TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND BIOTECHNOLOGY (TIJARBT)
VOL. 11 (1) NOVEMBER, 2022 EDITION. ISSN: 3438-2901
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
ENVIRONMENTAL LEAD VERMIDEGRADATION FROM TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS (TPH) IMPACTED SOIL
1,2C. FAWOLE; 1D. A. DASHAK; & 1S. J. SALAMI
1Department of Chemistry, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria. 2National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency, Nigeria.
Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) contaminated water sample with 104762.42 mg/L was impacted on an organically rich humus soil of 1000 g and the TPHs-impacted soil gave environmental lead (Pb) concentration of 54.00 ± 0.01 mg/kg. However, Pb vermiextraction from the TPHs contaminated soil by Esiena fetida showed 39.83 mg/kg which gave vermidegraded value of 9.17 mg/kg of Pb in the soil with treatment efficiency of 83.02%. In the control group, Pb concentration without TPHs soil impact was 5.10 ± 0.00 mg/kg while E. fetida extracted 2.47 ± 0.01 mg/kg with vermidegraded Pb soil concentration of 0.31 ± 0.02 mg/kg. The results were analytically obtained using Gas chromatography mass spectrometry detection (GC-MSD) Agilent Technologies 7890A for the TPH value and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) (Buck Scientific Model 210 VGP) for Pb concentration; instruments were set in accordance with manufacturers’ operational specifications.
Keywords: Environmental lead (Pb), TPH-impacted soil, Vermidegraded, Esiena fetida, GC-MSD, AAS.
GROWTH AND FEED CONVERSION EFFICIENCY OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS (AFRICAN CATFISH) FED WITH SOYA BEAN MEAL AND GROUNDNUT MEAL
OGUNBANWO OLATAYO MICHAEL; AND FALETI BABAJIDE ELIJAH
Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Aquatic Ecotoxicology Research Laboratory, Lagos State University of Science and Technology, Ikorodu, Lagos State
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with soya bean meal (SBM) and groundnut cake (GNC) on the growth performance of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) for the period of 8 weeks (56 days). Fish meal in the control diet (D1) was replaced with SBM and GNC at 50% level in (D4 and D5) and 100% level in (D2 and D3) respectively. 150 fishes were used for the experiment, the fish were stocked ten (10) per tank with three replicate per treatment. Five experimental diets were prepared. Results show that SBM, GNC incorporated diets have no significant effect on the physico-chemical parameters of the water. High growth rate in average final body weight, Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) were observed in D1, D4, D3, D2 and D5 respectively. Lowest growth was observed in D5. In the present study it has been seen that fish meal can be partially and completely replaced by soya bean meal (SBM) (D4 and D2) without hampering growth, hence formulating nutritionally balanced diet for Clarias gariepinus (African catfish).
Key words: Experimental Diets; Protein Efficiency Ratio; Fish Meal; Specific Growth rate; Physico-Chemical Parameters.
EFFECT OF DROUGHT ON MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HYBRID MAIZE (Zea Mays L.)
GABRIEL O. OLAIFA; OLUSEGUN J. OYEDELE; ABIODUN O. OLOSUNDE; FADEKEMI F. TAIWO; AND TAIWO H. IBRAHIM
Bioresources Development Centre, National Biotechnology Development Agency, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria
Maize is one of the most important crops in Nigeria having its usefulness as food for human, major feed ingredient for livestock, raw materials for agricultural industries and. The recent expansion of the poultry industry has significantly increased the demand for maize to the extent that large quantities of maize are imported annually. There is need to increase the production of maize to meet the increasing human population, livestock feeding, agro-industry as well as biofuel industry. One of the major challenges facing maize production is drought. Maize crops are extremely sensitive to drought especially during flowering period and can results into reduction in yield. This study aims to morphologically characterize the effects of drought on hybrid maize yield.The results showed that there was little difference on dry matter accumulation in the hybrid maize under unstressed and stressed conditionsand early water stress reduced internode extension of hybrid maize.
Keywords: Maize, hybrid, drought, yield, population, morphological, characteristics
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COST AND RETURN ON THE MARKETING OF BIO-FORTIFIED VITAMIN-A GARRI AND ORDINARY GARRI IN SOUTHWESTERN, NIGERIA
LASISI, AMINU JACOB
Department of Agricultural Economics University of Delta, Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria.
