Journal of Contemporary Education Research (JCER) Vol 10 (4) June, 2019

Hummingbird Journal of Contemporary Education Research (HJCER)

Vol 10 (4) June, 2019 ISSN 2080-4909

Published by: Hummingbird Publications and Research International,

Centre for Trans-Saharan Studies, University of Maiduguri, UNIMAID,

Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

E-MAIL: PHONE: +234-802-5604-997

A Study on the Availability and Utilization of Biology Instructional Materials in Secondary Schools in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State


Dr. Friday John, Abdullahi Nuhu Sani, Samson Kogi and Nkwoka Jacinta Uche, and Sarki Mjagandi

Department of Science and Technology Education, University of Jos,Jos Nigeria



 This study investigated the Availability and Utilization of Biology Instructional Materials in the secondary Schools in Jos North LGA. Three research questions were answered in the study. The study adopted survey research design. The population was made up of eighty (80) students and ten (10) teachers. The data for the study was collected using a 20-itemed Biology students Questionnaire (BSQ) and Biology Teachers Questionnaire (BTQ) instrument. Data collected were analyzed statistically through the use of descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages. The analysis yielded the following findings; that instructional materials are not sufficient in the schools and there are no biological gardens for practical in the schools. Also, the finding shows that biology teachers make use of the available instructional materials in the teaching of the subject. The findings also revealed that instructional material are very important to influence and enhance effective learning of Biology. Recommendations were made in line with the findings, which include that the Government through the Ministry of Education and  proprietors  of  private secondary  schools  should  ensure  adequate  provision  of relevant  and  sufficient biology  instructional  materials. Teachers should improvise where necessary when instructional materials are not available to teach biology in the secondary schools in Jos North Local Government Area. There should be proper supervision of teachers to ensure that the available instructional materials are effectively utilized. There is need for the schools to provide biological gardens for biology field  practicals.

Keyword: Availability, Utilization, Instructional material, Secondary schools




Analysis of Inter-Library Cooperation Practice in University Libraries: A Study of University of Jos Library.


Jacob, Emmanuel Eneojo & Adurogboye, Okiki

Library and Information Science Unit, Department of Social Science Education, Faculty of Education, University of Jos.



 This Study was conducted on Analysis of Inter-Library Cooperation Practice in University Libraries: A Study of University of Jos Library. Three (3) Objectives were formulated to guide the study which includes to: Ascertain the beneficiaries of University of Jos Library’s Inter Library Cooperation services; Identify types of Resources mostly shared in Inter Library Cooperation and Identify Challenges associated with Inter Library Cooperation arrangements. Research method adopted was survey method, with an instrument of a self-administered questionnaire. 56 copies of questionnaire were administered to the sample size randomly selected from the population of 67 out of which 49 were filled, returned and found usable. Method of Data Analysis adopted for this research was the use of Frequency count and simple percentages. The findings revealed that the University of Jos Library often share resources with other Libraries but rarely borrow resources from other Libraries. University of Jos Library Shares resources with some benefitting Libraries like: Academic Libraries, Polytechnic Libraries, College of Education Libraries, among others. The type of Material mostly shared include: Open Source Software, Books, Interlibrary Lending and Documents Delivery, among others but not Selective Dissemination of Information, Shared cataloguing, among others and the Challenges Associated with Inter Library Cooperation in University of Jos Library includes: Inadequate funding, Passiveness of participating libraries, Lack of adequate resources to share, among others. Based on the findings, various recommendations were also made.

Keyword: Practice, Libraries, Analysis, Cooperation, University




Strategic Planning in 21st Century Organization


*Askia Nasir Kabara & **Sahabi, Muhammad Kabir

*University Library, Kano University of science and technology, wudil, Kano-Nigeria **University Library, Kaduna State University, Kaduna



The field of strategic management has offered a variety of frameworks and concepts during last period of time, many with the declared aim of taking business and its management seriously. Strategic planning can help an organization to build its sustained competitive advantage in the face of an uncertain marketplace, but requires new ways of thinking in order to create possible alternatives. This paper examines how the Manager can use strategy and planning as an enabler to meet the mission of an organization. The paper focuses on some problems that occur in strategic planning. Managers need to identify these potential issues, so that they can recognize and deal with them if they arise in their own strategic planning. A systems approach is taken which presents planning as an open comprehensive procedure that seeks to produce flexible systems capable of growth and adaptation to meet changing needs and missions.

Keyword: Strategic, Strategic planning, Strategic planning in 21stcentury, Issues in Strategic Planning




Comparative Study of Commercial Students’ Academic Performance in Public Examinations in Secondary Schools in Kano and Jigawa States, Nigeria


Saleh Muhammad Aminu

Department of Vocational and Technical Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.



