ISAAC
*Department of Public Administration, the Federal Polytechnic, Idah. **Department of Building Technology, Federal University of Technology, (FUT) Minna.
This paper is an appraisal of insecurity and its effects on agricultural productivity in northern Nigeria. The spate of violent attacks on communities in Northern Nigeria by Boko Haram insurgents, bandits, kidnappers, herdsmen, perpetrators of communal conflicts and other forms of insecurity that permeates the region has reached an alarming proportion taking its toll on lives and property. It has reached a level where it is having dire consequences on the agricultural sector because farmers are attacked and displaced from their communities and source(s) of livelihood resulting in food shortages (decline in agricultural productivity) and soaring prices of food items, threatening food security in Nigeria and sub-saharan Africa at large. Millions of farmers have been forced to flee from their communities in many states and have become refuges in their own country; living in internally displaced persons (I.D.P) camps in deplorable situations. This paper relies on secondary sources of data to appraise the situation of insecurity and its effects on agricultural productivity. It was discovered among other things that the entire nation is suffering the consequences of the insecurity and decline in agricultural productivity as the supply of food to the southern part of the country (usually in truck loads) have drastically reduced, leading to soaring prices in food for the common man. Insecurity in Nigeria and the Lake Chad Basin contributes to 54 percent of the food crisis in Africa putting about 14.4 million Nigerians at the risk of food crisis and food insecurity. The paper concludes that if nothing holistic and comprehensive is done to bring about peace and order in the Northern part of the country, the whole country will suffer for it in terms of food shortages and the insecurity will extend to other parts of the country if not curtailed. It is recommended that the government should muster enough political will and rise up to the occasion to bring the challenge under control, put plans in place to bring the farmers back to farm and boost agricultural production amongst other recommendations.
Keywords: Security, Insecurity, Terrorism and Agriculture.
PROJECT METHOD: A STRATEGY FOR EDUCATING DISPLACED COMMUNITY ON HYBRID MAIZE SEED MULTIPLICATION IN THE NORTH- EAST SUB REGION, NIGERIA
ABBA M WAKILI*, MAHMOUD, L, BELLO** AND ABDULMALIK MOHAMMED GIDADO***
*&*** Agricultural science and ** Biology Department. Federal College of Education, Yola.
The strategic training on hybrid maize seed multiplication is an important measure in food security of a nation that is affected by disasters. The Nigerian North- Eastern region in particular is affected by an insurgency of the Boko haram sect, resulting in to displacement of large number of farming communities. Fifteen students comprising of five students drawn from each of the affected states (Adamawa, Borno and Yobe) were selected randomly to serve as representatives of the states. The method adopted was field experiment conducted in the Federal College of Education, Yola model farm. The Foundation seeds SAMMAZ-14 were sourced from the Institute of Agriculture Research seed Ltd (I.A.R) Zaria in collaboration with Nasrun farms Limited, it was carried out during the 2019 rainy season. The project product (results) shows tolerance to water stress, early maturing and high yielding of the F1 generation. Yield ranges from 220±15 to 340 ± 45 kg plot wise. The strategy and skills learned were used for the replication of the project in the affected communities with the hope of making planting materials available to the internally displaced farmers for subsequent planting seasons. This will ensure sustainable food production and food security in the region.
Keywords: Educating, Food security, hybrid, insurgency, seed multiplication.
A REVIEW ON INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ZINC OXIDE NANOPARTICLES
*GARBA DANJUMMA SANI; **ABUBAKAR YAKUBU; *ALIYU SAIDU; *RILWANU AATI; *SULEIMAN SAHABI; & *SIRAJO ABDULLAHI
*Department of Sciences, School of Applied Sciences, Kebbi State Polytechnic Dakingari. **Department of Physics, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria.
Nanotechnology research has gained much attention in recent years as it provides innovative solutions in the field of biomedicine, material science, optics and electronics. Nanostructured ZnO materials have received broad attention due to their excellent performance in electronics, optics and photonics, optoelectronics, sensors, transducers and biomedical sciences. It is a wide band-gap compound semiconductor that is suitable for short wavelength optoelectronic applications. ZnO nanoparticles are non-biotoxic materials with photo-catalysis and photo-oxidising properties on biological species. ZnO is costless, environmentally friendly with significant physical and chemical stabilities. It is one of the most important metal oxide nanoparticles and one of the most widely used nanoparticles. ZnO NPs are popularly employed in various fields due to their peculiar physical and chemical properties. In this paper, industrial applications of ZnO NPs are highlighted, focusing on the recent progress in research to realize its feasibility in these applications. However, further intensive research on better understanding of the relationship between size, shape and structure of zinc oxide nanoparticles, and how one can tune its capability for various industrial applications is highly recommended.
