TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AFRICAN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH (TIJASDR)
VOL. 7 (2) NOVEMBER, 2021 EDITIONS. ISSN: 2067-4112
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies,
Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS FOUND IN VEGETABLES FROM THOMAS DAM IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA
1MAITERA, O. N. 2USMAN I.B
1Department of Chemistry, Moddibo Adama University, Yola 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Kano State Polytechnic
The use of Water for irrigation on vegetable gardens is a public health concern. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe Co, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in two different vegetables, including, Okra and Spinach, grown in the vicinity area of Thomas dam in Kano state, Nigeria. Samples were collected during Rainy, dry and cold seasons. The mean level of metals obtained ranged widely from 0.19 -0.34mg/Kg Cr, 0.2-0.54 mg/Kg Co, 0.43-0.75 mg/Kg Cu, B.D.L Ni, 0-1.47 mg/Kg Pb, 2.86-8.37 mg/Kg Zn, 0.41-0.53 mg/Kg Cd, 1.76- 7.2mg/Kg, Mn and 1.6-6.6 mg/Kg Fe for both rainy, dry and cold season for spinach. The mean level of metals obtained in okra ranged widely from 0.30 -0.60mg/Kg Cr, 0.65-0.8 mg/Kg Co, 4.1-6.11 mg/Kg Cu, B.D.L Ni, 0-1.47 mg/Kg Pb, B.D.L, 2.98-4.23mg/Kg Zn, 2.15-3.75mg/Kg Cd, 2.3-5.4mg/Kg, Mn and 2.23-2.67mg/Kg Fe for both rainy, dry and cold season for okra. Comparison of results with the control showed significant levels (p<0.05) of all the metals analyzed in the vegetable samples obtained from the vicinity area irrigated dam. However, the levels were within the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) tolerable limits for metals in fresh vegetables.
Keywords: Irrigation, vegetables, metals, atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), Dam
ANTITRYPANOSOMAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS AND FRACTIONS OF CAESALPINIA BONDUC, ANTHOCLEISTA NOBILIS AND KIGELIA AFRICANA IN RATS
ADESUYI TEMITOPE; & DR. A. ABUBAKAR
Biochemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State.
Herbal medicine is a momentous approach to assuage the downsides associated with conventional medicine and major limitations that beset current drugs of trypanosomiasis. This study was carried out to screen for antitrypanosomal and biochemical activities of aqueous crude extract and fractions of the leaf of Caesalpinia bonduc, root back of Anthocleista nobilis and stem back of Kigelia africana. Animals in all groups were infected with Trypanosoma, brucei brucei. Treatment commenced after a confirmed appearance of parasites in the blood of the infected rats. Crude extracts and fractions, 0.32 g each were combined in ratio 1:1:1 for the respective groups. The treatment was orally administered at 200mg/kg body weight for 10 days consecutively. Parasitemia was monitored at two days interval while packed cell volume (PCV), glucose level, total protein, albumin and globulin were observed at day six of post treatment. The result showed a clearance of parasitaemia for all the groups treated with crude extracts, fractions, and berenil with no relapse after thirty days of monitoring as compared with untreated infected group. Similarly, there was significant increase (p<0.05) in PCV, glucose level, total protein, albumin and globulin of all the extracts and fractions. This study has provided evidence that the crude extracts and fractions are trypanosoma, improve anaemia and prolonged the life span of T. brucei infected animals. Therefore, antitrypanosomal and biochemical activities of Caesalpinia bonduc, Anthocleista nobilis and Kigelia africana at ratio 1:1:1 as practiced in tradomedicine have potential in management of Africa trypanosomiasis.
Keywords: Biochemical, Crude Extracts, Fractions, Caesalpinia Bonduc, Anthocleista Nobilis, Kigelia Africana In Rats
ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL DYNAMICS OVER ILORIN, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA
SHITTU, R. O1.; YUNUSA, M. B1.; MUSA, M2.; & AKINYEMI, O. O1.
1Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria 2Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria
The study analysed rainfall variability over Ilorin metropolis kwara State, Nigeria. Fifteen (16) years (2005-2020) rainfall data was obtained from Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority. Linear Trend, Coefficient of Variance (CV), and Standardize Precipitation Index (SPI) methods were used for the analysis. The Linear trend method was used to determine the spatio-temporal trend of rainfall in the study area while, CV and SPI were used to investigate the rainfall variability and pattern. Result shows that there was downward trend in the rainfall amount received in Ilorin over the last 16 years. The coefficient of variation of annual rainfall was 20.53% during the study period. Result of SPI analysis showed mild wetness years in 2007, 2011, 2016, 2018 and 2019 respectively. Further, the SPI result for 2008 and 2014 showed severe wetness indicating sufficient rainfall to support crop production, while the result for 2015 and 2020 showed severe dryness indicating insufficient rainfall which could result to dry spell and drought occurrence and thereby affecting agricultural production and livelihood. The study recommended that there should be constant monitoring of the rainfall pattern and trend in the study area so as to provide weather and climate advisory services to policy makers in agriculture and water resources sector.
Keywords: Rainfall, Trend, Variability, Coefficient of Variation, Standardised Precipitation Index, Ilorin, Nigeria
THE NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF SWEET POTATOES
ABIODUN, ABAYOMI M.; & ENUJIUGHA, V. N.
Federal University of Technology, Department of Food Science and Technology, Akure.
This study assessed the nutritional and health benefits of sweet potatoes. Sweet potato is an extremely versatile vegetable and is wonderfully healthy for children and adults alike. The study find out that the sweet potato is rich source of dietary fiber, protein, vitamins and minerals. Compared to major commercial vegetables such as spinach, broccoli, cabbage, lettuce, etc., also found out that the sweet potato leaf contains high concentrations of polyphenolics. These polyphenolics are claimed to have antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, immune enhancing, and hepatoprotective properties. The study concluded that it is healthy alternative to other potatoes and is not only sweet but also good for the health.
Keywords: Sweet Potato, Nutritional Composition, Health Benefits
INVESTIGATION INTO CAUSES OF CAPITAL VALUE VARIANCE RESULTING FROM VALUATION OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES IN UYO PROPERTY MARKET, AKWA IBOM STAE
NSE A. BASSEY; & FRANCIS P. UDOUDOH, Ph.D
Department of Estate Management, University of Uyo, Uyo
Valuation is crucial to all property performance indicators, and investment in property market cannot operate unless reliable valuations are produced. Unfortunately cases are common of two or more Estate Surveyors and Valuers arriving at different capital values with wide margins of variation for the same property. This study therefore aimed at investigating the causes of capital value variance resulting from valuation of residential properties in Uyo property market, Akwa Ibom State, identifying factors responsible for variation in Estate Valuers Opinions of value and proffering solution to identified problems. A total of 54 questionnaire were administered to respondents, out of which 44 were retrieve and found useful for analysis. Also 15 residential properties were inspected by each Estate Surveyor and Valuer for the purpose of this study with a view to giving their opinion of value. Both the descriptive and inferential statistical methods were adopted for analysis. Inferential statistics namely analysis of variances (ANOVA) and factor analysis were used in identifying the factors responsible for variance in valuation. The study reveals among other findings that though Valuers opinions fall outside the “acceptable range” of + 5%, there is generally no significant difference between the means of opinion of values given by Estate surveyors and Valuers in Uyo residential property market as incident by the p-value >0.05 at p = 724 in the analysis of variance test. However, the result of the factor analysis yielded a two factor structure, technical and economic as well as institutional and social factors as the causes of valuation variation in residential property market in Uyo. The research therefore recommends the establishment of property data bank in Uyo with a view to replicating same across Cities in Nigerian as well as publication of valuation information papers and alerts, while sustained monitoring of activities of Estate Surveyors and Valuers by the disciplinary committee of Nigeria Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers should be encouraged.
Keywords: Capital Value, Variance, valuation, Causes, Residential properties.