Garri is a fermented and roasted granular product from cassava which is a major stable food for both rural and urban dwellers. Garri is found to be a national food with urban market presence. Despite the important of garri to national food, there have been lack of information on its profitability to the producers. How productive is the marketing of Bio-fortified Vitamin A- Garry as compared to the ordinary Garry in the region under study? The study therefore seek to examine the socio-economic characteristics and costs and returns on the marketing of bio-fortified vitamin A garri and ordinary garri in Oyo state. One hundred (100) garri marketers were drawn using multistage sampling technique involving a list of garri marketers collected from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan and snow ball technique from eighteen locations across seven local government areas in Oyo state. The analytical tools used were descriptive statistics and gross margin analysis. The result shows that the productive ages of the respondents was found to be 53.0% for ages between 25-45years; about 85% processors and marketers were found to be female; the gross margin was found to be N680,508.00 while profit was found to be N540,803.00 and N8.54 per kilogram for white garri. The profit for bio-fortified Vitamin A garri was found to be N762, 374.00 and N23.95 per kilogram. The result also found that garri marketers operates in small scale. It is therefore concluded that females dominate the processing and marketing of garri industry, that Pro-Vitamin-A garri and ordinary garri marketing is profitable and can be used to increase the socio-economic status of garri marketers in the examined region.
Keyword: Comparative analysis, Cost and returns, Marketing, Bio-fortified, Garri.
DETERMINATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN AFRICAN WILD BASIL (Ocimum Basilicum L.) WHOLE PLANT POWDERS FOR INSECT PEST CONTROL
KASHERE1, M. A.; ALIYU2, M.; SABO, M.2; AND TIJJANI, A2.
1Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal College of Horticulture P.M.B 108, DadinKowa, Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria. 2Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University P.M.B. 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria.
Phytochemicals have been used for many years to control insect pest damage in agricultural crops. The study was aimed to determine the phytochemical constituents in African Wild Basil (Ocimum basilicumL.) whole plant powders and their insecticidal activity on Callosobruchus subinnotatus PIC in stored Bambara groundnut grains through untargeted Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) using three different extraction solvents (methanol, ethanol and distilled water).To mention but few, the ethanol extracts revealed the presence of 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (C18H32O2); 2,2-Bis(butoxy) propionic acid, butyl ester (C15H30O4); 7,10,13-Hexadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester (C17H28O2); n-Hexadecanoic acid (C16H32O2). Methanol extracts revealed the presence of 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (C18H32O2); n-Hexadecanoic acid (C16H32O2); Squalene (C30H50); Terpinen-4-ol (C10H18O). The distilled water extraction revealed the presence of Hexasiloxane,tetradecamethyl- (C14H42O5Si6); 3,6-Dioxa-2,4,5,7-tetrasilaoctane,2,2,4,4,5,5,7,7-octamethyl- (C10H30O2Si4); Cyclodecasiloxane, eicosamethyl- (C20H60O10Si10); 1,1,1,5,7,7,7-Heptamethyl-3,3-bis(trimethylsiloxy)tetrasiloxane (C13H40O5Si6). Botanicals pesticides are relatively target specific, biodegradable, environmentally friendly, and can be used in insecticide resistance management programmes.
Keywords: Phytochemical, constituents, Ocimum basilicum L., Callosobruchus subinnotatus PIC, pest control.
PRODUCTION OF SILICA GEL FROM RICE HUSK FOR LABORATORY APPLICATION AS A DESICCANT
AJOGE HARUNA SANNI1*, DAHIRU AMINU2, OKWARA AKANDU UCHE3
1Department of Chemical Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic Kaduna, Kaduna State-Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural and Bio-environmental Engineering, College of Agriculture, Jalingo, Taraba State-Nigeria. 3Department of Civil Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic Kaduna, Kaduna State-Nigeria
Silica of high purity and good surface area was beneficiated from rice husk by the application of heat in a standard solution of hydrochloric acid to produce rice husk ash after calcination at a temperature of 750 oC for 2 hours. Silica gel was then synthesized using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to solubilize the silica present in the ash with the application of heat on the rice husk ash. Therefore, Rice Husk Ash (RHA), Cleaned Rice Husk Ash (CRHA), and Silica Gel (SG) tagged Samples A, B, and C respectively were summarily developed from the synthesis processes. The samples were tested for moisture adsorptivity using laboratory desiccator. Sample C had the highest moisture adsorptivity of 24.34%, followed by Sample B with 15.29% adsorptivity, while the percentage adsorptivity for Sample A was 3.52. In addition to moisture Adsorptivity test, the various characterizations carried out on the samples proved their potential of applicability as desiccants; such as the presence of Silanol functional group, and good surface area especially for the SG sample. Also from the BET analysis of the SG Sample it was found to be a mesoporous material having a pore width value of 2.92 nm, pore volume of 0.1886 cm3/g, and the surface area of 407.6 m2/g. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) Spectrometer was used to determine the elements and the oxides present in the Rice husk ash (RHA), Cleaned rice husk ash (CRHA), as well as in the Silica gel samples.