Keywords: Zinc Oxide, Semiconductors, Piezoelectric devices, Gas sensors, solar cells
HAZARD ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS IN FOOD CROPS AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
UMARU ABDULLAHI; & NASIRU YAHAYA AHMED
Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria.
The contamination of heavy metals has spread widely across the environment, causing health risks to the human race and hazard for the environment. Heavy metal contamination of soil and food crops is an issue of global concern that ultimately results in toxicity and diseases in humans and animals through consumption of contaminated food crops. The major concern that requires sustainable advancement both statistically and on the basis of Qualitative assessment is food security. Recently, antagonistic impacts of unforeseen toxins have impacted the quality of crops and have created a burden on human lives, adding to dreariness and in severe cases even death. Consequently it is vital that communities with high levels of heavy metal pollution avoid eating large quantities of these food items. Also there is need for monitoring the levels of these injurious elements in food crops. This paper reflects the contamination of the food crops with heavy metals, the way of transport of heavy metal to food crops, degree of toxicity after consumption and the strategies to maintain the problem.
Keywords: Heavy metals, Food crops, Assimilation, Health hazard.
CLIMATE VARIABILITY EFFECT OF ON POULTRY PRODUCTION IN BOSSO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF NIGER STATE NIGERIA
AHMAD, F.; SULAIMAN, Y. M.; & OJOYE, M. Y.
Department of Geography, Federal University of Technolog, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
Poultry plays an important role in human diet and economy of Nigeria. It is the primary supplier of eggs and meat and as a source of income and employment for people compared to other domestic animals. Climate variability poses a great threat to the growth and productivity of chickens. Hence, this study investigates the effect of climate variability on poultry production in the Bosso Local Government Area of Niger State. Specifically, the study examined the trend in climate variables (Temperature, Relative Humidity and Rainfall); as well as the trend poultry production (growth); analyse the effect of climate variability on poultry production and identify adaptation and mitigation strategies of poultry farmers to the effect of climate change on poultry production. The study utilized both primary (reconnaissance survey, questionnaire administration, interview) and secondary (climate data of temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall for a record of 20 years (2000-2020) and poultry production data) sources from selected poultry farms. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis and are presented in form of tables, charts, and content analysis. The result indicates that there is a significant change in the climatic variables (temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall) on a monthly and annual basis in the Bosso Local Government Area of Niger State. The study also identified a variety of poultry birds stocked by farmers, which included layers, broilers, cockerels, and noilers across the study locations. The bird stock ranges between 300 – 1000, with an average feed consumption of 3–4 bags per day for every 500 birds, resulting in an increase of 1.34 kg–1.62 kg per body weight per bird. Poultry farmers are also well-aware of climate variability and its effects on poultry production, with over 80% agreeing that climate variability affects egg and meat production and that high temperatures cause birds to eat less and drink more. Similarly, the result also revealed that high temperatures and low rainfall lead to the production of low-quality eggs. The researcher thereby concluded that there is a significant change in the climatic variables (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) on monthly and annual basis in Bosso Local Government Area of Niger State and its effects on poultry production. It is thereby recommended that: Enlightenment programs should be organized for poultry farmers agencies on the climate change mitigation, adaptation, and resilience strategies in order to improve livelihood of the people in a sustainable manner and continuous monitoring of climate variables and poultry management to ensure profitable business.
Keyword: Climate, Variability, Effect, Poultry, Production, Diet
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES (CORN FLOUR, SORGHUM AND RICE BRAN) ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CONDITION INDICES OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH IN BIOFLOC CULTURE SYSTEM
*MUHAMMAD MUSA AHMAD; **TAOFIK BABATUNDE ADEMOULA Ph.D; & *HASSAN HARUNA
*Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Engineering, Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Daura, Katsina State, Nigeria. **Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University Katsina
Three different carbon sources (corn flour, rice bran and sorghum) were evaluated for their suitability in biofloc system. A sixty days (60) rearing trial was conducted where 8 circular plastic tanks (100 L) each were used as experimental units for different treatments and the control all in duplicate. Each tank was stocked with 25 African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings with average body weight of 8.90±0.00 g and were aerated by air electrical aerators. Length and weight of the fishes were monitored weekly and recorded. The use of corn, rice bran, and sorghum as carbon sources in this experiment supported the growth of African catfish in biofloc. After six weeks rearing period, the survival of fish in all treatments was not significantly different (p <0.005); control group (94%); corn treatment (98%), sorghum (90%) and rice bran (96%) (Table 1). Total weight gain was significantly higher (p < 0.005) in corn treatments compared to control. Specific growth rate (SGR), showed significantly higher values among the treatments (p < 0.05). Corn is recorded to have significantly higher liver weight than the control at (p < 0.05) but there is no significant difference between all the treatments (corn, rice bran and sorghum).
Keywords: biofloc, carbon source, growth performance, condition indices.