TIME SERIES DROUGHT FORECASTING USING RBF WAVELET-GMDH MODEL WITH STANDARDIZED PRECIPITATION INDEX
1ABUBAKAR MUHAMMAD AUWAL; 1ALHAJI ISMAILA SULAIMAN; 2MOHAMMED SALISU ALFA
1Department of Statistics, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nasarawa State. 2Department of Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State
Drought forecasting is a significant aspect of time series forecasting among researchers using numerous available models to achieve the desired goal. This paper, therefore, proposes an advanced method to improve the drought forecasting capability of the existing models. The proposed model is the Radial Basis Function (RBF) Wavelet-Group Method of Data Handling (W-GMDH) developed by integrating Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) with GMDH model using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) drought data for forecasting to assess the effectiveness of the model. We used four SPI data series (SPI3, SPI6, SPI9 and SPI12) made up of 600 of SPI data from January 1968 to December 2015. This was divided into 80% for training and 20% for testing. The results of the proposed model were compared with that of the W-ARIMA and RBF GMDH models with the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Average Error (MAE) and coefficient of correlation (R) as the performance measures. The outcome of the proposed RBF W-GMDH model for SPI3 data RMSE = 0.2210, MAE = 0.1879 and R = 0.9495; SPI6 data RMSE = 0.1976, MAE = 0.1745 and R = 0.9644; SPI9 data RMSE = 0.4076, MAE = 0.3947 and R = 0.9526 and SPI12 data RMSE = 0.3016, MAE = 0.2339 and R = 0.9420 which outpowered the results of the W-ARIMA and W- GMDH, indicating that the proposed method can achieve the best forecasting performance in terms of accuracy for each of the SPI data series. The key role played by the DWT is to smooth the analysis of SPI data obtained after the wavelet decomposition used to decompose the SPI data into different number of components to minimize the forecasting error. In all the results, the proposed model has a minimum error indicating its superiority over the other models.
Keywords: Drought Forecasting; W-ARIMA; W-GMDH; RBF; SPI; DWT
PROPERTY TAXATION – AS A RELIABLE AND ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR IMPROVED REVENUE GENERATION IN NIGERIA
PROF. YAYOK PAUL KANWAI, PhD
Real Estate, Project & Facilities Management, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja.
Property tax is a compulsory levy imposed by a taxing authority which is based on the value of property or transactions. In Latin, it is known as “ad volerem,” meaning, ‘according to value.’ It is imposed by the taxing authority of the jurisdiction in which the property is located. The taxing authority may be the federal, state or local governments represented by the agencies constitutionally empowered to collect the taxes on their behalf. It is evident that Nigeria is running a mono-economy – relying on oil revenue – this is failing as global oil market prices keep nose-diving. There are shortages in monthly allocations from the federal government as well as deficits, hence budgets are financed with borrowed funds. This challenge calls on government to judiciously look for alternative sources of revenue to augment the present sources. Property taxation is advocated as a veritable alternative source of revenue if well administered. The paper examined the different types of property taxation, their administration as well as the revenue that is derivable from it. The researchers made use the primary source of data through personal contacts, interviewing of the stakeholders as well as using relevant literature. The data the was collected through the administration 5,390 questionnaires out which 5,035 were returned. The data collection took a period of 18 months. All categories stakeholders involved in property that are involved either directly or indirectly were seasoned professionals of not less than 5years experience. The population chosen were based on composite sampling. The data was based on quantitative and qualitative descriptive research approaches. Property taxes are lucrative and can be an alternative source of revenue as there are many property taxes in all the states of the federation with FCT out of which some are entrenched in other revenue subheads. There is need for identification of the taxes, the location and states they are, the assessment and credible collection platform. The challenges of property taxes include the opposition in identification, the conflict of who and who should identify, assess, collected it, the lumping of the taxes with other form of taxes, the cost of collection and the underlining policies and will of facing the challenges of getting property taxes become alternative revenue source. There is need of decentralization of the identification, assessment and collection on geopolitical regions in Nigeria. The centrality of these alternative revenues will bring counter-productive if not decentralized. The regions have to be empowered and other sources of revenue empowered to reduce the overdependence on oil.
Keywords: Government, Revenue generation, property taxation, economic growth, veritable alternative.
AN EVALUATION OF THE ROLES PLAYED BY THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE (ICJ) IN CONTROLLING THE ABUSIVE USAGE OF DIPLOMATIC PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES IN INTERNATIONAL LAW
*OMODELE, ADEYEMI OYEDELE; & **PROF. ’DEJI OLANREWAJU, PhD.
*College of Postgraduate Studies, Department of Political Science & Public Administration (Law & Diplomacy), Babcock University, Nigeria. **College of Law and Security Studies, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.
