Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences (JHSS) Vol. 11 (4)



Published by:

Hummingbird Publications and Research International,

Chembian Heritage Suite, No 18 Justice Sowemimo Str.,

Off T.Y Danjuma Str., Asokoro, P.O. Box 16868, Wuse3,

Abuja FCT-Nigeria


Copyright © 2018 Hummingbird Research and Publications International



Use of Child Soldiers in Wars in Africa: The Media’s Post Conflict Intervention

*Nwosu , Julius Chibuike, *Mozie, Chisom Ejiofor, *Ifeobu, Adaku Chinwe **Kwase, Audu Dogari *Uzoagba ,Ogochukwu Nneka

*Mass Communication Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, PMB 5025, Awka **Mass Communication Department, Taraba State University, PMB 1167, Jalingo.


This paper examined the post-conflict role of the media in addressing the problem of use of child soldiers in wars in Africa. The discussion was situated within the framework of the agenda setting and social responsibility theories. The paper argued that the media in Africa have a vital role to play in addressing this problem within the context of post-conflict reportage. It was noted that the media may discharge this role through advocating for punishment of masterminds of child soldering, advocating for rehabilitation of former child soldiers, publicising the activities of intervention agencies and exposing of factors that contributed to child soldering in a given conflict. It was concluded that by playing these roles, the media would be deploying their agenda setting powers towards serving the society’s needs – a demand made of them under the social responsibility doctrine. The paper recommended that media houses in Africa should, in their coverage of conflicts, give priority to the issue of use of children as soldiers with the view to exposing the ills of this practice and advocating measures towards addressing them even as they should also ensure that this role is not limited to the period of the conflict itself but is extended to the post-conflict period.

Keyword: Child soldiers, post-conflict, media, role, intervention



Mediating Role of Financial Engineering on Determinants of Dividend Policy in the Nigerian Money Deposit Banks: An Empirical Investigation

Dr Mahmoud Ibrahim

Department of Accounting, Faculty of social and Management Sciences, Bauchi State University, Gadau, Bauchi Campus, Bauchi State.


 Dividend  policy  is  an  unsolved  mystery  in  the  field  of  finance.  Even  after  decades  of investigations,  scholars  still  disagree  on  the  factors  that  influence  dividend  decisions of companies. This study basically examined empirically the impact of current earnings, preceding year dividend and investment on the dividend payout of money deposit banks in Nigeria, to outline the separate and combine effect of these factors in determining the dividend payment. Twenty-two banks, quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) as at 2017 were adapted as sample for the study. Data was collected from secondary sources i.e. annual reports and accounts of the selected firms, Daily Official Lists and Facts Books of the NSE for the period of 2013-2017. In analysing the data, multiple regression technique was employed. The study revealed statistical and empirical evidence that current earnings, preceding year dividend and investment are useful in explaining and predicting the dividend payout of money deposit banks in Nigeria. It is therefore concluded that the three variables (current earnings, preceding year dividend and investment) have a significant aggregate impact on the dividend payment of the firms. Positive relationship between firm size, dividend payout and investment has made the study to further conclude that retained earnings and preceding year were not the major source of internal financing. The result shows the intention of the firms to maintain stable dividend payout as an income smoothing (financial engineering) policy. From the conclusion the study recommends the need for Nigerian companies, not only those engaged in banking to imbibe the habit of stable dividend policy against the fluctuating pattern by virtue of its information content and also that the management team needs to strive for higher profitability, larger firm size, higher risk premium to satisfy the shareholders’ goal of wealth maximization in the form of higher dividends.

Keyword: Retained earnings, Investment, Preceding year dividend, Earnings Management, Firm size and dividend payment. 



Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and Electoral Process in Nigeria: Lessons from the 2015 General Elections

Abubakar Oladeji, Ph.D

Political and Governance Policy Department, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER).


Election remains the defining characteristics of democracy and the most acceptable means of selecting political leaders in civilized societies. It involves a set of activities leading to the selection of person (s) out of many to serve in positions of authority. In spite of the acclaimed usefulness of election in the choice of a leader in a democratic regime, this political means of choosing leaders is historically bedeviled by the problems of rigging, violence, and all other forms of malpractices in Nigeria. In 2015, attempt was made to introduce some forms of technology in the conduct of elections, with the aim being to improve the credibility of the electoral process. Using secondary data this paper examines the relevance of ICTs to electoral process and investigates the extent to which ICT can enhance the prospects of electoral process in Nigeria. Among others the paper recommends that the use of SCR should form a legitimate integral part of the country’s electoral laws and system, while INEC should reform electoral systems such that accreditation and voting are done simultaneously in future elections.

Keyword: Information and Communications Technology (ICT); Elections; Electoral Process; Malpractices; Nigeria. 



Grassroots Sports Development as Political Public Relations Tool in Nigeria

Onifade, Oluwafemi Sunday and Adeyinka, Afolabi Taofeek

(Department of Mass Communication Federal Polytechnic Bauchi).


This position paper discusses the endless possibilities inherent in sports development in general and grassroots sports development in particular. It suggests that grassroots sports development has been neglected in Nigeria over the years while the little attention given to sports development have focused on a handful of sports with football claiming the largest share of attention. Using the framework of the Expectancy Value Theory, the paper argues that politicians can achieve their political public relations goals by investing in sports infrastructure and programmes at the grassroots. Such efforts would produce tremendous socio-economic and political goodwill in the long run. It recommends that all sports should be encouraged at the grassroots so that more sporting heroes could be produced thereby creating a mutually beneficial relationship between political candidates and organizations on one hand and the society in general on the other hand.

Keyword: Grassroots, Sports, Development, Relations, Tool.



Corporate Social Responsibility: An Islamic Perspective.

Wali, Yaya Mukhtar

Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.


Corporate social responsibility is a very important aspect of companies. It goes beyond legal compliance as it also has social, economic, ethical and philanthropic dimensions. Initially Corporate social responsibility was viewed from the Western perspective only but nowadays there is an increased interest   from the Islamic perspective   as well. The Islamic perspective is based on the teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The purpose of this paper is to view the Corporate Social Responsibility practices from the Islamic perspective. Findings indicate that corporate social responsibility promotes the corporate image and goodwill of Companies and the Islamic perspective is based on enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong. It is recommended that more studies should be conducted on Islamic Corporate Social Responsibility. In addition understanding this concept from this perspective could help strengthen CSR compliance and reporting by companies, where religion play direct and indirect role in corporate governance and people’s lifestyle.

Keyword: Islamic, Corporate Social Responsibility, Compliance, Ethical, Legal



Learning English by Social Media “A Case Study of Whatsapp”


Education system has developed rapidly; technology has invaded our lives, everyone has smart phone these days, using Whatsapp, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Telegram, etc., no one can deny that the generation I teach these days has become addicted to these applications for social relationships and fun.

Keyword: leadership, politicians, politics, development, poverty. 



Motivation: As A Key To Succeed In Teaching And Learning

Muhammad Lawal Ahmad & Jibrin Mairiga Munkaila

Department Of Educational Psychology School Of Education College Of Education Kangere


The key to success in teaching and learning is motivation. The paper focus on the different meaning of motivation. It also explain the strategies of motivate students to learn effectively, such as telling the students what they need to do to succeed in their courses, reward success, emphasize mastery and learning rather than grades, vary your teaching methods, organized appropriate competition. The paper equally highlighted on the problems of student’s motivation, modern entertainment media, the teachers are not taking sufficient steps in motivation students. Possible suggestions to teachers, parents, school authorities as well as government are offered as the way out such as accommodating each and every one in your class irrespective of his background, status, psychological comfortable of your students, and physiological need of your student were carefully been provided.

Keyword:leadership, politicians, politics, development, poverty. 



Role of Public in Enhancing Community Policing in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects

Mohammed Musa and Purolangni Salami

Department of Leisure and Tourism, Adamawa State Polytecnic, Yola


The study examine the role of public in conjunction the police in providing information that will  assist a security in their areas our societies have been infested with crimes as police force cannot be able to provide the needed for socio – economic activities to thrive. Therefore, there is need for identifying, analysing and addressing community problems at their source. Strategies involve in community policing include community partnership, problem solving and change management. However, in Nigeria, we are faced with major challenges of policing. These are manpower shortage; inadequate funding, corruption, inadequate logistic support and infrastructure, lack of serviceable information and technological equipment to cover all the areas of the State are responsible for the current state of the police in Nigeria. Therefore, it is recommended that there should be serious retraining towards attitudinal change and professional efficiency and proficiency among both the rank and file and other officer cadre of the police so as to make them efficient and effective officers that could tackle the numerous challenges confronting us as a nation.

Keyword: Crime,Communitypolicy, Corruption, military orientation, Godfatherism, Proactive policing and problem-solving. 



The Potentials of Tertiary Institution on Community Development

Alhaji Kawugana and Auwal Ahmad

ICT/MIS Directorate Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.


Tertiary institutions have to make pacts with the community development in order to establish their relevance and account for the public funds they receive to execute their mandate. Government coordination efforts must be focused and sustained toward evolving a knowledge economy in order to reorient tertiary institutions into transforming actively in developing the engine of development. The tertiary institutions play instrumentalist role to development by having a concentration of experts that can be tapped to solve pressing social problems, Also tertiary institutions are the engine of development by strengthening knowledge and innovation as important ingredients without which no country can play any role in the knowledge economy. The notion of autonomy and academic freedom that allows the tertiary institutions to contribute to development indirectly through the production of high level skills and scientific knowledge. In our situation tertiary institutions play the instrumental role, and not the engine of development so they end up tackling social problems rather than economic development. There is no consensus of opinion on the role of tertiary institutions on development as there is no any agreement on development model and the role tertiary institutions will play in development both at the national or institutional levels. Tertiary institutions are expected to develop strategic plans in order to attract identified stakeholders as development partners.

Keyword: Tertiary, Institutions, Community, Potentials, Development. 



Psychological Effect of Parent Socio-Economic Status on Students Performance in Some Selected Secondary Schools of Potiskum Local Government, Yobe State

Dr. Ahmad Tahir & Adamu Koki

Department Of Education, Faculty Of Education, Yobe State University Damaturu


Effect of parent socio-economic status on student academic performance in secondary school in Potiskum local government area, is investigated. Samples were obtained with one hundred (100) student and sixty (60) teacher randomly selected from four secondary schools. The student were asked through structured interview, while the teacher were through questionnaires and their response were obtained. The four factor that were examine and statistically analyzed were; parent income level, parental education status, health and nutrition. Stratified random sampling were performed in order for each students to have equal chance of being selected. The findings showed that there is a positive correlation between some of the parents socio-economic statuses and the students class performances. Student who were provided with learning materials, are emotionally intact, eats to satisfaction, had good parenting and performs better academically than students who were not provided with leaning materials, and/or come from poor family background.

Keyword: Parent, Socio-economic Status; Academic Performance; Student: Secondary School. 



Investigative Journalism in Africa: Propects and Challenges in a Democratising Continent

Isah Yahaya Aliyu & Bello Ibrahim Halilu1 Adamu Muhammad Hamid 2 Shamsu Abdu Dauda3

1&2Department of Mass Communication, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 3Department of Communication, Faculty of Modern Languages and Communication, Universiti Putra Malaysia.


Global practice of investigative reporting/ journalism has grown considerably popular since the fall of communism around 1989. The processes of globalization, international aid, and the efforts of journalism groups are some factors that aid in this spread of the practice across national borders. Because it centres on public accountability and ridding society free from crime and corruption, investigative reporting has been termed watchdog journalism, critical to development and democratization processes. Adopting a conceptual approach, this paper looks at some of the challenges the practice and its practitioners are facing in developing and African counties. It found among others repressive regimes, undue legal and ethical restrictions, poor training and inadequate facilities, scarce financial resources, and violence against the journalist. The paper recommends that donors and media development community should focus more on capacity building and provide enabling environment for the field to wax stronger in Africa. It concludes that even in the face of difficulty and sometimes apparent danger, journalists in Africa are eager to join the league of courageous investigators who dare powers that be and challenge the status quo in the public interest.

Keyword: investigative reporting, challenges, Africa, barriers, Watergate. 



Human Capital Management: its Role in Achieving Competitive Advantage in an Organization

Mbakwe Francis k1, Igiba Ehimen g2. and Oleabhiele Ernest.p.3

1,2Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State. 3Department of General studiesFederal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State


Human capital is just one of an organization’s intangible assets. It is basically all of the competencies and commitment of the people within an organization i.e. their skills, experience, potential and capacity. Human capital management is a reciprocal relationship between supply and demand: employees, contractors and consultants invest their own human capital into business enterprises and the business enterprises need to manage the supplier. Any organization interested in its performance will naturally ask how well they are managing this asset to ensure maximum return on their investment. In the same way, all employees, contractors, consultants and providers of human capital want to ensure they are getting the appropriate return for their own human capital investing through salary, bonuses, benefits, and so on. The aim of this paper is to study of nature of human capital management and its strategic role in achieving of competitive advantage for the organization and it is a review paper. The results of this study show the strategic importance of human capital and managing them in organizations.

Keyword: Human capital, human capital management, competitive advantage, human resource architecture. 



Pattern of English Language Usage on Social Media Platform: a Study of Federal Polytechnic Bauchi

Abubakar Baba Garba & Shamsu Dauda Abdu

Department Of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.


This research investigated the patterns of English language usage of social media platforms: A study of students of Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, finding the trends of Social media usage among students. For this purpose, a sample of National Diploma level students (ND I & II) was taken from mass communication department. A questionnaire survey was administered to get the response from the students. The questionnaire was containing both open & close ended questions. The responses show that many social media websites such as WhatsApp face book, yahoo messenger, twitter, Blogger etc. were frequently used by students for communication, research work, online learning and making social contact. Although this survey is restricted to a group of mass communication students of Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, the data obtained provide some insights into how students in Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi have been using English language on social media for both formal and informal types of learning and communication. It is hoped that the findings described here will help build a foundation for future research by an academic researcher on how such language usage might have influence or affected academic performance.

Keyword: Patterns of English language, Usage of social media, Social media platforms. 



*Sahabi, Muhammad Kabir CLN **Unobe, Elameyi Susan CLN ***Ebunuwele Grace Eseohe CLN

*University Library, Kaduna State University, Kaduna **Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U. Zaria *** Ambrose Alli University Library, Ekpoma


The information society produces enormous amount of information, information technologies enable to collect, store, archive information and access it at anytime and anywhere in modern ways. The machine tools of the Information Society are computers and telecommunications, rather than lathes or ploughs. Product of the intellect need to be protected therefore the need for intellectual property law which deters others from copying or taking unfair advantage of the work or reputation of another and provides remedies where this arises. However, Nigeria do not vigorously enforce intellectual property laws, making illegal copying, or piracy, a major threat to the credibility of the nation’s integrity. The main objective of this study is to explain the basic concept of Intellectual Property as a form of protection for authors in Nigeria, give an overview of the activities of the intellectual property right in information society.

Keyword: Copyright, Information society, Intellectual property and Information Society



1Ibrahim Abdullahi Mayobani, 2Gloria Bello Durman, 3Naomi Bello Musa

1Department of Library and Information Science, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi Adamawa state. 2Department of Library and Information Science, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State. 3Jibril Aminu library Federal polytechnic Mubi Adamawa state


This paper considers the nature of the Knowledge Economy and outline the issues related to facts to be considered with highest significance in contemporary information age of any organisation. The paper offers an opportunity to reflect the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). This goes away from just simply being mechanisms for storing, retrieving, manipulating and moving of an increasingly complex data and information sources hence it looks at information age, changing perspective on learning more diverse pedagogical context, the concept of change and change scale in organisations and concludes that knowledge economy is the centre key of organizational resource which raise the professional profile of organizations then uphold a greater degree of individual autonomy and responsibility.

Keyword: Knowledge Economy   Information Market   21st century information Age.

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