Keywords: Adsorptivity, Desiccant, Rice husk ash, Silanol, Silica gel
DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN SELECTED FISH SAMPLES OBTAINED FROM KAINJI LAKE NEW BUSSA NIGER STATE
A A ADEKOLA1; A.I. TSAFE2; I.M. MAGAMI3; & U.Z. SA’ID4
1Chemistry unit Central service laboratory, National Institute for Fresh Water Fisheries Research, PMB 6006, New Bussa, Niger state, Nigeria. 2Department of pure and applied chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University PMB 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria. 3National research institute for chemical technology, PMB 1052, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
The objectives of this research is to the determine the concentration of organic pollutants in the two species of fishes namely Oreochromis niloticus and Synodontis schall using the method describe by Olaifa et al, (2004) and Petruschen et al, (2004). The two species of fishes namely Oreochromis niloticus and Synodontis schall obtained at a distance of 50 m, 100 m and 150 m from Kanji dam were investigated for organic pollutants. The control sample was obtained from Yangba river along Wawa road in New Bussa, Niger State.. The organic pollutants were extracted from the fish using a 170cm3 of solvent mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (1:1), the extracts were collected into 60cm3 vials and treated with sodium sulphate. The eluate collected from the clean-up of the extract was collected in a beaker and evaporated to dryness with the aid of rotatory evaporator. The dry component was then dissolved in 5cm3 iso-octane for HPLC analysis. For the Organic pollutants, cyclohexane namely; 9-oxabicyclohexane and cyclopentan-1,1 [3-(2-cyclopentyldecyl)] was found at a concentration of 0.220 mg/Kg and 0.215 mg/Kg respectively in Oreochromis niloticus at a distance 50m away from the dam, while it was absent at a distance of 100 and 150m respectively. For Synodontis schall, 1,1-bicycloheptyl and cyclohexane-1-ethylmethyl was found at a concentration of 0.315 mg/Kg and 0.147 mg/Kg respectively. From the table concentration of n-alkane namely undecane, dodecane, pentadecane and hexadecane was found 50 and 100m away from the dam site, while they are absent at 150m away from the dam. For Synodontis schall, n-alkane namely; tetradecane and hexadecane was found at low concentration at 50m and 100m away from the dam. Iso-alkane were not present in Oreochromis niloticus, while it was present in Synodontis schall at 50, 100 and 150m respectively away from the dam. The iso-alkanes present were octane-2,7-dimethyl, octane-2-methyl, decane-3,7-dimethyl, decane-2,6,8-trimethyl. The organic pollutants present in the fishes species were within the acceptable limit of Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON), World Health Organization (WHO) and other international regulatory bodies.
EFFECT OF GLOMUS DESERTICOLA ON PLANT HEIGHT AND LEAF NUMBER OF COWPEA VARIETIES (VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.) WALP) ON ALECTRA VOGELII INOCULATED SOIL
1MAKANJUOLA, D. O. 2 ALONGE, S. O. 3 ZARAFI, A. B. 4 ADEOSUN, J. O. AND 2 TANIMU, Y.