The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is regarded as the “World Court” where issues of international and global interest between one sovereign state and another are being resolved without recourse to war. ICJ has played significant roles in addressing abusive usage of diplomatic privileges and immunities by diplomats globally wherein some erring diplomats faced the consequences of their misdeeds. The paper looked at the roles played by the ICJ in controlling abusive usage of diplomatic privileges and immunities in International Law. It evaluated cases where diplomats abused their privileges and immunities and the consequences that followed. The paper adopted doctrinal approach in the study. It was library-based work. The primary sources of materials used were: United Nations Charter of 1945; Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (VCDR) 1961 among others. The secondary sources of materials included relevant published text books on the topic, scholarly peer-reviewed journals, articles, law reports and other relevant materials sourced in the internet. Peace theory is adopted in addressing the problem of the study. The study revealed that if not ICJ, diplomats would have turned themselves to dictators and would have violated more legitimate rights of citizens of the host countries due to the unlimited diplomatic privileges and immunities that accrued to them under the Vienna Convention of 1961. It is recommended that the ICJ should do more with a view to ensure that panels are set up in all different countries of the world to try erring diplomats who abuse diplomatic privileges and immunities.
Keywords: “International Court of Justice (ICJ)”, “Abuse”, “Privileges’, “Immunities” and “United Nations”
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF STEM BARK EXTRACT OF ANOGEISSUS LEIOCARPUS (AFRICAN BIRCH) AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM WOUND
1IDRIS, Y. AND 2 ADAMU, A.
1Department of Strategic Planning and Documentation, SP$D Petroleum Technology Development Fund (Ptdf), House Plot 1058 Memorial Derive, Central Business District Cadastral Zone A00 Abuja, P,O. Box 9899 Abuja, Nigeria. 2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences Bauchi State University, Gadau, Bauchi, State Nigeria.
The Aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch) against staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound. Isolation and identification of staphylococcus aureus was carried out according to standard procedures. The phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus was evaluated in this research. The photochemical analysis of both ethanolic and aqueous extract of Anogeossus leiocarpus revealed the presence of saponine, tannins, steroid, flavonoid, and anthraquinonoid. There was antibacterial activity in both the extract. The zone of inhibition of both ranges from 21.13±4.62mm (100mgml aqueous) to 13.75±3.02mm (12.5mg/ml ethanol). However, the aqueous extract revealed higher antibacterial activity(21.13±4.62mm) than that of ethanol extract(19.17±3.94mm). The zone of inhibition of aqueous extract ranges from 21.13±4.62-14.50±3.17mm. The zone of inhibition of ethanol extract ranges from19.17±3.94-13.75±3.02mm. Highest zone of clearance was observed in 100mgml/. The antibacterial activity of both extract increase with the increasing concentration of the extract. The antibacterial activity of the extract could be due to the presence of chemical constituents such as tannins, flavanoids, steroid in the extract. Further studies should be carried out in evaluating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the plant extract.
Keywords: Antibacterial, Anogeissus leiocarpus, staphylococcus aureus, extract, Wound samples, Phytochemicals
CHEMICAL AND ANTI-NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF WEANER RABBITS FED DIETS CONTAINING SUNDRIED SOYBEAN MILK RESIDUE (SSMR)
1SANI, A., 1ABDULLAHI, U., 1MOHAMMED,A., AND 1UMARU, A.
1Department of Animal Health and Production, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State
A Fifty Six day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the nutritive value of weaner rabbits fed diets containing sundried soybean milk residue (SSMR) at five levels of inclusion. Forty weaner rabbit with an average initial weight of 520±1.04g arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) were used. SSMR was used at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels to replace soya bean meal. Chemical analyses were carried out on the sample determine their nutrient and anti-nutrient composition. The result showed it content 92.75% dry matter (DM), 26.37% crude protein (CP), 19.13% crude fibre (CF), 8.31% ether extracts (EE), 7.16% ash, 32.04% nitrogen free extracts (NFE) and 3033.00 MEkcal/kg Metabolizable energy. The values for anti-nutritional factors include tannins (0.92mg/100g),saponins(0.16mg/100g),phytate (0.19mg/100g), alkaloid (0.12mg/100g), glycoside (0.13mg/100g), phenol (0.11mg/100g), and flavonoids (0.08mg/100g). The CP content and CF recorded is lower than 27.29% and 9.14% reported by Maidala and Doma (2016)and 29.11% and 23.77% reported by Saleh et al. (2018). The CP content however is in line with 26.88% reported by Muhammed et al., (2015). This support an earlier report of Wafaret al. (2017) who stated that crude protein of 18% and above qualifies an ingredient as alternative protein source. The ether extracts recorded is slightly less than the value of 5.54% reported byMaidala and Doma (2016). The ash content obtained in the present study indicated the potential sources of dietary mineral elements. The energy value (3033.00 kcal/kg) in this present study is higher than 2396.55 kcal/kg reported by Salehet al. (2018), The values obtained showed that they can as well be used as energy feed stuff for livestock especially monogastric animals. The anti-nutritional factors are within the acceptance range reported by Wafaret al., (2017) for rabbits in raised under tropical condition. The variation in nutrient composition may be attributed to climatic factors, edaphic factors processing methods and laboratory analysis (Ojewoleet al., 2015)
Keywords: proximate, anti-nutrient, composition, indices, soya bean residue
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF WOMEN’S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN NIGERIA: A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE.