This study investigated commercial students’ academic performance in public examinations in Secondary Schools in Kano and Jigawa States, Nigeria. the study employed a descriptive design with a  population of all the 280 secondary schools in Kano State and the 170 secondary schools in Jigawa State, Nigeria. Out of this population, a sample of 140 secondary schools in Kano State and 85 secondary schools in Jigawa State was taken. The method of selection was by stratified random sampling technique. The instrument used to collect data for the study was an inventory while the data collected was analysed using percentages, chi-square statistic and the t-test. It was revealed that the performance of student in the Senior Secondary Certificate (SSCE) Examinations was low. Based on this, it was recommended that the educational system needs to be overhauled and made result oriented in the two States. The teaching and learning processes in all schools in the two States should be re-examined with the aim of improving the quality of performance of students in SSCE examinations.

Keyword: Academic performance; public examinations; SSCE; Comparative Study; Commercial Students




The Use of English Quantifiers in Writing: A Case Study of the NCE1 Students of the Federal College of Education, Kano


Hadiza Lawan Ismail

Department of English and Linguistics, Federal University, Dutse. 



Academic writing in Nigeria is fraught with a lot of grammatical errors which brings backward to education specifically at tertiary institutions level. This paper is concerned with the use of English quantifiers in academic writing with particular emphasis on the use of many using NCE1 students of the federal college of education, Kano as the case study. The paper attempts to highlights the problems that arise due to incorrect use of quantifiers as well as identifying the causes of difficulties in the use of English quantifiers by some NCE1 students. To achieve this objective, the data was collected through sentence writing test by testing the students’ use of quantifiers, using only one quantifier as the variable of the study, which is many. In analysing the data, the sentence writing tests are analysed item by item and the scores of the correct responses as well as the wrong responses are converted into percentage forms. The findings revealed that the students have difficulty in remembering and grasping the grammatical restrictions that control the use of English quantifiers specifically many; mother tongue also affect the use of quantifiers by some NCE1 students to the extent that they use one word to represent about three or four English quantifiers. The causes of difficulty in use of English quantifiers by the students are attributed to poor background and inadequate use of English language and quantifiers, because we cannot use quantifiers alone and get the desired meaning without putting them in a sentence.

Keyword: Academic Writing, English Quantifiers, Grammatical Restrictions, NCE1 Students, Standard English Usage and Nigerian Usage.




Perceived Effect of Sex Preference on Girl-Child Dropout in Secondary Schools in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria


Hadiza Mohammed Bello (PhD)

Department of Educational Psychology, School of Education, Federal College of Education, Zaria.



This study focused on the perceived effect of sex preference on girl child drop out in Kaduna Metropolis of Kaduna State. Two research objectives, questions and hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted descriptive survey method. The study was carried out in some selected senior secondary schools in Kaduna Metropolis of Kaduna State. The population of  the study was girls in some selected senior  secondary schools in Kaduna Metropolis with a population of one thousand, three hundred (1,300) students, three hundred and sixty (360) teachers and a cross section of parents purposively within the study area. Three hundred and seventy-three (373) participated formed the sample for the study. The self developed instrument titled “Influence of Sex Preference on Girl-Child Dropout in Secondary Schools” questionnaire (ISPGCDOS) was used for data collection. The research instrument was validated by five experts in Educational Psychology, faculty of Education, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State. The Cronbach Alpha was used to test the consistency of the instrument and reliability co-efficient of .821 was obtained. Mean and Standard Deviation  were used to discuss the descriptive data, while one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent t-test were used to test the hypotheses developed for the study. The study revealed that, there was significant difference between the perception of parents, teachers and students on influence of sex preference on girl-child dropout in senior secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis. However, there was no significant difference between the perception of male and female respondents on the influence of sex preference on girl-child dropout in senior secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis. Thus, it was recommended that, parents should be sensitized by the government and other stakeholders on the importance of girls’ education so as to understand their role and involvement in their girl’s child education this will go a long way in reducing the rate of dropout resulting of unwanted pregnancy, socio-economic status among other; Every school should be mandated by the government to organize general parent meeting to enable the parents to meet teachers and discuss problem affecting their girl’s education due to sex preference that eventually leads to dropout. These parents should be advised on the need to motivate and encourage their child girls to remain in school among others.

Keyword: Sex Preference, Girl-child, Education and Dropout




Le Statut Du Francais Et La Politique Linguistique Au Nigeria


Oyewale Sulayman Ramat

Department of French, Michael Otedola College of Primary Education, Noforija-Epe, Lagos State.




