Journal of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology (JAAT) Vol. 11 (8)

Journal of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology (JAAT) Vol. 11 (8) June, 2018 ISSN 2278-8779


Published by:

Hummingbird Publications and Research International,

Chembian Heritage Suite, No 18 Justice Sowemimo Str.,

Off T.Y Danjuma Str., Asokoro, P.O. Box 16868, Wuse3,

Abuja FCT-Nigeria


Copyright © 2018 Hummingbird Research and Publications International



Analysis of Cost and Returns of Sesame (Sesamum Indicum L.)    Production in Benue State, Nigeria

Bakari1 U. M., Mohammed2, D. and Ibila1 B. T.

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria 2Centre for Arid Zone Studies, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria


The study determines the cost and returns of sesame production in Benue State, Nigeria. A sample of 120 farmers were randomly selected from five administrative wards namely Bar, Mbala, Fiidi,, Modern market and Agan. Data were obtained from respondents with the aid of structured questionnaire. Information for the study were collected after 2016 cropping season. Descriptive statistics and farm budgeting technique were used to analyze the data. Socio-economic profile of respondents showed that majority (82.5%) were married, young (46.7%) abled farmers and 85% had 1-5 years of sesame farming experience. The cost and return analysis revealed that cost of seed (₦1,050/ha) account for 5.18%, cost of labour (₦5,100/ha) account for 25.15%, cost of ploughing (₦5,338/ha) account for 26.32%, cost of herbicides (₦2,340/ha) account for 11.54%, cost of fertilizer (₦5,500/ha) account for 27.12%,  cost of transportation (₦500/ha) account for 2.27% and cost of empty sacks (₦450/ha) account for 2.47% of the total variable cost of sesame production. Fixed cost (₦2,768/ha) account for 2.22% of the total cost of production. The production of sesame in the study area was found to be highly profitable with a net income of (₦28,954.00/ha). It was recommended that adequate fertilizer should be provided at affordable price to sesame farmers. More farm machines should be provided particularly, tractor.  This will go a long way in lessening the cost of production, thereby, ensuring improved profit. Farmers should be encouraged to form cooperative societies. Thus, community and family labour should be used instead of hired labour.

Keyword:Costs, returns, sesame, production, Benue State, Nigeria



Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Interaction on N Contents of Sunflower Parts in Maiduguri, Sudano-Sahelian Agro-Ecology, Nigeria

  1. W.Wabekwa and J. A. Bassi

Department of Crop Production, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.


Experiments were conducted during 2010 and 2011 rainy seasons to determine how phosphorus availability would influence N contents of sunflower. The study location was Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Production, University of Maiduguri (10o 47’N, 13o 13’ E). phosphorus was applied at land preparation at the rate of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80kg P2O5 ha-1. Nitrogen at the rate of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1was in factorial combination with the phosphorus rates and arranged in randomized complete block design and replicated three times. Nitrogen was applied in two equal splits, first at two weeks after sowing (WAS), to facilitate the development of plant parts and equip their absorption tissues and storage organs. The second N dose was applied at anthesis, when plants demand for fertilizer increased due to tissue maturity and grain development. Necessary cultural practices were taken care of, and samples of plant parts were obtained at harvest and analyzed for their various tissue N contents using Kjeldahl distillation procedures. Results showed that average root N content for the two rainy seasons increased with the application of 60kg P205 ha-1,without N (0kg ha-1) and recorded 5.4%. Result for stem N content shows positive interaction between 30kg N ha-1, and 60kg P2 O5 ha-1,which influenced optimum increase in the stem tissue N content (8.0%) in the average for the two rainy seasons. The application of 80 kg P2 O5 ha-1 without N (0 kg ha-1) increasedleaf N uptake and recorded optimum N content of 19.8% in the average for the two rainy seasons. Similarly average grain N content for the two rainy seasons increased and recorded optimum value of 25.7% when the highest phosphorus rate of 80kg P2O5 ha-1 was applied without N (0 kg ha-1). It is evident from the above findings that sunflower requires phosphorus for N absorption, and this justifies conclusions made from many related studies. There are also indications herein, that leaves and gains showed higher demand for fertilizer (N) than lower parts of the plant due to their roles in photosynthesis, grain development and grain quality; and therefore when recommended N rate for grain yield in sunflower is taken to consideration under field condition, the addition of 80kg P2O5ha-1isalso recommended to facilitate N uptake for increasedyield and quality of grains in terms of nutritional contents.