1Department of Environmental Sciences, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. 2Department of Botany, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 3Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 4National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of Glomus deserticola on plant height and leaf number of four cowpea varieties on Alectra vogelii inoculated soil. Four cowpea varieties used were: SAMPEA 7, IFE 82-12, IT97K-499-35 and TVX 3236. The sterilized sandy-loamy soil used for this experiment consisted of mixture of top soil and sand in ratio 1:1 (v/v). Glomus deserticola was applied in five rates: the control without Alectra, control with Alectra, 10, 20 and 30 g/pot. A constant quantity of Alectra was maintained. The treatments were arranged in complete randomized design. Four cowpea seeds were planted per pot but later thinned to two seedlings per pot at 2 weeks after planting (WAP). These cowpea plants were sampled for plant height and leaf number at 5, 7 and 9 WAP. The ANOVA of the three years data showed that Glomus deserticola treatment at 30 g/pot along the control minus Alectra treatment resulted in the highest plant height of the cowpea varieties. In addition, Glomus deserticola treatments significantly increased plant height and leaf number compared with control plus Alectra treatment. Cowpea variety SAMPEA 7 and/or TVX 3236 mostly resulted in higher plant height compared with other cowpea varieties at 9 WAP. Similarly, Cowpea variety TVX 3236 mostly produced higher leaf number compared with other cowpea varieties at 7 WAP. From this study, Glomus deserticola at different concentrations resulted in significant increase in the plant height and leaf number of the four cowpea varieties compared with the control plus Alectra treatment.. Therefore, in relation to plant height and leaf number of the four cowpea varieties, Glomus deserticola is recommended as a biological control agent on an Alectra vogelii infested soil.
Keywords: Glomus deserticola, Alectra vogelii, Cowpea Varieties, Plant Height, Leaf Number.
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENT STATUS OF POVERTY INCIDENCE AMONG FARMING HOUSEHOLD HEADS IN YOLA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA
CHRISTOPHER RAYMOND 1; AHMED UMAR DAPELLUM 2; GODFREY ERICKSON NJIDDARI. 3; F.H. FWAH. 4.
1, 2, 3 Department of Agricultural Technology, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola. 4 Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agriculture, Makurdi.
The Study was conducted to assess the Present Status of Poverty among Households in Yola North Local Government Area of Adamawa State. The specific objectives were to determine the incidence and depth of` poverty among farming households in the area. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analyzing the data: frequency distribution, simple percentages, measures of central tendencies, and the Foster Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) index. The results revealed that 70.4% of the households in the study area were non poor with about 29.6% being poor. It also revealed that 35.71% of the respondents had their income levels within the first quartile (1-25) away from the Poverty Line (Poverty Gap), while 29.59 and 16.33% had their income levels between the second and the third quartiles (26-50 and 51-75) respectively. 18.37% of the respondents had their income levels within the fourth quartile (76-100), with a Poverty Severity Index of 31.26%. The study therefore, recommended that government should formulate and implement policies to ensure more equitable distribution of income with focus on development of essential social structures for easier access to education, health, transportation, and also that agricultural loans be provided in forms of fertilizers, seeds and herbicides at a subsidize rates. The loans should be properly monitored by well- trained agricultural extension officers to curtail defaults.
Keywords: Assessment, Status, Poverty, Incidence, Household Heads.
EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE ON GROWTH AND YIELD SOYA-BEAN IN BALI TARABA STATE
BAKO, M. P.
Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bali, Taraba State
Field experiment was conducted in Federal polytechnic Bali research farm during the 2022 raining season to determine Effect of phosphorous on growth and yield of soya-beans. The treatments consisted of three level of phosphorous fertilizer 0k,150 and 300kg/ha). The trial was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Observations were made on plant height, number of leaves, and soya-bean yield per plot and yield tonne per hectare. All data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results revealed that 300kg of phosphorous had the highest mean values in all growth and yield parameters. Based on the results obtained from this research it could be concluded that 300kg has appeared to be best level in the study area. Therefore, farmers at Bali could use 300kg of phosphorous fertilizer in order to produce maximum yield soya-bean.
Keywords: Phosphorous Fertilizer, Legume, Growth, Yield.
COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF PADDY RICE GRAIN ENGINEERING QUALITY PARAMETERS FOR THREE VARITIES OF UPLAND PADDY RICE GROWN IN MUBI, ADAMAWA STATE NIGERIA
*HUSSAINI, M. S.; **ABUBAKAR, Y.; ***ABDULHAMID, Y.; & GABI, M. N.
*Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology,
Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 35 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. **Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Potiskum, Yobe State. ***Department of Plant Resources, Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria, Mabushi, Abuja
The three varieties of upland paddy rice cultivated and harvested, the engineering quality parameters that aimed at evaluating highest quality paddy rice were determined. The parameters evaluated were 1000g weight, paddy shape, percentage broken grains, percentage immature grains and percentage dockage paddy for Narica A-f2, Faro 59 and Champa Chines paddy. The results obtained for the three varieties were 30g weight for Narica A-f2, 20g for Faro 59 and 30g weight for Champa paddy respectively. Other parameters were percentage broken grains of (0.35%, 0.28% and 0.26%), percentage immature grains (0.28%,, 0.16% and 0.14%), and percentage dockage paddy of (2.5%, 3.2% and 3.0%) for Narica A-f2, Faro 59 and Champa Chines Paddy respectively. The data obtained were subjected to Microsoft word excel 2010 vision for data analysis. Statistical table’s charts was used for presentations, from which observations, conclusion and recommendation were made for further studies.
Keywords; Comparative studies, Paddy rice grain, Quality, Variety
EXPLORING THREE PLANT POWDERS AS A STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF MAIZE WEEVIL (Sitophilus Zeamais) IN STORED MAIZE GRAINS
OLADEJO A.O.; MUSA ISHAYA; SIKIRU G.K.; AYORINDE J.; KYAHARLE B. S.; & OLORUNDARE O.
Department of Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria
Maize has become the primary staple food among household of different wealth worldwide especially in Africa, yet most of the yields are lost to insect infestations during storage, especially Sitophilus zeamais. The insecticidal effect of Neem seeds, Garlic bulb and Chilli pepper powders were tested on adult weevil establishment, mortality, oviposition and subsequent emergence after treatment and to determine the synergetic effects of the three botanicals on the weevils.The study was carried out in Federal College of Forestry, Jos Laboratory using a 3×3 factorial experiment laid in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and was replicated three times. The result showed that weevils were able to establish in all the treatments. Adult mortality increases as the duration increases with dosage 10, 15, 20 grams and the combination had similar mortality. However, analysis of variance showed no significant difference among 10, 15, 20 grams and combination but significantly different from the control at 48 days after treatments. The few weevils that survive were able to oviposite and this decreases as the dosage increases in all plant powders, with the control recording the highest oviposition values and least value recorded in the combination treatment. Notwithstanding, analysis showed no significant difference. Weevil emergence decreases as the dosage increases in all the plant powders with the control recording the highest values (28.33%), while combination recorded the least values (6.67%) and these was significantly different analytically. The resultant effect was significant difference on the weight loss with the control having the high weight loss. Based on this study, it could be concluded that the combinations of powders and Neem seed powder could be used as an effective control of Sitophilus zeamais at dosage 20g/100g of maize grain respectively.
Keywords: Plant powder, Maize weevil, Establishment, Mortality and Oviposition.
YIELD AND MONETARY ADVANTAGE OF LETTUCE (Lactuca Sativa L.) AS AFFECTED BY COW DUNG RATES AND IRRIGATION INTERVALS IN MAIDUGURI, SUDAN SAVANNA, NIGERIA
UMAR, M. I.; MAMZA, J. N.; SULUM, A. A.; LAWAN, A.; & ABBAS H. W.
Department of Agricultural Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
Field experiments were conducted during 2014/15 and 2015/16 cool harmattan dry seasons at Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Production, University of Maiduguri (Latitude 11.808 and Longitude 13.199), 323m above sea level in Sudan Savana, Maiduguri, Borno State. This was aimed to study the yield and monetary advantage of lettuce as affected by cow dung rates and irrigation intervals in Maiduguri. The treatments consisted of a factorial combinations of five irrigation intervals (2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 days) and six rates of cow dung (0, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30t/ha) laid out in a split plot design and replicated three times. Irrigation intervals were assigned to the main plots while cow dung rates were assigned to the sub plots during the two trials. The yield and yield components parameters measured were: root fresh weight (g/plant), dry root weight (g/plant), shoot fresh weight (g/plant), shoot dry weight (g/plant) and shoot yield (kg/ha). The monetary advantage of growing lettuce under different irrigation intervals and cow dung rates were also determined. The results showed that 5 days irrigation interval was optimum for shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, fresh root weight, root dry weight, shoot yield and monetary advantage for both seasons and the combined mean at all stages of sampling. The application of 30t/ha of cow dung gave significantly higher values for all the yield, yield components and monetary advantage of the lettuce in both the years and combined mean. Based on the results of the present study, the growing of lettuce using the combinations of 6 days irrigation intervals with 30t/ha of cow dung during the cool harmattan periods in Maiduguri is more economical and therefore, encouraged.
