Journal of African Sustainable Development (JASD) Vol. 11 (7)



Published by:

Hummingbird Publications and Research International,

Chembian Heritage Suite, No 18 Justice Sowemimo Str.,

Off T.Y Danjuma Str., Asokoro, P.O. Box 16868, Wuse3,

Abuja FCT-Nigeria


Copyright © 2018 Hummingbird Research and Publications International



The Significance of Wind Tunnel Boundary Corrections on Aerodynamic Measurements


Adamu, J., Alhassan, A.M

Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.


In general, the aim of wind tunnel test is to make measurements of aerodynamic quantities under strictly controlled and defined conditions in such a way that despite the presence of the tunnel walls, the data can be applied to unconstrained flow. The existence of spatial variation in the wall induces velocities means that this equivalent cannot be obtained precisely and some corrections for these variations are needed. This paper presents a sample calculation of corrected data of a thermo set cast airfoil (NACA 0015) at Re 6.019 taken at 17 different angles of attack with varying velocities between 3m/s and 7m/s at intervals of 1m/s. It was observed that discrepancies are being obtained from the uncorrected data to that of the corrected data.

Keyword: Wind tunnel, Airfoil, Reynolds number.





1,3&4Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 2Department of Building Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi


The impact of sanitation brings dignity and sanity. One of the nagging problems confronting the health sector apart from poverty is lack of affordable sanitary facilities. A healthy nation is central to all physical, social and economic growth. In most African countries, especially some states in Nigeria have not actually migrated to the next higher level in terms of hygiene as open defecation free (ODF) area. As a result of this, the Federal, State and Local governments are presently trying to achieve safe hygiene practices for a collective responsibility, sustainable development and benefits to the society. However, the management and operation of such sanitary facilities are too much of a heavy burden to bear due to some circumstances. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to examine the issues and challenges facing the waste management of toilet facilities using shipping containers and to proffer evidence based solution to the menace of deteriorating toilet facilities through a sustainable clean water and sanitation. In conclusion, a detailed study with relevant qualitative analysis showed an acceptable positive result. It was then recommended among others that at all levels, stake holders should fund, develop and promote health sector of the economy in terms of toilet facilities, easy design, construction and renovations of temporary and permanent toilets.

Keyword: Waste management, Sanitation, Shipping containers, Sustainable, and Toilet.




The Implementation of the 9 Year Universal Basic Education (ube) Policy in Public and Private Schools in Nigeria. Problems, Challenges, and Prospects

Yahaya Shu’aibu Wakili

School of Education, Department of Curriculum and Instructions, Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare.


 The Universal Basic Education Programme in Nigeria is situated within the large context of a global guest for education for all (EFA). The Universal Basic Education Programme has fundamental principle in common, that is every child in Nigeria has access to equivalent education. Education has been essentially a social process in capacity building and maintenance of society. It is also a weapon with which to equip the people to acquire relevant knowledge, skills and habits for surviving in modern world. This paper examines the Policy Implementation of the 9 year universal basic education (UBE) in public and private schools in Nigeria. It highlights the problems, challenges and prospects.



Effect of Dynamic and Effective Organizations on Nigerian Economy

Mbakwe Francis k1, Igiba Ehimen g2. and Oleabhiele Ernest.p.3

1,2Department of Business Administration and Management Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 3Department of General studies Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.


The study examines the need for dynamic and effective organisation in Nigeria. Works of other researchers were reviewed. The findings indicate that dynamic and effective management increase productivity of an organisation. it also indicated that positive adaptability will influence organizational profitability and market share. There is no significant relationship between adaptability and organizational productivity. Shared mission, employee involvement, and shared values (consistency) are positively related to profitability, productivity and market share. Based on these findings we concluded that corporate culture has significant influence on organizational effectiveness. It is therefore recommended that in addition to continuous adaptability, organizations should put in place definite plans to minimize cost and waste, as this will promote effectiveness. Organizations’ mission should be shared amongst employees to enable them contribute effectively to the achievement of organizational goals. Employees should be involved in decision-making process, especially in issues that concern them, as this will make them to be committed to the achievement of such decisions taken. Organization’s values should be shared amongst employees as it will enable them to act in the interest of the organization at all times. Socialization of new employees should be encouraged, as it is a powerful tool in managing shared values. New bases for shared values need to be reformulated in response to variety in the organization’s environment to enable the organization adapt to environmental turbulence.

