Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (JPAS) Vol. 11 (1)



Published by:

Hummingbird Publications and Research International,

Chembian Heritage Suite, No 18 Justice Sowemimo Str.,

Off T.Y Danjuma Str., Asokoro, P.O. Box 16868, Wuse3,

Abuja FCT-Nigeria


Copyright © 2018 Hummingbird Research and Publications International



Effect Of Replacement Of Maize With Graded Levels Of Fried – Garri Sievate As Energy Source On The Performance Characteristics Of Broiler Chickens

1Agiang, E. A., 1Ozung, P.O., 2Akpet, S. O., 1Ayuk, A. A. &1Abia,  U. N.

1Department of Animal Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria 2Department of Animal Science, Obubra Campus, Cross River University of Technology


The need for cheaper alternatives to highly – priced conventional feedstuffs is imperative. Investigation into the potential usefulness of some hitherto over – looked materials to serve as cheap alternatives has become a necessity. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of replacing maize with graded levels of fried – garri sievate as energy source on the performance, organ morphometry and economics of productions of Anak strain of broiler chickens. A total of 108 day – old chicks were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments having 27 birds each, which were further replicated thrice with nine chicks per replicate. Maize in the dietary treatments was replaced by garri sievate as energy source at 0, 20, 40 and 60 % levels for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. Growth performance and economic parameters were monitored throughout the study period of 56 days. At the end of the study, three birds per replicate (i.e. nine per treatment) whose body weight values were closed to the mean body weight of birds in a particular treatment were randomly selected and slaughtered for carcass evaluation and organ morphometry determination. Results showed that the body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by dietary treatments. The carcass characteristics, internal organs and economics of production indices were all statistically (P>0.05) similar across dietary treatments. However, the intestinal weight differed significantly (P<0.05) across treatments. Hence, the study concludes that the performance of broiler chickens fed garri sievate as replacement for maize was comparable to the control, but was not cost – effective. Therefore, garri sievate can only be used when it has competitive advantage with maize at the prevailing market prices of both commodities.

Keyword: replacement, garri sievate, energy, performance, broiler chickens



Evaluation of in Sacco Ruminal Degradation Profiles of Raw and Steamed Maize Cob and their Effects in Replacing Maize Bran in Diets.

Babale, D.M1., Yahaya, S.M.2., T.F2. Mbahi And Z. Gworgwor2

  1. Department of Animal Production, Adamawa state University, Mubi.
  2. Department of Animal Science, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola


The degradation experiment was conducted using three healthy bulls fitted with permanent rumen canulas of 40mm diameter. The bulls were fed Cowpea husk ad libitum as the basal diet and supplemented with 500g/day of a mixture of Maize bran, cotton seed cake, and minerals in the ratio of 59:40:1 respectively. Three (3) grams of each sample were replicated two times and put into six (6) different nylon bags, inserted via permanent Ruminal canula and left in the rumen for each incubation time: 3, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48 hours. The bags containing undigested residues were removed from the rumen after each incubation time and thoroughly washed under running tap water until the washing water was clear. The differences in weights of dry matter in the nylon bags before and after rumen incubation represented materials degraded in the rumen. Dry matter disappearance (washing loss) was determined by soaking three bags of each sample in warm water at about 40oC for 30 minutes. The bags were removed, washed under running tap water for some minutes. When the water became clear, the samples were dried in the oven at 650C for 48 hours. The actual percentage dry matter disappearance was then calculated. After compounding the diets, the raw and steam treated maize cobs with 10% cotton seed cake across levels, there were increased rumen degradation (40.11 to 57.42%) at 48 hours incubation. The maize cob when incorporated with other feeds, can replace more expensive maize bran upto 50% with resultant high rumen degradation without health hazard to the animals.

Keyword: Ruminal, Degradation, Raw, Steamed, Maize cob, Diets



Memory Page Replacement Using Least Recently Used Algorithm on Variable Reference String

1Ismail Zaharaddeen Yakubu., 2Ibrahim Farouq Ibrahim, 3Ahmad Atika Jibrin, 4Fatima Abubakar Ahmed.