AZI, MUSA BULUS; PIUS, WILLIAMS WUAN; MUHAMMAD, BALA ADAMU; & DANDARA, HARUNA BALA
Department of Geography, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare. Bauchi State.
The desire for 30% women inclusion in leadership position will always be sought for because Nigeria is yet to reach the 30% mark in leadership positions. It is on this premise that this paper conducted a retrospective study to compare geospatial variation of Northern and Southern geopolitical regional women participation in six conducted parliamentary elections from 1999 to 2019 due to the number of seats that are contested for. In the upper house (senate), the highest record women held in northern geopolitical region was in 2007 when only 4 women representing 6.8% of the total seats. Available data shows a regression in the percentage of elected women while in the southern geopolitical region, a progressive increase was recorded with a slight drop in 2019, given as 3.9%, 5.8%, 7.8%, 7.8%, 13.7% and 11.7% respectively. In the lower house (House of Representative), northern geopolitical region, less than 5% of the available seats were occupied by women from 1999-2019, given as 1.4%, 4.7%, 4.7%, 3.6%, 2.6% and 3.1% respectively compare to the southern region which has more than 5% also given as 5.9%, 5.9%, 10.0%, 10.6%, 5.3% and 9.4% respectively. This, trend negates the Beijing conference declaration of 30% allowance of women in leadership positions, the authors recommended that, all levels of government should ensure national laws are in consonant to eliminating all forms of discrimination against women and hold those obstructing them accountable, women should be trained on their rights to participate and their roles in decision making, fund platforms and grassroots organizations that build the capacity of women and introduce quota system and inclusive gender sensitive leadership while supporting women leadership in work places.
Keywords: Comparative, Analysis, Geopolitical, Regions, Women, Participation, and Politics
LOW-COST SAND FILTERS FOR FILTERING DOMESTIC WASTEWATER FOR SMALL GARDEN IRRIGATION
S I ABUBAKAR
Department of Agricultural and Bioenvironmental Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bali Nigeria.
The use of domestic wastewater for irrigation is an attractive option when available water supplies are inadequate. Due to increasing population, climate change and its consequences rain fed agricultural production do not meet the food needs of the population. A model sand filter for filtration of domestic wastewater was constructed using a plastic drum 0.9 m deep and 0.7 m diameter. The sample sand used in this study was from River Taraba in Bali Taraba state Nigeria. This sand has particles sizes between 0 – 4.25 mm. Four different sizes of local sand materials in the size of 1.00 mm, 1.18 mm, 2.36 mm and 4.25 mm were selected and used as filter media for the study. Filtration trials were conducted and sample of the filtered water collected for quality analyses. The quality parameters tested include suspended solids, SS; Sodium Adsorption Ratio, SAR; Electrical Conductivity, EC; PH and Boron contents of the water. Results indicated that a combination of finer filter materials and thicker filter beds was more effective in the removal of SS. But, filtration did not significantly affects SAR, EC, PH and Boron content of the water. It is expected that this study will provide a safe, easy, environmental friendly and cheap method of filtration for domestic wastewater and sustainable wastewater irrigation.
