JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE (JPAS)
June, 2017 Vol. 9 No. 1
Hummingbird Publications and Research International,
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Copyright © 2017 Hummingbird Publications and Research International
A DYNAMICAL SYSTEM: COEXISTENCE, DEGENERACY AND SURVIVAL OF INTERACTING PHYTOPLANKTON SPECIES
P.Y IGWE2 AND E.N. EKAKA-A1
1Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 2Department of Mathematics, Federal college of Education (Technical), Omoku.
A Lotka–Volterra dynamical system is a popular model description of two interacting phytoplankton species. It is a challenging problem to experts in the field of environmental microbiology to differentiate the type of stability and its corresponding survival and non-survival scenarios for the purpose of effective ecosystem planning and management. It is against this background that we have used the technique of a Mathlab numerical algorithm to construct a cutting-edge and a replicative database that have shown clearly the regions of degeneracy, coexistence and stability for two interacting phytoplankton species. On the simplifying assumptions of a sound biological environmental hypothesis, our present study has indirectly mimicked the impact of an environmental perturbation such as the climate change factor (sea level rise) on the survival and stable sustainability of the interacting species. The full results of this simulation analysis have not been seen elsewhere: they are fully presented and discussed in this paper.
Keyword: Coexistence, Degeneracy, Survival, Interacting and phytoplankton
THE NIGERIAN SMALL HOLDER FARMER AND THE DUAL NEEDS FOR LAND AND SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY
1AKWARANDU, K. E., 1ALKALI, U. U., 1AMSHI, A. M, 2ALABI, A. S., AND 3AKWARANDU, A. S.
1Forestry Technology Department, Yobe State College of Agriculture, Gujba. 2 Oyo State College of Agriculture and Technology, Igboora. 3Toun Akwarandu & Co. Legal Practitioners, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Majority of the people in Nigeria depend on arable farming and animal husbandry for their livelihood. Small scale farming has been discovered to be the mainstay of Nigerian agricultural system and a major contributor to the nation’s gross national income. However, characterizing this practice of agriculture is the continuous quest for arable, fertile land for optimum harvest under the use of crude or semi-mechanized technologies, a practice which has contributed to increasingly reducing the per-capita land and increasing the rate of deforestation, bringing with it attendant negative environmental consequences every year in the country. The various characteristics and effects of small-holder farming vis-à-vis prevailing land ownership and acquisition patterns in Nigeria were reviewed. These characteristics, most of which have been seen to be limitations in the drive towards food sufficiency and industrial development, especially in the underdeveloped and developing countries, were explained. Possible solutions to these limitations were suggested and various environmental, economic and industrial advantages of adopting these solutions were outlined.
Keyword: Land Degradation, Small-Holder, Wind/Water Erosion, Slash and Burn, Wind Break, Shelterbelt.
ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS ROOT EXTRACT OF IMPERATA CYLINDRICA (L) ON MAIZE AND SORGHUM SEEDS GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH.
A.I. ABUBAKAR* GARBA, A**. Y. HARUNA* AND BARNABAS, B.*
*Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. **Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
This study was conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the allelopathic effects of aqueous root extract of Imperat cylindrica L. at 5 and 10% (w/v) concentrations on maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) seed germination, seedling growth (shoot and root length). The treatments were laid out in completely randomized design with four replications. Results showed that the aqueous root extract significantly inhibited seed germination, shoot length and root elongation of the crops. The germination percentage, root and shoot growth decreased with increase in extract concentration. It was suggested that integrated weed management practices should be designed and employed to control this invasive weed from maize and sorghum fields to sustain production of the crops.
Keyword: Allelopathic, aqueous root extract, maize, sorghum
DETERMINATION OF THE MEAN EFFECTIVE DOSE ABSORBED BY PATIENTS DURING COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY EXAMINATION
AREMU S.O.1, HAQUE M.F.2, ODELAMI A.K. 3, NDAWASHI M.1
1Federal polytechnic Bauchi. 2Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi. 3Sheu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology, Kaduna State.
The mean effective dose per exposure of patients exposed to Computed Tomography machine for Skull and Abdomen imaging was determined using Lithium Fluoride thermo luminescent dosimeter (TLD) badge. The TLD was placed directly on the patients’ stomach during abdominal imaging and attached to the patients’ neck during skull imaging. The TLD was used to measure the patients’ skin radiation dose and depth radiation dose during the examination. The mean effective dose of the patients was estimated to be 1.7mSv which is within the range reported in relevant literatures.
Keyword: Computed Tomography machine, Thermoluminiscent dosimeter, Entrance skin dose, Depth dose, Effective dose.