Keyword: Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Interaction; N-contents; Average



Potentials and Consumption of African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum Albidum) in Jigawa State, Nigeria

*Dandawo, H. *Hamisu, A.J, **Garba, A ***Babuga, U.S and ****S.S Jibia

*Department of Agriculture Extension and Management, Binyaminu Usman Polytechnic, Hadejia Jigawa State Nigeria **Department of Agricultural Technology, Binyaminu Usman Polytechnic, Hadejia Jigawa State Nigeria ***Department of Agriculture Technology, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria ***Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology, Kano.


The study was carried out in Jigawa state. It has 27 local government areas. Situated in the north-western part of the country between latitude 11.000 N, to 13.000N and longitudes 8.000E to 10.150 E. Kano State and Katsina State border Jigawa to the west, Bauchi State to the east and Yobe State to the north east. To the north, Jigawa shares an international border with Zinder in the Republic of Niger. The population is 4,348,649 persons (National Population Commission, 2006). It has a land area of approximately 22,210 km2 or about 2.2 million hectares. Most part of the state lies within the Sudan vegetation zone. On some parts of the southern boundaries, some traces of Guinea Savannah exist. The rainfall is higher in the southern part of the state. Jigawa has an average of about 700mm annual rainfall,  plant play an important roles in the diet of most people in the tropics, providing essential minerals and vitamins and adding colour, flavour and variety to monotonous diet. It’s sticky body and sour taste doesn’t bother you as you savour the milky juice finding its way out after gentle press. Contains more Vitamin C/ascorbic acid than Orange and guava. This vitamin helps prevent scurvy, a mouth gum disease. It is used in the treatment of sour throat, constipation or toothache. A research by scientist in Covenant University reveals that Agwaluma could lower blood sugar and cholesterol, and could be useful in preventing and treating heart diseases.Respondents were randomly selected for the study from Hadejia metropolis. There are two categories (50 were Agwaluma consumers and 40 non consumers) this give a total of ninety respondents for the study.Data were collected primarily from the respondents. From the primary source, information collected through the use of structured questionnaires, the secondary source of data were journals, published books, articles, magazines, seminar papers and newsletters.The data were analyzed using both descriptive inferential statistics.Conclusively the fruit has proven to possess some nutritive and medicinal values, majority of the consumers were women and youth; and further serves as safety net particularly during shortfall in agricultural production and reduce malnutrition in children. Therefore, encouraging farmers to go in to the mass production of this important tree will go a long way in promoting the benefits of this tree species which could significantly contribute in the sustenance of livelihood and income generation by small scale farmers and marketers especially in the rural areas in Nigeria.

Keyword: Extension Services, Artisanal Fishing, Ogu/Bolo, Fishers.



Comparative Studies on Hematological Parameters of Royal Purple and Pearl Grey Strains of Helmeted Guinea Fowl Numida Meleagris

Nuhu, S. H.1, Kalla, D. J. U.2, Mancha, Y. P.2and Mohammed, A.1 Yaro, S. S.1, Sani, A.1, Oyeniran J. O.1

1Department of Animal Health and Production Federal Polytechnic Bauchi 2Department of Animal Production Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi


An experiment that lasted for five (5) weeks to compare the hematological parameters of royal purple and pearl grey strains of guinea fowl. A total of thirty six adult helmeted guinea fowl were used for the experiment. This comprised of eighteen each of royal purple and pearl grey strain, made up of six cocks and twelve hen. The birds were fed commercial chicken feed. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Parameters measured were White blood cell (WBC), Red blood cell (RBC), Hemoglobin (Hb), Pack cell volume (PCV), Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) of the birds. Royal purple recorded significantly higher (P<0.05) WBC than Pearl grey strain (4.73±0.21 and 4.09±0.21). However significantly lower RBC count (3.26±0.15 and 3.70±0.15) and Hb (11.72±0.23and 12.23±0.23) were observed in Royal purple than Pearl grey strain. There was no strain difference (P>0.05) in the MCV, MCH and MCHC in the result. Sex difference (P<0.05) was only observed in MCH where Male (40.36±2.34) recorded higher value than the female (34.43±2.34) guinea fowl. No significant sex difference (P>0.05) was observed in the other parameters observed. The values of all the parameters measured were within the required range of domestic fowl. The study concluded that strain and sex differences exist in hematological parameters of royal purple and pearl grey strain of guinea fowl. Royal purple exhibited stronger immune system than pearl grey strain while pearl strain showed higher level of adaption to the environment, feed efficiency and semen quality.