Keyword: Dynamic, Effective, Organisation, Nigeria.




Effect of Television Advertising on Consumer Buying Behaviour of Always Sanitary Pad in Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi State.

*Abubakar Baba Garba, **Shamsu Dauda Abdu,

*Department Of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. **Department Of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.


The study was on “The Effect of Television Advertising on Consumer Buying Behaviour of Always Sanitary Pad in Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi State. It started with general introduction to the research, statement of the problem and purpose of the study. This was followed by comprehensive literature review of television advertising on consumer buying Behaviour of Always Sanitary Pad in Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi State. The research employs the use of survey design to gather necessary information. Systematic Random sampling was used to select sample from the population. Through the research methodology involving collection of data from a sample of female students of Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi State, the researcher applied self-administered questionnaire to obtain primary data which was later analyzed by simple percentage. The result showed that television was viewed as the most preferred medium of advertisement of Always Sanitary Pad. The researcher made the recommendation based on the findings that more attention should be focused on using television medium for advertisement of Always Sanitary Pad.

Keyword: Effect, Television, Advertising, Consumer, Behavior & Sanitary Pad.




Religious Symbolism and Image on Igbo Traditional

*Rev. Canon Jonathan Chidomerem Egesi, **Ven. Promise Oparanozie Ph.D & ***Josiah Chidi Opera (Ven)

*Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo-Ohaji, P.M.B 1472, Owerri Imo State-Nigeria **Department Of Religion, Imo State University ***Department Of Public Administration, Akanu Ibaim, Federal Polytechnic Unwana Afikpo.


Symbols and images are part of the social and spiritual reality of which man is a part. They form part of the language tools and communication system in society, particularly in the deduced or abstracted symbols and images are in themselves not the essence or the end in spiritual usage or religious virtual, but are only important to the extent of the meaning associated with and elicited from them. These meanings associated, elicited and abstracted from them have far reaching impacts or implications for the religious beliefs, practices and rituals of members of a given religion. That is to say that religious symbols and images have semantic significance in religion and ritual practices. Every known religion, whether institutional or non institutional contains its own system significant to its practitioner and the society in which it exists, and this system of symbol, imagining and this inherent or associated meanings set them apart from other religions and their adherents who are at the esoteric world of that religion. The Igbo traditional religion in particular is replete, with symbols and image, both artistic and material that have spiritual, ritual and semantic implications for its practitioners, which non-adherents are excluded from sharing. And these symbols and images, and the meaning attached to them by the people have significant effect on the social life of the Igbo society as a whole. However, the aim of this conference paper is to undertake a thorough study of the symbolism and margining in Igbo traditional religion, with a view to understanding the meaning they to the worshippers and how these meanings affects their religions beliefs and practices and social relations in society, including their relationship with the cosmic world away from the routine knowledge of non initiates.

Keyword: Traditional, Religion, Image, Igbo, Symbols, Esoteric, World.




An Efficient Lifting Wavelet Transform (LWT) For Video Compression Using Luminance Enhancement Technique

  1. A. Abdulkareem, A. M. S. Tekanyi, I. Yau and H. A. Adamu

Communication Engineering Department, and Centre for Energy Research and Training Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria


Dissemination of graphical information in mobile networks and television advert today makes compression a hotcake business in multimedia communications. In this paper we introduced an improved lifting wavelet transform using luminance enhancement technique. A total of six (four acquired and two benchmark) sample video data were used to implement the developed technique.  Frames were extracted from the video data and stored in the form of images in a buffer.   The input image sample from the processed sample video (frame) was split into even and odd sets of samples for the efficient lifting filter to ensure appropriate approximation and detail extraction. This is to determine the efficiency of the developed technique. Simulation results showed that, the developed method was efficient with an improved compression ratio and peak to signal Noise ratio. Simulation results showed that, the proposed method was efficient for the respective individual sample video frames of NAERLS1.avi, NAERLS2.avi, NTA1.avi, and NTA2.avi and the bench mark, video frames with the following PSNR percentage improvement over the ordinary LWT compression method by 6.30%, 5.16%, 3.38%, 3.91%, 4.00%, and 6.71%.

Keyword: Video frames, Luminance pixel Enhancement, LWT Compression.





Skills among Secondary School Science Students in Taraba State

Fati Abubakar Bassi

Department of Home Economics, College of Education, P.M.B 1021 Zing, Tababa State.