GENOMIC KINSHIP OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 SECLUDED ON CABBAGE MOISTENED BY DIFFERENT WASTEWATER SOURCES IN BAUCHI
SAADATU BELLO KIRFI
Department of Science Lab Tech. Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
The genetic relatedness of 22 E. coli O157:H7 isolated on Cabbage collected from Wunti and Gwallaga Wastewater irrigation farms in Bauchi city was determined. Strains were characterized using plasmid analyses based on alkaline lyses method (pH 8) and genomic DNA was extracted for restriction digest by Sma 1. Samples were analyzed on 1% agarose at 60 V for 1 and 1: 30 minutes and gels were observed and photographed under UV trans-illuminator (BioRad). Plasmid analyses revealed 7 plasmids ranged from 1.422 kb to 12.497 kb distributed into 5 profiles. Most E. coli O157:H7 (68.18%) had only one plasmid, plasmids sizes 11.495 kb was most frequent, and was observed among all strains, especially in 63.64% of strains from Wunti cabbage. Strains were similar at 45.45% of Wunti and 22.73% of Gwallaga strains of the total strains analyzed, respectively. However, strains from same source (farm) were found to exhibit different plasmid profile. Restrictions digest analyses revealed little variation from plasmid profile data, with eight clusters of restriction patterns accordance to Dice similarity coefficient. Strains in cluster one were 65% similar, with 5 of the 8 clusters contained strains from both sources. Some strains identified as similar by plasmid profile were equally grouped into similar clusters by restriction digest. The interrelationship among strains, clearly demonstrate that, they were probably from same sources, being transmitted through the environment to the cabbages.
Keyword: Genetic relatedness, restriction digest, cabbage, irrigation, wastewater canals.
THE APPLICATION OF RIDGE REGRESSION DIAGONASTIC METHOD WITH ROBUST ESTIMATION AS A REMEDY FOR MULTICOLLINEARITY CAUSED BY HIGH LEVERAGE POINTS
BELLO ABDULKADIR RASHEED AND SAGIR MAHMOOD
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
For generation, statistics practitioners have been depending on the ordinary least squares (OLS) method in the linear regression model because of its optimal properties and simplicity of calculation. However the (OLS) estimators can be strongly affected by the existence of multicollinearity which is a near linear dependency between two or more independent variables in the regression model. Even though in the presence of multicollinearity the OLS estimate still remained unbiased, they will be inaccurate prediction about the dependent variable with the inflated standard errors of the estimated parameter coefficient of the regression model. It is now evident that the existence of high leverage points which are the outliers in x-direction are the prime factor of collinearity influential observations. In this study, we proposed some alternative to regression methods for estimating the regression parameter coefficient in the presence of multiple high leverage points which cause the multicollinearity problem. This procedure utilized the ordinary least squares estimates of the parameter as the initial followed by an estimate of the ridge regression. Here, we incorporated the Least Trimmed Squares (LTS) robust regression estimate to downweight the effects of multiple high leverage points which lead to the reduction of the effects of multicollinearity. The result seemed to suggest that the RLTS give a substantial improvement over the Ridge Regression
Keyword: Multicollinearity, Outlier, Ridge Regression, Robust Regression
DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF AN AIR PYCNOMETER.
U.A.GARBA1, Z. MUSTAFA1, A. JA’AFARU2
1Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Engineering, Kaduna, Polytechnic, Kaduna,2Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna
Foods and crop processing machines design is dependent on the correct analysisand determination and determination of their physical properties. An air pycnometer that can be used to determine the volumes of solids that are powder,dried fruits and vegetables was developed. The pycnometer was tested using fourdifferent samples each of 300g per replicate, namely Cassava and Wheat flour, dried and grounded spinach leaves and dried grounded tomatoes. Five setsfor each sample was used such that there are five replications for each sample. Results obtained were used to compute volume of solid Vs and prosity Ps which were plotted against number of replication in comparison to a “linear Vs” line on each plot. It was concluded that the pynometer is functioning well especially for dried and grounded vegetable crops.
Keyword: Pycnometer, porosity, replicates, valves, Chambers.
ANALYTICAL DESCRIPTION OF DC MOTOR WITH DETERMINATION OF ROTOR DAMPING CONSTANT (Β) OF 12V DC MOTOR
ONAWOLA, HASSAN JIMOH1, ADEWUNMI, OLUGBENGA TITUS2, EHIAGWINA, FREDERICK OJIEMHENDE3, IROMINI, NURUDEEN AJIBOLA4
1,4&3Department of Computer Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, PMB 420, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria 2Department of Electrical/Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Ede
DC motor as an electric machine have been applied in numerous control systems. However, a critical parameter of interest that must be evaluated in designing a DC motor based system is the damping constant of the rotor. This paper analytically examines how to determine the damping constant of the rotor of a 12V DC motor, with the determination based on the following parameters: Armature resistance (Ra), inductance (La), Capacitance, the Stall current and the Angular rate of excitation of the motor with varying armature excitation of the current. These parameters help to ascertain the maximum and the minimum operating limit of the motor so as not to exceed the boundary-operating limits of the 12V motor. Experiments were performed in the laboratory and at the end of the analysis, the result shows that the value of damping constant of a 12V DC motor was -3.317 10-4 N-m-sec2. This parameter can be factored in future control system designs.