Keyword: Helmeted Guinea fowl, strain, sex and hematology.



Development of a Cam Shaker for Threshing Operations

1Ohu, J. O.,2Adamu, F. A. and 1Mamman, Eli.

1Department of Agricultural and Environmental Resources Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria, 2Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola – Nigeria.


Proper selection of agricultural machine component can improve the productivity and efficiency of both conventional and prototype of a thresher. Out of four components (new concept cam, vibrator,and pitman and screen sorter) options, camwas chosen to aid the cleaning operation of a motorized cowpea thresher.The cam was designed and incorporated in between the blower and the discharge chute of the thresher. The calculated design parameters of the cam shaker are: Power to operate cam (0.75 kW), power to operate cam and spring (0.9 kW), spring allowable load / deflection (450 N) and weigh of cam (215 N) respectively. The performance evaluation shows that the cam has average cleaning efficiency of 97 % while the thresher that does not have a cam shaker has an average cleaning efficiency of 49 %. In this paper, issues on design process and selection criteria are discussed.

Keyword: Design process, cam, vibrator, pitman, screen sorter, conceptual, embodiment.



Physicochemical Properties of Degraded Soils of Yankari Game Reserve In Bauchi, Nigeria.

1Haruna, Y., 1Abubakar A.I,  1Barnabas ,B. 1Chimdi,G.O and 2Kefas ,L.J

1Department of Agricultural Technology Federal Poloytechnic P.M.B 0243. Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural and  Bio­—Environmenta Technology Federal Polytechnic P.M.B 0243 Bauchi.


Conscious effort to conserve our ecological systems is the panacea to achieving a quality and friendlier environment. A field study was conducted at the Yankari Game Reserve of Bauchi State, Nigeria to measure extents of land degradation, using soil properties as parameters. The measured parameters included soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (O.C), bulk density (Db) and exchangeable bases (Ca, mg, K and Na). Soil samples were collected from identified degraded and non-degraded land portions of the game reserve. pH, EC, O.C, Db, Ca, mg, K, and Na were found to vary significantly (P < 0.5) among the degraded lands while the soil of the non-degraded land was found to be significantly (P < 0.5) lower in sand content and bulk density but high in exchangeable bases, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, silt and clay compared to the degraded land portion of the Reserve. Appropriate sustainable management practices and legislation for proper land reclamation in degraded sites were also recommended.

Keyword: physico chemical, properties, Degraded soils, Game reserve.



Length- Weight Relationships and Condition Factors of Cynoglossus Cynoglossus and Caranx Hippos in Epe Lagoon, Nigeria.

Josef Bamidele Bolarinwa,

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.


The  length-weight relationships and condition factor ‘K’ of  200 specimens of  Cynoglossus cynoglossus and Caranx hippos of  Epe lagoon conducted for 6 months (May-October,2015)  showed that their growth patterns were described by the formula: Log W = -0.679+2.02 log TL and  log W = -2.49+3.467 logTL respectively. A high positive correlation coefficient ’r’ of 0.97 exists  between the length and weight of Cynoglossus cynoglosus that of Caranx hippos was  0.95.  The b value of 2.02 observed for C.cynoglossus showed its growth pattern was negatively allometric while that of Caranx hippos was positively allometric at 3.47 (T-test showed there was significant difference  from 3.0 at P< 0.05). K factor of  0.48 was recorded for C.cynoglossus while that of Caranx hippos was 2.24.. The fact that K value of Caranx hippos was higher than that of Cynoglossus cynoglossus shows higher suitability of Epe lagoon for the former. There is therefore a need to conduct a more indepth research on the physiochemical parameters of the lagoon in view of the nearness to industrial areas of Epe and Ikorodu coupled with the highly anthropogenic activities around the lagoon. Future study on length-weight relationships should span not less than 12 months to cover the two hydrological cycles.