This is a review paper on the proper positioning of active learning for better development of science students in the 21st century skill acquisitions. Being a qualitative study, collections, analyses and syntheses of relevant papers on the subject matter were done. It was therefore discovered that issues surrounding 21st century skills (i.e., communication and collaboration, critical thinking and problem-solving, creativity and innovation)are essential for students’ participation in global society. The paper argues that yesterday’s knowledge must be integrated into 21st century skills via active learning so as to enable students to compete on theglobal scale. Having construed active learning as a method that enables students to ascend from remembering and understanding to analyzing and creating, the paper maintains that active learning is most suitable for 21st learning environment. Among others, it is recommended that teachers graduate should be prepared to employ 21st century teaching and assessment strategies and that decision makers in education should integrate 21st century skills into both student and teacher standards. The paper concludes that longitudinal effects of active learning techniques reveals permanent knowledge on both core academic subject mastery and 21st century skills outcomes.

Keyword: Learning environment, Active learning, Science Subjects, 21st century, Skill acquisition.



The Characteristics of Essay Writing During the Umayyats Dynasty

مميزات النثر العربي في العصر الأموى


Abdulmumini M. Zakariyya and Sa’idu Isma’il

School of Arts and Social Sciences, A. D Rufa’I College for Legal and Islamic Studies, Misau, Bauchi State


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

اللهم صل على محمد وآله وصحبه الكرام.


إنه لشرف للباحث أن يقدم بحثه المتواضع بعوان  مميزات النثرات العربي في العصر الأموي، وإن شاء الله سوف يتناول البحث نقط التالية:

1- مفهوم النثر لغة وإصطلاحا.

2- النثر في الجاهلي وفنونه وصورته.

3- النثر في عصر صدر الأسلام وصادره وعوامل إزدهاره.

4- نبذة تاريخية للعصر الأموي.

5- النثر الفني في العصر الأموي ومميزاته.

6- نماذج من الخطب والرسائل.

7- الخاتمة.

8- المصادر والمراجع.

والله ولي التوفيق.

Keyword: Umayyats, Characteristics Dynasty, Essay, Writing.



Changing Role of Academic Library in Digital Age: Problem and Solution

*Sahabi, Muhammad Kabir **Unobe, Elameyi Susan ***SangosanyaAbosedeKaltumi

*University Library, Kaduna State University, Kaduna **Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U. Zaria ***National Library of Nigeria


This paper describes the changing role of academic libraries in the new digital age. It highlights the development of hybrid libraries as a magical solution to meet the information needs of library users in the digital age, showing great sensitivity in the use of new technologies. It also explores new trends in providing information that librarians can use to re-establish the university library to provide effective services. Lack of efficiency, technological inefficiency and inadequate energy supplies were highlighted as some of the challenges to effective service delivery. Libraries should strive to acquire ICT skills through personal training to be relevant and defend their profession, as training funds are not always appropriate. The study identified librarians and discussed academic libraries in the digital age, as well as providing services in a digital environment

Keyword: service delivery, librarians, academic libraries, information needs, digital age.



An Evaluation of Leadership Styles and Influence on Employees’ Performance in Work Organisations:  a Study of Bankking Industry.

Famolu Florence Bosede ph.d and Adelekan Funmilade Iyanu

Department Of Human Resource Development, Faculty Of Management Sciences, Osun State University, Okuku Campus, Osogbo, Nigeria.


This study investigated the effects of leadership styles practiced in work organizations. The study was a survey and ex post facto design was adopted. questionnaires format was adopted for data collection. Collected data were analysed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. The statistical test adopted were revealed that there were significantly positive relationship between leadership styles and employee performance [0.35] and that is a significant relationship between laissez-faire leadership style and employee performance (0.35). It is concluded therefore, that perceived leadership style showed significant contribution to employee performance. It therefore recommended that perceived leadership styles that are employee friendly should be promoted in banking industry.

Keyword: Leadership Style, Employee Performance, Laissez-Faire Leadership Style, Autocratic Leadership Style.



Phytochemical Analysis Of Successive Extracts Of Zanha Golungensis (Hiern) Leaf

Sikiru Gbenga Kola, Obidola S.M, Emefiene M.E, Oladejo A.O, Olorundare O.O

Federal college of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria.