Keywords: Low-cost, Sand filters, Domestic, Wastewater, Irrigation
EFFECTS OF ACCIDENTS ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS DELIVERY (A STUDY OF SELECTED CONSTRUCTION FIRMS IN PLATEAU STATE)
1IDRIS IBRAHIM, 2EBENEHI IBRAHIM YAKUBU, 3MAMMAN NURU SHUAIBU, 4BALTEH MUHAMMED, 5BELLO KABIR, AND 6MUKAILA ZAKARI, AND 7SHUAIBU UMAR
[1,2,3,4,5,6,] Department of Building Technology, The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria 7Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria
Over the years, the issue of occupational safety and health has attracted many parties’ attention in the construction industry. However, accidents have been the challenge encountered by this industry from its inception. Its impact on construction workers, the industry, and the economy is of great concern to the nation due to the number of accidents occurring in the construction industry, which have been regarded high compared to other sectors less prone to accidents. This study focused on the effects of accidents on construction project delivery to evaluate the impact of accidents on the construction delivery process from the perception of construction workers. Data were obtained from professionals working with construction firms. In order to have perfect results, Statistical Package of Social Science 25.0 (SPSS) was used to run a one-way analysis. The result revealed that causes of accidents emanated from shortcomings of management and site managers due to non-implementation of safety policies and lack of adequate supervision, respectively. In addition, the project delivery process was disrupted from its regular operation due to the impacts of accidents. It also revealed that project profit margin decreases while the estimated project budget escalates. Therefore, this research recommends that the Nigerian construction industry, in collaboration with the Ministry of Works and Housing, should adopt a safety standard enforced in the Nigerian construction industry. Also, Government should set up a disciplinary committee consisting of representatives from the construction industry and local authority that would be empowered to inspect construction sites and penalise firms who do not conform to safety policies and safety rules.
Keywords: Accidents, Construction, Projects Delivery, Construction Firms, Plateau State.
EFFECT OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP ON PERFORMANCE OF SMES THROUGH THE NIGERIA INSTITUTE OF LEATHER AND SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY, ZARIA
¹OLATUNJI, T. E., ²JUNGUDO M. MUHAMMED., ³AUWAL M. SALIHU, ⁴ALKALI P.
¹³⁴Directorate of Academic Planning, Nigeria Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria. ²Footwear Department, NILEST, Zaria.
This study examines the effect of public-private partnership on performance of SMEs in Nigeria institute of leather and science technology, Zaria. The study found that there are significant positive relationships between PPPs, and growth performance of SMEs, of which financial partnership is the most significant. The study recommends that skills and education must be a core understanding of sustainability and the development of competences relating to SMEs. The PPP Entrepreneur SMEs for Sustainable in Nigeria Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria can be treated as a way of expressing the broader expectations of society as a whole. It is therefore concluded that PPPs with participative structures are a successful way of promoting SMEs in leather and leather goods through Nigeria Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria.
Keywords: PPPs, Performance, Small Medium Enterprises, Leather Technology, Training.
ASSESSMENT OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
GIDEON, VICTOR OLORUNFEMI, PhD
Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER).
Education is a fundamental human right that should be accorded to all the citizens, it is also seen as a social responsibility of government to its people, therefore, it is important to make education compulsory and effective for all citizens. The importance of basic education and the roles it plays in the educational system of any nation is germane to the sustainable development of such nation. The success or otherwise of Universal Basic Education which is the educational foundation in Nigeria determines what happens to the entire education system. The Research design adopted for this study was a cross sectional survey which entails the observation of some of the different stakeholders of the Universal Basic Education. The study anchored on Cognitive Developmental Theory (CDT). UBE has been confronted with many challenges that militated against its successful implementation. The study made the following recommendations: Proper screening should be encouraged to nominate key leaders into the system, adequate accountability and transparency should be given more consideration on the part of the government, agencies, and other key officials involved in the system, more competent teachers should be employed into the system most especially in the rural areas and there should be room for training and retraining for them, parents should be educated about the child basic education to encourage them to enroll their children, giving all required support they need in schooling, most especially the girls and the schools in the rural areas should be provided with adequate facilities to enhance conducive learning environment.
Keywords: Assessment, UBE, Sustainable, Development, Nigeria.
THE ROLE OF INTERNET PORTAL DESIGN IN KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY LIBRARIES.
Library Department, Federal Polytechnic Bali. Taraba State.