Keyword: Allometry, condition factors, length-weight relationships, corellation



Effect of Different Post Harvest Treatment on the Shelf Life of Mango Fruit

Abodenyi, V.A; Garba S. B., and Ibrahim M. M

Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi,  Bauchi State.


Postharvest treatment of neem leaves extract, garlic extracts, neem leaves plus garlic extract, hot water and distilled water treatment to prolong the shelf – life of the mango fruits have been investigated on two varieties of Tommy and Wild mango (Mai igiya) to develop efficient storage practices. The fruits of Tommy and Wild mango were harvested and submerged into the treatments for five minutes, then packed in carton boxes and stored for 12 days at room temperature ranging from 290c to 330c and their weight are taken at 3days interval and evaluated physically. The treatments at 290c to 330c ambient temperature increased post harvest storage of the mangoes fruit to 12days. These result encourage the possibility of long (12days) of storage at room temperature ranging from 290c to 330c.

Keyword: Different, Harvest, Effect, Treatment, Shelf.



Effect of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis Bark Extract  on  Germination  and early Development of Maize and Guinea Corn

Garba A,* Sani A, ** Abubakar Ibrahim A. *** and Grace Chimdi***

*Department of Forestry Technology Federal Polytechnic Bauchi **Department of Animal Health and Production technology Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. ** *Department of Agricultural Technology Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.


Extracts from Bark of Eucalyptus camaldulences, at three different concentration levels where used to experiment the inhibitory effect on germination and early growth of maize and sorghum. The study was conducted under laboratory conditions. The aqueous extracts were prepared by drying and pounding the Bark to get fine granules. 15g, 30g and 45g of the granules were then sucked for twenty four hours in three different plastic containers containing 480ml of distilled water. The effects of extracts from these three different concentrations were compared with distilled water. The extract shows remarkable inhibitory effect on the germination and hypogeal growth on the two receptor seeds.

Keyword: Camaldulensis,Germination, Eucalyptus,, Development, Maize, Guinea Corn



Design and Fabrication of Motorized Car Jack

Sibeudu Chiwetalu E1 Ike Onyeka2

Department Of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko Anambra


With the increasing levels of technology, the efforts are being put to produce any kind of work that has been continuously decreasing. The efforts required in achieving the desired output can be effectively and economically be decreased by the implementation of better designs. Power screws are used to convert rotary motion into reciprocating motion. An object lifting jack is an example of a power screw in which a small force applied in a horizontal plane is used to raise or lower a large load. In this fabricated model, an electric motor will be integrated with the object lifting jack and the electricity needed for the operation will be taken from the d.c battery and thereby the mechanical advantage will be increased.

Keyword: Object lifting jack, automation, limit switch, lead screw.



Nutritional, Proximate and Sensory Evaluation of Cake Produced From Composite Flour Blends ofCassava and Wheat

Kanu C. N. and Onuegbu P. I.

Department of Food Technology, School of Applied Science and Technology Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State.


An experiment was carried out to determine the nutritional proximate, composition of cake produced from blends of wheat and cassava flour. The result showed that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) among the treatment in their moisture content. Sample D04 had the highest moisture content while the least was recorded in sample I09. The result further reveal that Ash Content  ranged from 2.61 – 2.73 and there was no significant difference (P<0.05) among the samples. crude fibre was observed to have a significant difference (P<0.005) between the sample with sample I09 having the least while the highest was observed in sample H08. A significant difference (P<0.05) existed in the protein content of the sample likewise, fat and Carbohydrate also ‘had a significant  difference (P<0.05) in the magnesium, phosphorus, sodium and calcium content respectively. The sensory evaluation also recorded a significant difference (P<0.05) in the colour, taste, aroma, texture and general acceptability.

Keyword: Proximate, Cassava, Sensory Evaluation, Produced

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