Keywords: Cool, Harmattan, Lettuce, Irrigation interval, Cow dungs rate
NUTRIENT LOSSES IN NIGERIAN DRIED VEGETABLES (FLUTED PUMPKIN AND BITTER LEAF)
EBU BRIDGET; OGBEBA JEREMIAH; & YAKUBU DAUDA ABUBAKAR
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria
Vegetables being seasonal products become very scarce and expensive when they are out of season. They also deteriorate rapidly after harvesting; as such they are preserved in dried form using different methods of drying. This research is aimed at knowing the difference in the nutritional content of the fresh and dried vegetables (fluted pumpkin and bitter leaf) and the best method used in drying vegetables. The leaves of fluted pumpkin and bitter leaf were collect from a vegetable farm at Gwalameji Bauchi and was dried using sunlight and room temperature. The fresh and dried vegetables of fluted pumpkin and bitter leaf were analyzed for their nutritive content. The result of the analysis obtained showed the protein content of fresh, sun, and room dried fluted pumpkin to be 17.79%, 20.50%, and 22.4%, moisture 75%, 6.50% and 8.36%, Ash 0.94%, 11.4% and 10.24%, lipid 4.20%, 8.86% and 13.04%, crude fibre 5.90%, 14.20% and 11.50%, carbohydrate 5.70%, 38.24% and 34.46% respectively. While the protein content of fresh, sun, and room dried bitter leaf was found to be 18%, 21.69% and 23%, moisture 72%, 5% and 7.5%, Ash 1.23%, 12.48% and 12.4%, lipid 3.40%, 5.66% and 8.30%, crude fibre 3.24%, 8.80% and 6.50% carbohydrate 2.13%, 46.37% and 46.30% respectively. From the result obtained there is losses in the nutritional content of sun dried fluted pumpkin and bitter leaf. Hence, it could be said that both fresh and dried fluted pumpkin and biter leaf are rich in nutritional content. But should be preserve using room drying method and should be stored for a short time, (a season) and be kept in bags in a well ventilated place.
Key; Nutrient, losses, vegetables, fluted pumpkin, bitter leaf
EFFECT OF EXPOSURE TIME OF FAST NEUTRON IRRADIATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD PARAMETERS OF TOMATO (Solanum Lycopersicum)
CATHERINE IFEYINWA OKOYE1, OLAMIDE AHMED FALUSI2, MUHAMMAD LIMAN MUHAMMAD2, DAVID OYEYEMI ABOYEJI3*, HAUWA SULEIMAN SALITH1
1Agricultural Biotechnology Department, National Biotechnology Development Agency, P.M.B. 5118, Wuse, Abuja, Nigeria. 2Department of Plant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. 3Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
Fast neutron irradiation (FNI) is a useful tool for developing plant varieties with great economic values and agricultural potentials. Therefore, this research was carried out to evaluate effects of fast neutron irradiation on the growth and yield parameters of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum); with the aim of obtaining useful and desirable agronomical traits that could be used for large scale production. This was done using an Americium-Beryllium source with a flux of 1.5× 104 cm-2s-1. The tomato seeds were irradiated for 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes equivalent to 0 rad, 4 rad, 8 rad, 16 rad and 24 rad respectively before they were sown, with their respective controls. The effects of the different irradiation treatments were accessed on percentage germination and survival, plant height and number of leaves per plant in three accessions of the plant. The seeds were plated in the laboratory for germination study and in experimental pots arranged in randomized completely block design (RCBD) in the garden. Highly significant differences (p≤0.05) were observed in percentage germination and survival, plant height and number of leaves/plant in all the accessions. However, the study revealed that 90 min (16 rad) was an effective irradiation period to induce viable and useful mutations for yield parameters in tomato and that the accession NG/MR/5/9/006 performed better than other plants in most of the parameters studied. These results demonstrated that FNI is a prime tool for enhancing the efficiency of breeding S. lycopersicum and evolving higher yield variants through proper selection.
Keywords: Fast neutron; irradiation exposure period; morphological variation; mutation; Solanum lycopersicum L.