 Zanha golugensis (family Sapindaceae) commonly called Smooth-fruited zanha (En), Mkalya or mkwanga (Sw) is an important multipurpose tree as all the parts of the plant possess nutritional and medicinal properties and wood for various uses in West Africa. Medicinal herbs have been used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times. Traditionally, bark decoctions of Z.golugensis are taken as a cure for malaria, powdered bark is sniffed against chest complaints and colds, and rub forehead to get relief of headache, and bark preparations are considered galactagogue. The aim of this study is to determine the phytochemical analysis of successive extracts of Z.golugensis leaf. Various food tests were also used to determine the nutritional value of the leaf extracts. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous, ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform fractionated portions of the leaf extracts of Z.golugensis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and cardenolides. The result showed the presence of alkaloid, saponins and tannins in aqueous, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts only. Whereas cardenolides was present in all portions of the leaf extracts. Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fat and oil were also detected using different methods. The present information would be of help to isolate and characterize the diverse pharmacologically active principles of importance supporting their varied biological activities and the medicinal values. Z.golugensi could be a source of dietary supplement being rich in carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids.

Keyword: Zanha golugensis, Phytochemicals, analysis, Medicinal value, Food test



Evaluation of Alternative Trade Network in E- Marketing of Tourist Destinations

Donatus, Everest Akalazu1 Hafsat Mahmud Hussaini2 Aly Audu Fada3

Department of Leisure and Tourism Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. Bauchi State


Most destinations today have made tremendous progress due to e-marketing. E-marketing is referred to as online advertising. Several destinations have adopted it as an essential part of their marketing tools. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to evaluate how alternative trade network has contributed in marketing tourist destinations. Conceptual definitions of E-marketing were carefully made. Quantities survey was adopted using the self completed questionnaire to obtain data. Fifty questionnaire administered were dully filled by the respondents selected from communication organizations and students of federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. Data collected were treated by descriptive statistics. It was revealed that destinations can easily be promoted online through marketing of her products and services in order to win a greater market share for profitability. It is recommended that e-marketing is essential to tourism organizations. Hence, the managers of the industries should be committed to e-marketing activities.



Social and Political Commitment in Selected Novels of Abubakar Gimba

Shehu Garba Sunusi

Department of Basic Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.


This paper examines socio-political commitment in Abubakar Gimba’s novels. The novels analysed are Innocent Victims (1988), Sunset for a Mandarin (1991) and Sacred Apples (1994). The study adopted a textual analysis socio-political commitment of the writer in the novels. African societies are faced with numerous socio-political challenges – corruption, greed, bribery, rape, armed – robbery, political rascality by the elite, indolent and over bloated civil service which the African writer must address in his writings to be relevant. The plight of women and their ability to overcome certain challenges is focused in Sacred Apples. The paper concludes that socio-political problems give rise to despondency and despair among the citizenry.

Keyword: Social, Politics, Commitment



Processing of Different Food Products from Millet in Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State

Ibe, Uchechukwu  Oluchkwu

Department of Food Technology, School of Science and Technology, The Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1012 Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State.


 This research work highlights the result of the survey conducted to identify the various methods of processing millets in Kaura Namoda. 120 questionnaires are prepared and distributed to 120 respondents who indicated the knowledge of millet foods. The questionnairre consists of the regularity of consumption, the types of foods consumed and methodology of millet processing. The questions and answers were collated and analyzed using percentages and presented. The method of processing of various foods made of millet were also collated and presented. Women are generally the caregivers in the family as well as the fact that they cook the food consumed in the family, while the males provide for the household. Analysis of the methods of processing the various types of foods made from millets in Kaura Namoda did not vary much from those in literature.

Keyword: millet, variable, questionnaires, survey 



Design and Fabrication of motorized car jack

Sibeudu Chiwetalu E1 Ike Onyeka2

Department Of Mechanical engineering, Federal polytechnic oko Anambra


 With the increasing levels of technology, the efforts are being put to produce any kind of work that has been continuously decreasing. The efforts required in achieving the desired output can be effectively and economically be decreased by the implementation of better designs. Power screws are used to convert rotary motion into reciprocating motion. An object lifting jack is an example of a power screw in which a small force applied in a horizontal plane is used to raise or lower a large load. In this fabricated model, an electric motor will be integrated with the object lifting jack and the electricity needed for the operation will be taken from the d.c battery and thereby the mechanical advantage will be increased.

Keyword: Object lifting jack, automation, limit switch, lead screw

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