En 1996, l’ancien et défunt chef d’état nigérian Sani Abacha a déclenché une sorte de ‘bombe linguistique’ en proclamant le français en tant que seconde langue officielle au Nigéria. Cependant depuis la fameuse proclamation, rien de tangible n’a  été fait pour promulguer cette déclaration en fait accompli ! Pire, la situation de la langue française au Nigéria continue de se détériorer vu l’opposition grandissante de jour en jour des adeptes des langues indigènes contre l’invasion par les langues étrangères. En tant que pays anglophone-ayant naturellement adopté la langue de son colonisateur-le Nigeria se débat encore dans une bataille interlinguistique : un pays à plus de 500 langues locales, typifié par une pléthore de cultures et de croyances, est en quête d’une identité homogène sur le plan social, politique, et surtout linguistique. Le Nigéria aurait-il réellement besoin d’une autre langue étrangère, hormis la langue anglaise ? A quoi servirait donc l’adoption d’une autre langue européenne dans un milieu déjà linguistiquement saturé, où trois langues locales majoritaires-hausa, yoruba et igbo-se disputent une place de choix nationale ? Sinon, à quels niveaux le français devrait-il être utile ? Ce sont-là les quelques questions auxquelles cette communication tenterait d’apporter quelque éclairage.

Keyword: statut du français, politique linguistique au Nigéria.




The Significance of Ijtihad in the Contemporary Muslim Communitis


Ladi Usman Bello and Laraba Manga Misau

School of Remedial and Contimuing Education, A.D Rufa’i College for Legal and Islamic Studies, Misau, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



This write-up is an attempt to study the important of Ijtihad in the modern age; there are so many raising issues that are more related to modern age, some are the results of modern technology which were not available in the early age of Islam, so they may not have clear verdicts from the injunctions of the Glorious Qur’an and from the Sunnah or the tradition of the Prophet Muhammad peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. Therefore, Ijtahad will help in no small measure in solving this kind of modern and contemporary matters that finding solution them is a necessity in the contemporary Muslims society.

Keyword: Ijtihad, Mordern, Solving, Age, Contemporary




Language Policy in Multilingual Setting: Problems and Prospects


Codelia Adanma Goldface

Department Of General Studies Education, Federal College Of Education, Zaria.



This paper examines the language policy in Multilingual society like Nigeria, problems and Prospects. The study deals with bilingual education policy such as transitional, mono-literate and bi-literal etc. Nigeria is a multilingual country with over 500 different ethnic groups, is one of the country with the highest incidence of linguistic diversity in the world. The paper makes an attempt to resolve the majority minority dichotomy that exist along the line of language policy by allocating domains for different tiers of language that is found in the nation.

Keyword: language policy, multilingualism, bilingualism,




A Systematic Review on Importance of Awareness in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) With Respect to Education, Communication & Coordination of Students in a Classroom.


*Muhammed Abdulazeez Hassan & **Samir Ahmed Shehu

*Federal College of Education, Zaria **Shehu Shagari Colledge of Education Sokoto



Communication and coordination are considered to be an important part of successful cooperation, and providing awareness is a very valuable feature of collaborative information search systems. In this research, I examine how to provide different kinds of awareness to support the coordination of behavior that affects student in a classroom. Task, reflecting the communication and awareness between them this paper focus on importance of awareness with respect to human computer interaction in an educational settings. Thus, a systematic review is carried out to discover a solution on how human computer interaction along with technology drawn in teaching and learning process. 67 papers are gotten from and carefully observed according what their relevance in this research and the outcomes of the papers are discussed in the end of this study and reveal a suggestion.

Keyword: Education, Nomads, Salary, School, Teachers.




The Role of Lower and Middle Basic Levels Education in Early Development of Entrepreneurial Qualities among Nigerian Pupils


Nuruddeen Abdullahi Yusuf Danmari 1 & Bilkisu Ibrahim Zubairu2

1Department of General Studies Education, Federal College of Education, Zaria 2Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Federal College of Education, Zaria.



The paper attempts to examine the role of lower and middle basic levels education in early development of entrepreneurial qualities among Nigerian pupils. The paper identified those entrepreneurial qualities that can learned at these levels of education under the guidance of the school/teacher which include but not limited to the following; need for achievement, need for autonomy, risk-taking, persistence and perseverance, internal locus of control, creativity, goal setting and initiative. The paper made an attempt in discussing how these qualities can inculcated in the mind and psyche of the pupils so they grow up with it. In the light of the above, the paper recommended that entrepreneurial qualities should be developed directly and indirectly at an early age in Lower and Middle Basic levels in Nigeria because young children are still malleable and entrepreneurial qualities are comparable to personality traits developed during upbringing.