1,3,4 Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi (Nigeria)

2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi (Nigeria)


The Main Memory of a computer is a limited resource even though common amount of memory has increased some decades back. The size of a program code, data, and stack may be greater than the size of the main memory; as a result the modern general purpose operating systems use virtual memory to solve the problem of size mismatch. Virtual memory system requires an efficient memory page replacement algorithm to decide which pages to evict from memory as a result of a page fault. Many Memory page replacement algorithms have been proposed with the aim of minimizing the page fault rates.this research work simulate the Least Recently Used Algorithm on variable reference string and determine the page fault of the algorithm.

Keyword: Main Memory, Program Code, Data, Stack, operating System, Virtual Memory, Algorithm, Page Fault, Variable, Reference String



Statistical Analysis on the Investigation of 2015 National Assembly Elections in Nigeria

Aminu Haruna*,Usman Hassan, Ibrahim.Y. Inuwa, & M.M Muhammad

Department of Mathematics & Statistics School of Science and Technology Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.


This research “Investigation on 2015 National Assembly Elections in Nigeria” with a case study of Independent National Electoral Commission, INEC. The Data used is Secondary data obtained from INEC, and the method of collection was Documentary (Published in the Internet). The research is aimed at investigating if the number of seats won by political parties depends on the six geopolitical zones in the 2015 NASS elections, the relationship between the number of seats in Senate and House of Representatives of each party according to the six geopolitical zones is determined, to measure the degree of agreement among the political parties with regard  to the number of seats won in the 2015 NASS elections, and lastly, the graphical proportions of seats won by the political parties in the 2015 NASS elections in Nigeria was presented. The Statistical Tools employed are; The Log-Likelihood Ratio Test, Spearman’s Rank Correlation, Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance and liner Frequency chart. Using computer packages, the results and conclusions of the analysis with regards to Log-Likelihood Ratio Test reveal that the Number of Seats by Political Parties in the 2015 NASS elections depends on the Six Geopolitical Zones, in the application of the Spearman’s Rank Correlation on APC, we find out that there is moderate positive correlation between the number of seats in the House of Reps and Senate and discover also that the Coefficient is not significant, on PDP. We find out that there is highly positive correlation between the number of seats in the House of Reps and Senate and discover also that their Correlation Coefficient is not significant. In determining the level of agreement among the political parties, The Kendal’s Coefficient indicates a moderate positive agreement among the political parties in Senate seats while in the House of Representative, also a moderate positive agreement among the parties. It was discovered that both their Kendall’s Coefficient are statistically significant. The Liner Frequency Chart Analysis for the Senates seats revealed that APC has about 80.15% of seats, while, PDP has about 19.85% seats.

Keyword: House of Representatives, Senate, Likelyhood ratio test, Election,                  Correlation



Species Composition and Socioeconomic Status of the Fisherfolks of the Ofin Coastal Waters of Lagos State Nigeria

1Bolarinwa J. Bamidele, 2 Ogunbanwo,O.A  and  3 Babalola,O

1,2,3 Department of  Fisheries Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, P.M.B 21606, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria.


 A survey of species composition of Ofin waterside, Lagos lagoon, Nigeria conducted for 6 months (July – December, 2015) which falls within the late rainy season revealed the predominance of  seven fishes viz Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Tilapia aurea, Polydactylus quadrifilis, Mugil cephalus, Pomadasy jubelini,Cynoglossus cynoglossus and Sphyraena piscatorum.There was comparatively lower catches of fish in October especially Polydactylus quadrifilis probably  due to increased water level and lowered salinity. Study of socioeconomic characteristics of the fisher folks showed high level of illiteracy among the male-dominated fishing population(most of whom are Yorubas).72.5% of them are between age of 21 and 41years.This is also reflected by the high level of fisher folks that claimed ignorance of fishing laws (95%). Over 40% of the fisher folks used cast nets, 37.5% used gillnets with mesh sizes lower than 1 inch, thus resulting in indiscriminate catching of fishes. 92% of the fisher folks are into full-time fishing mainly in the rainy season. Half of the fisher folks used motorised boats which enables deeper entry inshore. Nearly 70% fish in pairs while a mere 4% fish singly. Major challenges include stormy/windy weather, erosion, restricted access to credit, inadequacy of fishing inputs, poor infrastructures and poor storage facilities, hence the need for more governmental intervention especially in terms of training, extension services and provision of infrastructural facilities.