Keyword: Motor, machines, impedance, armature, inductance
EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE STRENGTH OF PUNCH DIES USED FOR PRECISION STAMPING ON AEROSPACE MECHANICAL PARTS
WOLI, T.O, AND OGUNDELE, S.O
Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Offa, P.M.B 420, Offa
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of heat treatment on the strength of punch dies used for precision stamping on aerospace mechanical parts to improve their performance. Many structural investigations has been made on high- speed steels (HSS) produced by conventional metallurgy (e.g M2 and M42) and powder metallurgy (such as S390). Microhardness measurements were focused on the secondary carbide precipitations and the changes on the mechanical property that develop during triple tempering. The type, shape and size of primary carbides were recognized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Optical microscopy inspections were also used to evaluate the volume fraction of precipitations after the heat treatment. The influence of the applied heat treatment with double tempering and employed third tempering were studied. The HSS grades consist of primary carbides (M6C and MC) in a martensitic matrix form and the precipitation of secondary hardening carbides in M2 tool steels was found to be associated with an increase in hardness and decrease in toughness. The average grain size also increased in all the three samples with increasing tempering stages thereby reducing the strength and the hardness of tool steels based on the type and thickness of secondary carbides formed.
Keyword: high-speed steel; heat treatment; carbides; secondary hardening; microhardness, grain size.
HETEROSCEDASTIC LINEAR REGRESSION MODEL IN THE PRESENCE OF OUTLIERS, HIGH LEVERAGE POINTS AND MULTICOLLINEARITY USING HUBER AND TURKEY PSI FUNCTIONS.
BELLO ABDULKADIR RASHEED AND SAGIR MAHMOOD
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
This article is concerned with the improvement of robust heteroscedasticity model in the presence of residuals outliers by using Huber’s Psi function. The robustness of heteroscedasticity model based on the initial MM-estimators and modified robust heteroscedasticity model obtain from GM-estimator based on the initial MM-estimators were investigated from various properties of Tukey’s Weighted GM-estimator. The modified robust heteroscedasticity model obtains from GM-estimator also in cooperate the multicollinearity diagnostic methods of partial least square (PLS) procedures. Based on our results obtain from real data and simulation study, it has shown that the biases, standard error and root mean square error (RMSE) of the robust heteroscedasticity model obtain from MM-estimator is increasing appreciable higher than that of modified robustness heteroscedasticity model obtain from GM-estimator as the percentage of outliers and high leverage points (HLP) is increases in the presence of multicollinearity. Keyword: Heteroscedasticity, multicollinearity, Outliers, high leverage points, Robust estimation
MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF DATA PRECISION UNDERGOING A LOW RANDOM NOISE VARIATION
1GALADIMA, I.J AND 2EKAKA-A, E. N.
1Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Natural Science, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria. 2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Poor experimental measurements can pose a challenging disparity in the standard deviation of primary data of which the Bessel’s defined data are no exception. In order to evaluate the extent of the data precision of the Bessel’s data, we have utilized a sound MATLAB alternative method to achieve a few results that are fully presented and discussed in this paper.
Random, Mathematical, Undergoing, Variation, Modelling.
EFFICACY OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM AND PIPER GUINEENSE ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI
UDOSEN, I. E1, SAMUEL, E. O2. AND MUSTAPHA, H. 1
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. 2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
The antimicrobial efficacy of Ocimum gratissimum and Piper guineense on drug resistant strain of Staphyloccoccus aureus was investigated in the study. Phytochemical analysis showed that ethanolic and crude extracts of Ocimum gratissimum contained Alkaloid, Tannin, Saponin, Flavanoid and Terpenoid, while the Piper guineense had Alkanoid, Saponin, Tannin, Flavanoid respectively. The antibacterial activities using disc diffusion method for Ocimum gratissimum showed that Staphylococcus aureus had 4mm and E. coli had 1mm zone of inhibition for ethanol respectively while Piper guineense showed zone sizes of 4mm and 1mm for ethanol and aqueous extracts against Staphylococcus aureus while both aqueous and ethanol extracts showed zone sizes of 2mm against E coli.
Staphylococcus, Effiency, Aureus, Escherichia coli, Piper guineense