THE IMPACT OF MUSHROOM FARMING A WAY OF ENSURING FOOD SECURITY IN NIGERIA: AN APPRAISAL
VEN EGESI JONATHAN .C; MUOEMENAM IFEANYI CHRISTOPHER; AMAECHI J.N.; IHEANACHO CHARLES .U; & ONUOHA MODESTUS
Imo State Polytechnic, Omuma, Oru-East, Imo State, Nigeria.
Developing countries Nigeria inclusive have been battling with the problem of food shortage otherwise regarded as food insecurity over the years. It is no longer news that the population of Nigeria loke that of other countries have been on geometric rather than arithmetic increase. Another fact remains that there is no measure being taken by the government or even the people to reduce high poverty rate as the available scarce resources have always been a cause for war and disagreement among the people. It is equally on record that the government seem to be devoid of ideas on what needs to be done to address the problem of food shortage. The question begging for answer is this, for how long will this status-quo remain or even degenerate to a situation where people will be feasting on the flesh of each other for food or what? The situation has become so frustrating and disgusting to say the least as families watch their children and wards die in their presence in the name of hunger. The above statement form the gamut of this research study. Several data collection techniques were adopted for this study as oral interviews, textbooks, journals and the internet. The development theory (Basic Needs model) was adopted for this study, thereafter, conclusion was drawn.
Keywords: Mushroom farming, Ameliorating, Food Security, Nigeria.
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOGENS RESPONSIBLE FOR POST- HARVEST SPOILAGE OF ONIONS (ALIUM CEPA L.) IN SOME SELECTED MARKETS IN MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE
MOHAMMED ZANNA MALILIMA; DR. AHMED ABBA TOR; & STEPHEN PETER
Department of Biology, Umar Ibn Ibrahim El-Kanemi College of Education Science and Technology Bama, Borno State, Nigeria.
This study aims to identify and isolate pathogens, responsible for post-harvest spoilage of onions (Alium cepa L.) with the following stated objectives: To isolate and Identify pathogens responsible for the onion spoilages, to estimate diseased incidence on spoiled onion, to characterizes effect of leaf extract on the organisms, to determine whether environmental factor has effect on onion postharvest handling process by farmers. The data was analyzed using simple percentage. physical characteristic and microscopic characteristics of the isolated pathogens; The survey reviles the diseased incidence on spoiled onion isolated from the sampled onions. Five samples sample were collected from three different markets selected for this study. 13.3 percent of the rotten onion are caused by Penicillium digitatum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizopus stolonifera. which are mainly fungal pathogens and 26.6 percent is caused by Aspergills niger which is also fungi while 26.6 percent Saccaromyces cerevisiae which is bacterial isolate. The distribution of the bacteria in relation to the markets surveyed. The percentage distribution was 64.28% Enterobacter sp, 21.42% Pseudomonas Sp and 14.28% Escherichia coli, respectively. Leaf extract test result of four different disk against standard anti-biotic gentamycin sample. The neem extract shows total 56 mm inhibition area with averagely 28% against the standard sample gentamycin. Bitter leaf extract also shows 54 total inhibition zone with total 27% while African mahogany with highest inhibition zone shows total 62mm inhibition zone with average of 31%. And Aloe vera shows 60mm total inhibition zone with average of 30%. The research also shows that room temperature (29- 300) was the best temperature for development of rot. There was no rot formation at -200C and at 40c while at 370C very little rot developed.
GERMINATION POTENTIAL OF MADRID (PLEROCARPUS ERONACEOUS) AND MAHOGANY (KHAYA SENEGALENSIS) PLANTS TOWARDS PROTECTING THEM FROM EXTINCTION AS A RESULT OF LOGGING IN ADAMAWA STATE NIGERIA
GIREI M.I Ph.D; BELLO M.L.
Department of Agricultural Science Education, Biology Education Department, Federal College of Education, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
The study was conducted in the College Botanical Garden to produce seedlings of two different wild economic plants Mahogany, Khaya senegalensis (DESR) juss and Madrid plant (Plerocarpus eronaceous in an effort to save the plants extinction, the two plants are related in terms of exploitation for wood, medicinal and forage purposes at both national and international levels. The seeds were sourced from Nigeria – Cameroon boarder. 250 seeds each were planted for (P. eronaceous and K. senegalensis in three replica totaling 750 seeds each. Four parameters of seed germination were assesed, Germination Percentages (GP), Mean Weekly Germination (MWG) and Field Conditioning Test (FCT). The average germination rate and percentage germination in two weeks for the three replicas were 26 & 247 and 10.4% & 98.8% respectively. The (FCT)) was the final field evaluation for the research and was successful for K. senegalensis but poor record was obtain for P. eronaceous. The recommendation was parent trees with good seed viability be identified and protected for seeds collection and seedlings production while more research be conducted on germination of P. eronaceus.
Keywords: Exploitation, Extinction Germination, Mahogany, Madrid, Seedlings.