Keyword: Species composition, fisherfolks, socioeconomics, infrastructure, challenges, lagoon



GC-MS and FT-IR Identification of Bioactive Constituents in Chromatographic Fraction of Chenopodium Ambrosioides l. Leave extracts

Yakubu S1, Justine M.2 Bala S. 1Tsodiya B1.

1 Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, PMB 35, Mubi Adamawa State 2 Department of Chemistry, College of Education, Hong, Adamawa State.


Chenopodium ambrosioides L. is a perennial herb of the Chenopodiaceae family and ambrosioides species. Preparation from the plant is used as anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory digestive, stomachis and in some cases as hemostatic, stimulant, laxatives, anti-diarrheic, and anti-venom. The objective of the research is to identify long chain hydrocarbon, alcohols and esters in the fraction of C. ambrosioides using Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry  (GC-MS) and Fauria Transform-Infra red Radiation (FT-IR).Polytannins have earlier been  identified using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The powdered leave sample was extracted in 70% acetone and the extract further fractionated using column chromatography (CC). The fractions collect from CC was subjected to GC-MS) analysis using Model QP2010PLUS SHIMADZU. The mas spectra obtained was matched with the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) Library. Thus, seven compounds were identified from the fraction. Furthermore, the functional groups of the identified compounds were investigated using FT-IR spectrometry. The results showed the presence of seven functional groups. The result of the GC-MS and FT-IR analysis revealed the presence of the following compounds in the fraction; Cyclooctanone, Octadecanoic acid, 9-hexadecanoic acid, n-hexadecanoic acid, Octadecanoic acid methyl ester, Ecosonoic acid methyl ester. The identified compounds are important in the pharmaceutical industry owing to their rich medicinal properties. Similarly, the compounds identified are used in industries for the production of perfume, flavor, pesticides, antioxidant etc.

Keyword:Chenopodium ambrosioides, GC-MS, FT-IR, Column Chromatography Phyto-constituents,



Influence and Consequences of Drug Abuse on Students’ Behaviours in Yobe State College of Agriculture, Gujba.

Umar Adamu Maina1, Tijjani Saleh Abba2, Garba Ado Abubakar3 and Babagana Ibrahim4.

Department of Basic Science Yobe State College of Agriculture, Gujba, Nigeria.


This study paper investigates “the influence and consequences of drug abuse on students’ behaviours.” The necessary data for this research work were collected through the use of self-designed questionnaires, which were distributed and directed to the ND I, ND II, HND I and HND II students. The work revealed that psychological problems such as frustration, fear and anxiety encourage the students to participate in drug abuse. The victims are thus influenced by peer group to engage in excessive use of drugs, which causes mental defects. Drug users got their sources from within and outside the college. From the samples investigated the effects and consequences of drug abuse on student’s behaviours include rudeness to teachers and school authority, engaging in cultism, indiscipline and most of them are academically backward. Based on these findings, some recommendations were given, among other things that the college authority should consider giving admission based on qualification grade and to candidates with free–drug-addict habits. The college management should also intensify efforts to occupy the students with meaningful activities such as sports so as to discourage them from drug abuse. The school security agencies in conjunction with school’s guidance and counselling officer organize talks on the ills of drug abuse during students orientation exercise.