Keyword: Lower Basic, Middle Basic, Entrepreneurial Qualities, Pupils, Development




Influence of Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) Physics Teachers on the Academic Performance of Physics Students in Senior Secondary Schools in Potiskum Local Government Area of Yobe State


Mamudu Afizu & Adamu Garba Dala

Department of Physics, School of Science Education, Federal College of Education (Technical), P.M.B. 1013, Potiskum, Yobe State



This researcher studied the influence of Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) physics teachers on the academic performance of senior secondary school physics students in Potiskum local government area of Yobe state. Ten senior secondary schools that offer physics were captured in the research. Senior secondary school two (SSS2) was put into consideration. Twenty (20) students were randomly sampled from each school. Two groups of ten (10) students were randomly sampled from the twenty (20) students from each school.  Fifty percent (50%) were male students and fifty percent (50%) were female students. To determine the performance of the students, one group was taught by NCE physics teachers while the second group was taught by B sc (Ed) physics or B. tech (Ed) physics teachers some selected topics from SSS2 first term scheme of work and a multiple choice questions was administered to the students by the help of the various physics teachers in each school. To compare the performance of the students, percentage of students pass and fail was computed and a statistical mean and standard deviation were also computed. It was discovered in the research that students taught by B Sc (Ed) or B Tech (Ed) physics teachers performed better than those taught by Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) physics teachers. Suggestions and recommendations were made by the researcher.

Keyword: Physics, Teachers, , Students, Influence, Performance




Influence of Early Marriage on Educational and Vocational Aspiration of Students in Women Day Secondary School, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria



*Daniel Moses and **Vivienne Isaac

*FHI360, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria **Ramat Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1070, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria



The study investigated influence of early marriage on educational and vocational aspiration of students in Women Day Secondary School, Maiduguri.  The objectives of the study were: to identify characteristics of students who married early, to identify reasons for engaging in early marriage among married female students, to determine the influences of early marriage on educational aspiration of secondary school students and to determine the influence of early marriage on vocational aspiration of secondary school students.   The following four research questions were answered:  what are the characteristics of students who married early in Women Day secondary School, Maiduguri? What are the reasons for engaging in early marriage in Women day Secondary school? Does early marriage influence educational aspirations of students who married early? And Does early marriage influence vocational aspirations of students who married?  The population comprised SS1-SS3 students out of which the researcher used Ex-post facto on three hundred students using Random sampling technique.  The researcher use Self-Developed Evaluative Questionnaires (SEQ) and administered to students.   Results from the study showed that characteristics of early marriage in Maiduguri metropolis are those who married between the ages of 15-17 years old, mostly from rural polygamous Islamic background and also from large siblings of 6 and above.  Their parental background were mostly low unskilled civil servants and farmers who have average qualifications of SSCE or GCE and as well lived far away from the nearest school; lack of guidance and counselling, parental influence, poverty, illiteracy, culture/traditions and lack of knowledge of the values of education were among reasons for early marriage of students in Women Day Secondary School, Maiduguri.  Early marriage influences educational aspirations of students in Women Day Secondary School, Maiduguri Metropolis; early marriage influences vocational aspiration of students in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State.  Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made: there should be an age limit fixed for girls marriage, while education above senior secondary school level be made compulsory before marriage; more women secondary schools should be established in Borno and other places to meet up girls who may wish to continue their school after marriage; there should be massive campaign and enlightenment to parents, husbands and significant others on necessities of educational and vocational aspirations of their children and wives and guidance and counselling centers should be opened in every schools, work places, markets and communities to meet up social, educational and economical problems of students and significant others.

Keyword: Influence, Vocational, Aspiration, Educational, Students.




Complexities of English Linguistic: Obstructions to Acquiring Communicative Competence in the 21th Century



*Obomanu Felicia Ihuoma **Lawal Suleiman

*Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Ukana, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria **Department of English, Federal College of Education, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria



In English-as-a-second-language contexts, learning and using English to perform various communicative tasks become a problem over the years. Poor performance of learners in English is often attributed to some factors: lack of learning materials, teachers’ incompetence, lack of instructional resources, poor attitude of students to second language learning etc. The current paper takes a different approach. This paper investigates the subtle characteristics inherent in the English language. The deviation and inaccurate realization of such items in written and spoken English are considered fundamental impediments to communicative competence acquisition among learners of English as a second language. Errors in the formation, conjugation and realization of surface features, which communicate the meaning of language, are a confirmation to the existence of linguistic complexities in English and their capacity to impede communication. Specifically, the paper studies the crazy characteristics of English spelling and pronunciation system, subtle nature of the English sound system, complexities associated with stress as well as intonation in English and subtlety in the structure of English adjectives etc. Others are complexities inherent in the English case system involving pronouns and auxiliaries, diversity of English register system and conjugation of verbs, nouns and adverbs. The paper recommends the use of effective reading instructions to acquaint learners with both spelling and pronunciation, teaching the English adjectives using real-life text and passages, teaching the correct use of stress in words and intonation in utterances for effective communication, teaching the register system of English and English conjugation processes.

Keywords: English linguistic complexities, communicative competence, second language teaching and learning.



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