The role of internet portal design in knowledge organization for the 21ist century libraries; Ice cream production, like much other businesses have witnessed a massive increase in competition in recent years. In order to compete successfully, the company needs to focus on developing their brands and on customer loyalty in order to remain competitive. Having an efficient information system becomes key strategic importance in the ice cream production business. It is imperative to exploit the available information sources within the Fan Milk Company and introduce internet portal to provide access to digital resources applied to the chain of activities within the company. A study for the introduction of the internet portal, using corporate taxonomy based on faceted classification is made. Basically the function of this internet portal is simply a systematic entry of all the information needed by staff of the company (information on subject of interest, events, publications, names, department and units, functions and activities of the staff) providing the important information to their many customers for the various type of information they want, which could be internally related to various departments and functions. It includes: production, finance, marketing, distribution and sales. This can also be related to users like their ways of buying things and choices related to their goods selection. The internet portal if fully implemented and effectively utilize information data can change it into meaningful sources or pieces of information that explain the organization’s documents correctly. This is to offer a well sound foundation for information governance and make available all documents universally accessible. The internet portal will have a systematic arrangement to access all documents by means of the application of classification expressed in thesaurus. This is to introduce a mock-up web page illustrating a directory of direction or through an index style alternative. This will also allow the workers and customers in the area to locate and develop knowledge of the events of the company that will enable the workers to be effective and bring change to the consumer performance. This will allow the organization to compete efficiently and move forward.
Keywords: Role, Internet, Portal, Design, Knowledge, Organization.
CHILD LABOUR AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING: A DISTURBING GLOBAL MENACE
*SHEKARA PEACE JOHN; & **KADIRI MUSA
*Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, School of Environment, Department of Estate Management. **Federal Ministry of Justice, Abuja Nigeria.
The concepts child labour and human trafficking are two very notorious terms that have become topical and of great concern to many countries of the world, not for good but for negative reasons. The terms have equally become worrisome in the global stage whereby many international agencies and organs of governments are forced to address these issues. Child labour is looked at from different perspective, depending on which scholarly work is consulted. For instance, International Labour Organization (ILO) Conventions 138 on the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment and 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labor defined or described Child Labor to include employment below the minimum age as established in national legislation, hazardous unpaid household services, and the worst forms of child labor: all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, such as the sale or trafficking of children, debt bondage and serfdom, or forced or compulsory labor; the use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution, for the production of pornography or for pornographic purposes; the use, procuring or offering of a child for illicit activities; and work which, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children. Similarly, Human Trafficking is defined by the Palermo Protocol as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of an individual by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion for the purpose of exploitation. This paper therefore discusses the concepts child labour and human trafficking as a disturbing global menace. It considers some conceptual definitions, legal and institutional frameworks that have both domestic and international flavours. A doctrinal method of research was adopted in doing this work. It also looked at negative effects of child labour and human trafficking to the victims and the society at large. The political will of member countries and states in tackling this cross border crime that has taken an international dimension in the world is also considered. Recommendations and conclusions were made on how best to curb this menace in this 21st century.
Keywords: Child Labour, Human, Trafficking, Disturbing, Global Menace
DETERMINANTS OF COOKING ENERGY CHOICE OF RESTAURANTS IN NIGERIA: THE CASE OF RESTAURANTS IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS, NIGERIA
D Y BISU1*, A. KUHE 2, KWALA, Y. H3
1,3,4Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria. 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, J. S. Tarka University, Makurdi, Nigeria.
This article presents the results of a study conducted in Bauchi metropolis, Nigeria to determine the factors affecting the cooking energy choice of restaurants. The aim was to provide site specific information to spur policies that will reduce energy poverty and environmental problems associated with the use of wood and other low grade fuels. Survey research design was adopted for the study, using a two-step stratified sampling technique with a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain data. In addition to the core metropolitan city, suburban areas such as Rafin-zurfi, Birshi, Kafin-Tafawa, Wuntin-Dada, Miri, Turwun, Inkil and Gudum were included in the study. Microsoft excelTM chart wizard, T-Test, Multivariable regression analysis (using Statistical Package for Social Sciences) and Genetic algorithm (in MATLAB) were employed for data analysis in this study. The results showed that wood, kerosene, LPG and charcoal were the dominant cooking energy used by restaurants in the study area. Electricity and solar energy were never used as primary cooking energy by the respondents. The factors that affected cooking energy choice in the restaurants include income, level of education, dwelling location, availability, affordability ease of use and quantity of food. The study further found that ‘awareness’ of the dangers of using low grade fuels was not responsible for the adoption of improved/advanced cookstoves by restaurants in the study area. It is recommended that policies be made to make high grade and advance cooking technologies more accessible and affordable to reduce the problems associated with the use of low grade fuels such as wood in the restaurant sub-sector.
KEYWORDS: Cookstove, Sustainability, Energy, Restaurants.
ASSESSMENT OF FLOOD PRONE AREAS USING GIS AND REMOTE SENSING IN YOLA NORTH L.G.A
AISHA IBRAHIM ADAMU
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola, Adamawa State
Jimeta Is the metropolitan area of Yola North Local Government Area in Adamawa State of Nigeria .Topography of some area in Jimeta can be categorized as in low altitude topography, so it makes this regency has potential risk for flood disaster. Flood incident in Jimeta occurs almost every year. The cause of flooding in this district is an accumulation of several factors, such as heavy rainfall in the rainy season for every year, the low altitude areas in several Areas. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing is generated in this study to present information on the mapping of flood vulnerability zones in Jimeta. Integration sub-districts, land cover dominated roads and buildings in the some areas and the existence of satellite and GIS datasets are carried out to prepare the flood zonation mapping of Jimeta. Rainfall data from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), topographic map, land cover and the distance to main channel data are the datasets used to identify the flood vulnerability. Flood vulnerability information includes the spatial distribution of flood hazard vulnerability in all area of Jimeta. Spatial information is represented in the form of a map image. By knowing the spatial distribution, it can be known the level of vulnerability of areas to flooding. Most of the area is moderately flood prone areas with about 39.21%, low risk zone 21.91%, very low risk 2.75%, high risk zone with 25.95% and very high risk zone 9.50% respectively. The most dominant factors causing flooding in Jimeta the change of land cover, heavy rainfall, and high drainage density, while other factor also contributing to future flood vulnerability are land subsidence.
Keywords: Flood, Geographical Information System (GIS), Landsat TM, Dem
TRENDS IN RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY VALUES IN UYO REAL ESTATE MARKET, AKWA IBOM STATE. NIGERIA
*EKPO, MBOSOWO EBONG (PhD); & **BASSEY, NSE AKPAN
*Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. **Department of Estate Management, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State.
The study aimed at examining the trends in the rental value, capital value and returns of residential properties from 2011 to 2020, in Uyo metropolis, Nigeria with a view to providing information for investment decision making. Questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data on rental and capital values from investments in residential properties in Uyo metropolis. The data were collected from Principal partners/branch managers of Estate Surveying and Valuation Firms in the study area. About 103 Estate Surveying and Valuation firms were sampled in Uyo with an average of 3,193 residential properties in their management portfolios (average of 31 residential properties in each management portfolio). A total enumeration of the 103 firms was conducted using structured questionnaire. However, only 89 questionnaires were completed and returned for analysis (representing about 86% response rate). Both descriptive statistics and appraisal techniques were used in analysis of the data obtained, hence the use of frequencies; percentages; income, capital and total returns formulae; weighted mean and trend analysis. The study found that there was a steady and continuous increase in both the rental and capital values of the selected property types throughout the period of the study. This was depicted by the trendline generated from data obtained from the field for 2-bedroom apartment rental values, 3-bedroom apartment rental values, capital values for 2-bedroom bungalows and capital values for 3-bedroom bungalows. The study also revealed that investment in 3-bedroom bungalows in Uyo is riskier (with a standard deviation value of 12%) than investment in 2-bedroom bungalows (with a standard deviation value of 2%). The income, capital and total returns values indicated positive returns values for both 2-bedroom and 3-bedroom residential properties throughout the study period. This study was necessary because of the dynamic nature of emerging property markets of developing nations such as Nigeria. Investors may wish to evaluate the trends of returns of commercial real estate investments in order to serve as a guide for investment decision making. This study is unique as it gathered historical data on commercial property investments and made future forecast or predictions of possible investment behaviour of returns values in an emerging property market, such as the case of Uyo, which could serve as a guide to property investors in making investment decisions.
Keywords: Emerging real estate market, investment, residential property values, returns, trends, Uyo.
THE HISTORY, THEORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF POST OCCUPANCY EVALUATION
Department of Architectural Technology, College of Environmental Studies, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Jigawa State.
This paper takes a look at the historical, theoretical and philosophical stances of post occupancy evaluations of buildings. Using a descriptive analysis of the literatures, it was shown that requirements of post occupancy evaluation, as contained in history, has kept evolving to meet the needs of the stakeholders. This study has found out that POE has evolved into a tool for tailoring building performance around changing user needs in buildings. Also changing, are the theoretical and philosophical ideologies that make POE meaningful to the end user.
Keywords: History, Theory, Philosophy, Occupancy, Evaluation