Keyword: influence, consequences, drug abuse, behaviour, college of agriculture, Gujba



Utilization of Torula Yeast/Zymomonas Mobilis As Main/Reciprocal For Degradation of Municipal Organic Waste As Feed For Goats

Kanu  C. N.

Department of Food Technology, School of Applied Science and Technology

Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State


 The study was carried out to investigate the performance of Red Sokoto goats fed Municipal Oranic Wastes (MOW) subjected to two methods of in vivo degradation by Torula Yeast and Zymomonas mobilis. Two combination, Torula Yeast + Zymomonas mobilis (main degradation), and Zymomonas mobilis + Torula Yeast (Reciprocal degradation) were used to degrade MOW. Eighteen Red Sokoto goats of both sexes (9 males and 9 females) of ages between 6-8 were used for the study. The goats were randomly assigned into 3 treatments groups A, B and C respectively with 6 goats per treatment. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomized Design and replicated 3 times. Treatment A groups were fed 30% Undegraded MOW base diet +concentrate mixture, Treatment B groups were fed 30% Main degraded MOW base diet +concentrate mixture, Treatment C groups were fed 30% Reciprocal degraded MOW base diet +concentrate mixture.  The result of the daily weight gain was significantly (P<0.05) better than on the other Treatments. There was significant improvement (P<0.05) on the daily feed consumption in Treatment B than on the Treatments A and C. The feed conversion ratio revealed no significant (P>0.05) differences among the treatment groups but much better in the treatment B and C, the cost of feed consumed was much higher (P>0.05) in Treatment B followed by Treatment C, while Treatment A had the lowest. The cost/ kg weight gain that was recorded in Treatment A was better (P<0.05) than the Treatment B, followed by Treatment C, while the cost of production was high (P<0.05) in Treatment B than in other treatments. The gross profit was observed best (P<0.05) on the Treatment B, followed by Treatment C while Treatment A had the lowest. The net profit as noted in this study was much better (P<0.05) in Treatment B, and Treatment C, while the least was observed in Treatment A, where the return on investment was high in Treatments B and C, while Treatment A had the lowest.

Keyword: zymomonas mobilis; torula yeast; main; reciprocal; municipal organic waste; goat




Anthony Umukoro, Joseph Okorodudu and Kennedy Edino

Computer Science Department Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe


 Artificial Intelligence is the branch of the Computer Science that can understand and int the intelligence of machines. Intelligence is the ability to think, to imagine, to create, memorize, understand, recognize patterns, make choices, adapt to change and learn from experience. Artificial intelligence is a human endeavor to create a non-organic machine-based entity, that has all the above abilities of natural organic intelligence. Hence it is called as ‘Artificial Intelligence’ (AI). It is the study and design of intelligent agents, where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and also takes actions that maximize its chances of success. Artificial intelligence is an intelligent system created by humans. This is a very complex concept that encompasses many different cognitive skills. Programmers and philosophers debate over what should constitute true artificial intelligence. Many programmers and engineers envision a future when robots will be able to appear intelligent and maybe even have the same cognitive abilities that a human brain has. It is the ultimate challenge for an intelligence, to create an equal, another intelligent being. It is the ultimate form of art, where the artist’s creation, not only inherits the impressions of his thoughts, but also his ability to think.

Keyword: Artificial Intelligent, Image, Agents, Cognitive Skills, Robotics



Assessment of the Management of Mother to Child Transmission of Human Immune Deficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) Among Pregnant Women Attending Ante-natal Clinic in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH) Sabon Gari Comprehensive Health Center, Zaria, Kaduna State – Nigeria

Alewu, B1.  Usama, L. F. A2., Magajiya, H1.

