Journal of Environmental Design & Constructions Mgt. (JEDCM)
Vol. 8 (3) March, 2017. ISSN 2278-8892
Hummingbird Publications and Research International,
Chembian Heritage Suite, No 18, Justice Sowemimo Street,
Off T.Y Danjuma Str., Asokoro. P.O. BOX 16868, Wuse 3,
Copyright © 2017 Hummingbird Publications and Research International
ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES ON STRATOSPHERIC OZONE SHIELD DEPLETION, CLIMATE CHANGE AND GREENHOUSE EFFECTS IN SOME SELECTED FRONTLINE STATES OF NORTH WESTERN NIGERIA
ADAMU BABA ABDULLAHI Ph.D & INUWA AHMED MUHAMMED
Department of Geography, FCT College of Education Zuba, Abuja
This study examines the influence of anthropogenic activities on stratospheric ozone shield depletion, climate change and greenhouse effects in some selected frontline states of North western Nigeria. The objectives are to examine the influence of Anthropogenic activities on stratospheric ozone shield depletion, influence on solar insolation, climate change and their general greenhouse effects. Effects on overland river water flows longevity and survival, sporadic high temperature and natural ecosystem destructions. Six states in North western states were selected for the study. Multi stage sampling technique of purposive, stratified random and convenient sampling was employed. 400 structured interview schedules were used. Multiple Regression Analysis of Augmented Dickey –Filler, Philip-Perron Statistic and long run regression analysis which are all Ordinary Least Square (OLS) were employed in the analysis of the influence. The result indicated negative effects of R-square 0.9585, adjusted R2 0.914209, F-statistic 62.522 and DW 1.90286 on the study area. The study recommends planting of more trees, dam construction and irrigation farming and the establishment of smokeless industries in the area to checkmate the ugly trends.
Keyword: Anthropogenic activities, stratospheric ozone shield Depletions, climate change, Greenhouse effects, frontline states North Western Nigeria.
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES; EXAMINING ITS IMPACT ON THEN IMMEDIATE ENVIRONMENT.
ARC. MICHAEL ONYEMAECHI AJUFOH MNIA, ARC. MURTALA BABAJI & ARC. DAUDA ALI
Department of Architecture, School of Environmental Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
Buildings as designed and constructed today contribute to serious environment problems. Around half of all non-renewable resources mankind consumes are used in construction, making it one of the least sustainable industries in the world. However, mankind has spent the majority of its existence trying to manipulate the natural environment to better suit its needs so today our daily lives are carried out in and on constructions of one sort or another. And in doing these waste materials are created. This paper attempts to categorise the effects of construction activities on the environment. It also discusses sources of waste and also recommends techniques for waste management. The paper concludes by discussing the effects of construction activities on the social environment.
Keyword: building, construction, environment, materials, wastes.
MAPPING RAINFALL TREND ANALYSIS IN RELATION TO FLOOD YEARS WITHIN KADUNA METROPOLIS
OLADUNNI OYETOLA OPATOYINBO1 AND MAMMAN SABA JIBRIL PH.D2
1Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria. 2Department of Geography, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria.
Flooding phenomenon has become most frequent environmental menace that adversely affects the well-being of resident in Kaduna metropolis in the recent years. Kaduna metropolis has been experiencing urban flooding since the last three decades. The most recent flooding in the year 2000s have been alarming. This paper aimed at analyzing the rainfall characteristics of Kaduna metropolis in order to analyze peak rainfall periods and the peak rainfall flood years. Rainfall data for 58 years (1959 – 2016), as recorded in Kaduna South Meteorological station located closed to River Kaduna was used since the devastating flooding experience mainly occurred along the axis. The study employed exploratory method such as percentages and descriptive approach to analyze the seasonality data and the flood years data within the 58 years (1959 – 2016). The result revealed that 32.76% % peak rainfall years were flood years while 62.24%of the peak rainfall periods were not flood years. From this study, it could therefore be inferred that, increased or extreme peak rainfall value could not be the main reason for flood years.
Keywords: Trends, Flooding, Peak Rainfall Data, Peak Rainfall Years, Flood Years
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION OF UNDERGROUND WATER: CASE STUDY OF ASABA AND ITS ENVIRONS, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA
Petroleum Engineering and Geosciences Department, Petroleum Training Institute, P.M.B. 20, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria.
Water is essential to life; no living thing can survive without water. Water can occur underground or at the surface. This study is aimed at identifying various problems associated with groundwater exploration and exploitation in Asaba and its environs, Delta State through field work and desktop research. Seven (7) boreholes and well log data were collected from Delta State Urban Water Board and were carefully studied and analyzed. The study revealed that presence of Electromagnetic materials, rugged topography, clustered settlement pattern and cost of survey are the major problems associated with groundwater exploration. The presence of carbonaceous materials (lignite), contact of cyclic repetition of clay and sand, sharp contact or change between compacted and permeable sand formation have been identified as the major causes of lost circulation within the study area. Other problems associated with exploitation of groundwater include pipe sticking, well failure and submersible pump failure. Hence, the study thereby proffers remediation techniques to tackle groundwater exploration and exploitation problems within the study area.
Keyword: Water, life, groundwater, exploration, exploitation, lost circulation.
THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITION IN SAKI COMMUNITY
* SIYANBOLA A. BUKOLA (ANIA), * SIYANBOLA S OMOWUMI & ** OLABODE B.O.
*Department of Architectural Technology, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki. & **General Studies Department, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki
This study investigated the nature of the relationship between environmental degradation and the socio-economic status of Saki people. The study was carried out in three phases; first, the collection and laboratory testing of soil and water samples from the ninety communities elected, and the second the administrationof the questionnaires for socio-economic data, and finally linking the laboratory data obtained with the socio-economic data extracted. The socio-economic datamatrix and the environmental matrices were first simplified using factor analysis.Multiple regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship betweenenvironmental degradation represented by soil properties (Xes) and physicochemical properties (XXes) and the socio-economic status of Saki people.The final result revealed that soil degradation did not have any significant effect onthe socio-economic life of the people. Among the water factors, only the MinorNutrient factor (potassium) affected significantly the socio-economic life of thepeople (fishing) which served as the major means of livelihood. Concentrations of potassium in water caused increased BOD, and low oxygen. This parameteraffected fish and other aquatic animals the people depend on for subsistence. Asagainst the popular believe that the poor are always responsible for environmentaldegradation, this study revealed that it is instead environmental degradation thatlowers the socio-economic status of the people of Saki. Prevention of minornutrients in the water is recommended in addition to integrated humandevelopment schemes, and developing effective capacity building.
Keyword: Environment, Degradation, Socio-economic, Condition, Saki Oyo State
NEIGHBOURHOOD ATTRIBUTES AND END-USERS’ PERCEPTION WITHIN RESIDENTIAL DENSITY OF IBADAN, NIGERIA.
ADEWOLU, TIMOTHY OLUGBEMIGA AND OLADAPO, RASIDAT ADEJOKE
Department of Estate Management, Federal University of Technology, Akure
Neighbourhood mirrors the development, characters, planning and allocation of an environment, the type and quality of people’s life living within it, their taste, economic entity, their social interaction, convenience and comfort. The aim of this study is to examine the perception of the users about the status of their neighbourhood with a view to improving neighbourhood development. The research is an empirical analysis of tenants’ perception of the three identified residential neighbourhood of Mokola: high; Basorun; medium; and Bodija: low densities within Ibadan metropolis. Data for the study were collected from administration of questionnaire designed with attitudinal 5 point liker scaling of strongly agree to strongly disagree measuring users perception of attributes that contributes to each of the neighbourhood status.. The structured questionnaire was giving to specific residential users living within each of the neighbourhood. The data were analyzed using weighted mean scores and Cronbach’s Alpha Co-efficient for Internal Consistency to test for the reliability of estimates for examining these users’ perception with the aid of Computer Aided Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 16. The result of the analysis revealed that in high density zone; accessibility to place of worship, presence of market, good road network, good management of flood control, availability of medical facilities, presence of shops, availability of children’s schools, security, presence of police station and the availability of portable water were the most attributes perceived by the users to have enhance the density’s status. Whereas in medium density zone the perceived attributes include, presence of good road network, market, police station, medical facilities, accessibility to place of worship, good management of waste disposal system, presence of shopping centre(s), portable water, security from crime related activities, peaceful and quiet neighbourhood and availability of children’s schools; while good management of waste disposal system, accessibility to place of worship, presence of good road network, neighbourhood secured from crime related activities, presence of shopping centre(s), medical facility, availability of portable water and police station, and accessibility to market, regularity of electricity supply and presence of recreation centre were users’ perceived attributes of the low density residential zone. In addition, proximity and accessibility take important positions in the perception of residents as reflected in their responses to questions of accessibility and closeness. The study recommended that the perception and general views of end-users should be incorporated in the operational housing and neighbourhood development policies from the conception to the development of housing, and urban renewal programs to achieve demand-supply driven environment as well as enhancing balanced value achievements by all stakeholders.
Keyword: Neighbourhood Attributes, Perception, End Users, Residential Density, Ibadan, Nigeria.
UNDERSTANDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF VIRTUAL REALITY AND ITS ADVANTAGES TO THE MODERN-DAY ARCHITECT.
ARC. MICHAEL AJUFOH *1, MURATLA BABAJI *2 ARC. SHITUFA HAMIDU *3, ARC. DAUDA ALI *4
Department of Architecture, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State.
Virtual reality (VR), is currently gaining momentum in terms of its usage and impact in Architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industries for a while now. Building owners, construction companies and architectural firms are the greater beneficiaries in today’s VR marketplace. The word ‘virtual’ is popular among computer scientists and is used in a wide variety of situations. In general, it distinguishes something that is merely conceptual from something that has physical reality. For example, the architect’s plans are different from the house; another analogy is the difference between the brain and the mind. The opposite of virtual is real, absolute, or physical. The paper tries to define virtual reality stating its history and uses as well as trying to classify VR. It also describes the relationship between architecture and virtual reality as well as its advantages to architecture.
Keyword: Virtual, Reality, Computers, Architecture, software.
REALIZING THE APPLICATION OF SMART SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY IN THE NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
Bldr. H. D. BUNGWON1 MUSA ABDUL2
1B.Sc. (Building), M.Sc. (Construction Technology), MNIOB, Regd. Builder2HND (Building), PGDCE (Structural Engineering), M.Eng. (Structural Engineering)
Smart building, is a building that is designed and constructed with embedded sensors and actuators, to rapidly respond to changes due to loads. Smart building is a transformation by itself, therefore, fits just right in the transformation agenda. This paper critically assessed the concept of smart systems and their applications with a view to evaluate the challenges of realizing the implementation of smart buildings in the Nigerian Construction Industry. To realize the implementation of smart buildings in the Nigerian Construction Industry, attention need to be paid on the type and nature of smart materials to be used in constructing the buildings components, which by implication are also smart. Not only are the components needed to be smart, but also joints and supports in the building should be smart. Smart buildings automatically detect changes before they occur, by self-diagnosing and automatically applying corrective measures to ensure that the effects of the changes are nullified, even before they occurred. When the changes occurred, the building will self repair itself. This paper explained the expectations of smart buildings and offers suggestions on measures to be taken, to realize the implementation of smart technology in the Nigerian Construction Industry.
Keyword: Smart materials, Smart systems, Smart structures, sensors, actuator
PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION OF TRADITIONAL HOUSING AND LOCAL INDUSTRIES IN MUBI TOWN, ADAMAWA STATE
1 HASHIM A 2 WAZIRI .I. H 3 SULEMAN. A.
1,2,3 Department of Urban And Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State Nigeria
In Adamawa State, traditional housing and local industries vary with each local community and tribe. Each community has its own form of housing and local industrial style and crafts, but the purpose appears to be the same. This is because of uniformity in weather and climate play vital roles in determining what the people do in all ramifications. Normally, people in different locality engage in housing construction base on the available natural resources which slightly differs from one region to the other in the state , while traditional industries and crafts are carried out mainly for some reasons such as social, recreational, storage facilities and for domestic or household purposes and other social reasons. Data were collected through physical observation, oral interview, photographing, and interaction with the local community. The data were presented in words with the support of pictures or plates. The study reveals that in Mubi Town, traditional housing has peculiarities of building height of 2.3m-3.3m, room sizes of rooms range between 2.1 by 2.3 to 2.5 by 2.8, while size of the house is proportionate to the number of households and the major construction material is mud while the roofing members are woods and thatch. The local industries in the other hand vary with each local community and ethnic group. The study shows traditional industries which include; blacksmithing, weaving, tanning, pottery, dyeing, tanning, weaving and food processing. Each of the industries has peculiar product and has contributed to the growth and development of Mubi Town through job creation, substitute products to the modern industries, cheap products, provision of skills, serve as field of research, preservation of cultural heritage and source of revenue. Therefore, Challenges facing both traditional housing and the local industries in Mubi such as negative impact of climate change and low capital base for the industrialists were identified and recommendations as well as conclusions were made.
Keyword: Preservation, Conservation, Traditional Housing, Local Industries, Community
THE IMPACT OF SUSTAINABLE/GREEN MATERIAL ON INFRASTRUCTURE SUSTAINANCE IN NIGERIA
1 MUINAT O. SANNI (Mrs), 1 ENE U. GLORIA (Ms) 2 PAUL –MICHEAL HANNAH O. (Mrs)
1Department of Quantity Surveying College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria. 2Department of Quantity Surveying, School of Environmental Studies, Federal Polytechnic Idah, Kogi State Nigeria
Transformation agenda is a method of strategizing on how to adopt a continuous, consistent with full commitment in all the implemented policies, programmes and project being carried out to achieve optimal dividends on a long term basis. These inconsistencies, incontinuity and uncommitted attitude are now having a culminating effect on the growth and development of the Nigerian Economy. The implementation of transformation agenda will not make an exception of infrastructure development as it has a lot to do in bridging the gap of unemployment, inequality and poverty. In view of this, this paper aim to discuss transformation in infrastructure using green building materials to facilitate economic development to achieve this, this paper adopted a method by discussing construction of sustainable infrastructure through the use of sustainable design, construction, and material and it was found that using sustainable material and construction will improve human health and productivity, more employment, less running and maintenance cost and with residual value at the end of it life time with little waste to be returned to land fill. This is to be achieved through optimum management and deployment of resources in sustainable manner with implemented policies.
Keyword: transformation agenda, green design, material and construction, infrastructure
IMPLEMENTING BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING (BIM) FOR INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT: AN APPROACH TO ACHIEVING THE TRANSFORMATION AGENDA FOR EVOLVING THIRD WORLD COMMUNITIES.
1RYAL-NET, BALAH MARKUS, 2KADUMA, LOT AKUT
1Department of Architecture, College of Environmental Studies. Kaduna Polytechnic, PMB 2026, Barnawa, Kaduna South. Kaduna. 2Department of Building, Faculty of Environmental Design, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru Campus, Zaria, Kaduna
The Transformation Agenda is a development initiative adopted in third world communities under the context of the Vision 2020, based on a set of priority policies which when implemented will transform these economies into self-sufficient developed nations. It has been estimated that around $57 trillion will be required to fund global infrastructure to aid sustainable GDP growth between 2013 and 2030. However, given the widespread fiscal constraints in the wake of the global financial crisis, it will require innovative steps to boost productivity in the global infrastructure sector. Building Information Modeling (BIM) refers to an innovative approach which involves the development and use of computer-generated multi-dimensional (3D, 4D, 5D and 6D) models to simulate the planning, design, building, and management infrastructure to deliver higher productivity, quality, and cost-effectiveness. This study discusses the concept of BIM and how its implementation will boost productivity in the infrastructure industry, by identifying several examples where its adoption for infrastructure projects has yielded such benefits. At the end, the paper recommended that the third world communities mandate the implementation of BIM in all infrastructure projects, in order to achieve the objectives of the Transformation Agenda for third world communities evolving as global developed nations.
Keyword: Building Information Modeling (BIM), Infrastructural Development, Transformation Agenda, Third World Communities, Productivity
ASSESSING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF GULLY EROSION IN CHIKUN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
ALIYU HASSAN IBRAHIM, PhD ** NURA ALHAJI YARO *** ABIODUN OLUFEMI ADEBOLA, PhD
*Department of Environmental Science, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna **Department of Geography, Northwest University, Kano ***Department of Remote Sensing and GIS, Federal University of Technology Akure, (FUTA), Ondo State
Soil erosion is the systematic removal of soil including plant nutrients from the land surface by various agents of denudation. The aim of this study is to assess the adverse social and economic implications of gully erosion hazards in Chikun local government area, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study intends to identify the percentage of the residents according to localities that have suffered socially and economically from gully incidents. It also intends to determine the relationship between adverse social and economic effects suffered by the affected people in the various localities of the study area. The settlements studied are in Chikun local government area, Kaduna State. Simple random sampling was adopted in the course of this research for the purpose of selecting households and respondents affected by gully erosion living at the gully proximate areas Simple random sampling was adopted in the course of this research for the purpose of selecting households and respondents affected by gully erosion living at the gully proximate areas Data for the study was collected from two major sources; primary source and secondary source. Primary source of data are direct observation from fieldwork and the use of questionnaire while the secondary source include topographic map and library materials. Descriptive statistical tools were applied to deal with the techniques of summarizing and describing data collected. Percentages, proportion and mean were applied to get other parameters such as expected frequencies. Pearson’s co-efficient of correlation was used to analyze the relationship between the social and economic effects of gully erosion in the area. Findings reveal that the solution to gully erosion impacts is to be treated as a vital component of the broad issue of environmental problem management in Kaduna State.
Keyword: Gully Erosion, Social, Economic, Impacts, Environment, Chikun, Soil.