1Shehu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology, Makarfi, Kaduna State – Nigeria

2Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State – Nigeria


The Assessment of the Management of Mother to Child Transmission of Human Immune Deficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among Pregnant Women attending Sabon – Gari Comprehensive Health Centre – Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital was studied. Human immune deficiency virus/Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) ranked among the fastest cause of death of children in Nigeria especially urban areas. Nigeria has the largest population in Africa (one in six Africans being a Nigerian). Although HIV prevalence rate is much lower in Nigeria than in other African countries such as South Africa and Zambia, according to the United Nations Agency on Aids (UNAIDS), nearly 3 million Nigerians live with HIV or are dying of AIDS, (prevalence rate of 5%). In some urban centers, the prevalence is more than 15% among the adult population and at least 20% among pregnant women. HIV/AIDS has really affected the Nigerian society and economy, disproportionately affecting future leaders of Nigeria. Survey research design was employed in this present study. Total populations of 176 respondents were used for this study.  Random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample from the population. One hundred and seventy (170) questionnaires were distributed to the respondents. A reliability ratio of 0.96 was obtained. The result of this study showed that there was fair knowledge of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDs and pretest counseling. The total calculated mean of the age range mostly affected with HIV/AIDS is between 25 – 34 years (31%). Safe sex practice accounts for the major preventive measures employed by the people. The use of antiretroviral drugs was also part of the preventive measures. However knowledge of risk factors was poor. Mass media obviously will reduce HIV/AIDS. Education of women will reduce the dangers mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS. Most of the women in this present study have higher qualification. There was generally good attitude to pre-test and post-test counseling but the level of practice was low. The researcher concludes that, pregnant, women and infant are the more vulnerable group. The effect of discrimination and stigmatization of HIV/AIDs which can result to psychological problem, disrupted family life, destructive pattern of confidence of spouse of whole family. The researcher is recommending that all reproductive age group and pregnant women should go for HIV testing and counseling.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Mother, Children, Transmission


On Infinite   Matrices   and   Invariant Means

Ibrahim Mohammed Dibal,  Bukar  Yusuf  and  Idi  Sani  Audu

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu,

Yobe state of Nigeria. Federal College of Education (tech.) Potiskum Department of Mathematics Yobe State.

ABSTRACT The  sequence  space    was  introduced  and  studied  by  Schaefer (1972).  In  the  present  research work  we extend    which  is  related  to  the  concept  of  invariant  mean   and  characterized  the  matrix  classes    and  .  Further,  we  also  determine  the  necessary  and  sufficient  conditions  on  the  matrix  sequence    in  order  that  A  belongs  to  the  matrix  classes    and  .

Keyword: Sequence   spaces;  matrix  transformation;  invariant  mean


Comparative Analysis of Brightness Enhancement Based Digital Video Compression Methods Using Firefly, Modified Firefly Algorithms And Lifting Wavelet Transform (Lwt)

  1. A. Abdulkareem, A. M. S. Tekanyi, S.M Sani And I. Yau

Communication Engineering Department, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria


Today information dissemination in cable, mobile networks and multimedia makes image or video compression a vital aspect of image processing. The three main problems identified in image processing are size of the image window, frame rate and quality of the input image. This paper presents a thorough comparative analysis on three techniques developed for video image compressions with emphasis on luminance enhancement technique for video frame pixel improvement. A total of six (four acquired and two benchmarks) sample video data were used to implement the achieved technique.  Frames were extracted from the video data and stored in form of images in a buffer.  This is with a view to determining the efficiency of the proposed technique. Simulation results showed that, the achieved method is efficient with an improved compression ratio and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR). The PSNR evaluation showed the efficiency and signal quality of the technique. For the respective individual sample video frames of NAERLS1.avi, NAERLS2.avi, NTA1.avi, and NTA2.avi, the E-mFOA produced PSNR percentage improvement of 72.09%, 71.04%, 79.51% and 78.81% over E-LWT. However, for the benchmark video frame of Akiyo.avi and Forman.avi, the E-mFOA also produced a percentage improvement of 74.67% and 76.08% over E-LWT.

Keyword: Video frames, Image Compression, Standard FOA, mFOA, E mFOA, LWT, PSNR and Brightness Enhancement

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *