Hummingbird Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences (HUJHSS) Vol.20 (6) June, 2020

Hummingbird Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (HUJHSS)

Vol. 20 (6) June, 2020. ISSN: 2278-8881

Published by: Hummingbird Publications and Research International,

Centre for Trans-Saharan Studies, University of Maiduguri, UNIMAID,

Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

E-MAIL: PHONE: +234-802-5604-997


A New Wave of Violence against Women and Children in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria


Popoola, Olusoji David (PhD); **Ariaga, Regina Chinedu (Phd); ***Nyuma, Joe Fayia (PhD); and Fagge, Mustapha Muhammad

*Department of Sociology & Anthropology, Igbinedion University Okada, Edo State, Nigeria **Legal Department, Redeem Christian Church of God, Rivers Province 11, Egbeda Road Omoku, Rivers State, Nigeria. ***Minister Plenipotentiary & Head of Chancery Sierra Leone Embassy South Korea. ****Department of International Relation, Igbinedion University Okada, Edo State, Nigeria



Reports of violence and victimization against vulnerable groups in the society has been on the increase in recent time especially among the developing nations. However, the rate at which violence and organized attacks are carried out against women and children especially among the “in groups” (group of people within the same community) is assuming a frightening proportion. This paper examined violence attacks and displacement of women and children in an oil producing  State in Niger Region of Nigeria. Cross sectional survey design was adopted, structured questionnaire and Indept interview were used for data collection. A sample of 133 adults (children were excluded for ethical considerations) from the study area participated in the study. Purposive random sampling method and snowball technique were used in selecting the participants.Seven research questions were investigated, results showed that four “in groups” were responsible for the violence in the region s: militia group, political agitators, cult groups and armed robbers. Statistical analysis showed that 120 (90.2%) Respondents were violently displaced, 59 (44.4%) families were no longer intact, 75 (56.4%) lost at least a member of the family, 94 (70.7%) suffered physical injury 108 (81.2%) lost movable and immovable properties, 130 (99.2%) were not compensated while 77 (58.3%) were willing to return to their community. The study concludes that violence attack of the militia, political agitators, cultists and armed robbers was the cause of displacement of people of Rivers State in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Consequently,women and children suffered sexual harassment, rape, physical injuries, loss of physical properties and matrimonial dislocation. We therefore recommend the creation of a Naval and militancy base especially in ONE local government area to forestall incessant violence against the community. The Federal, and State government as well as the multi-national oil company in the area should pay heavy compensation to victims of displacement and violence attack. Urgent step should also be taken to re-settle these victims back to their communities.

Keyword: Children, Nigeria,, Niger Delta,, Violence, Women.




Digitalizing Television Programming in Bauchi State Television (Batv): An Appraisal of its Impacts and Challenges


Abubakar Baba Garba,

Department Of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.



The coming of digitalization has marked a watershed in human’s capacity for invention. Until the 1980s, media relied upon print and analog (electronic) broadcast models such as those of television and radio. The media has experienced a rapid transformation in the last twenty-five years which was manifested through the use of digital computers. The use of digital computers has transformed the old media, giving it some more advanced and qualitative products as revealed by the advent of digital television. The survey method of research was employed, through the distribution of questionnaires to 100 respondents to examine the impact of digitalizing on television programming in BATB. This research work has succeeded in bringing to lime light, the effectiveness and extend of impact digitalization has brought in programming particularly in BATV. The findings also revealed that digitalization has positively impacted on television programming in BATB.

Keyword: Digitalization, Media transformation, Programming &Quality products.




Challenges of Development in Post Colonial Africa: A Study on Problems of Survival in Nigeria


Baba Yahaya

Department of History and International Studies Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University Lapai



The Nigeria society has been undergoing changes at an unprecedented rate. These changes occur in the political, economic and social life of the nation. Sometimes, these changes occur so rapidly, that most Nigerians have found it very difficult to keep pace. In the last twenty years, Nigerians has witnessed the most traumatic changes especially in the economic and social life of the nation under democratic dispensation. Some individuals within the nation have found it difficult to survive the hardships that have come with these changes. In fact, the situation has reached a point which threatening the survival of the country as a nation. It is on this background that this paper attempt to discuss some issues that stood as bottle neck to development in the post colonial Africa with a focus on Nigeria. It’s hoped that Africa countries with similar situation can take the path for their nation. Therefore this discusses the problems of survival and to suggest possible ways through which Nigerians and indeed Africa countries with similar situation may survive.

Keyword: Development, National Development Survival and Self – reliance.




‘Igwebuike’ as the Operative Condition of George Okorie’s Leadership Model


Prof. Kanu Ikechukwu Anthony

Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Tansian University, Anambra State



Leadership in many parts of the world reveals indices of symptoms of diseases or maladies of leadership. Very common is the feeling of immunity, immortality and indispensability by leaders; sense of extravagance and self-exhibition; excessive busyness, planning and functionality. Many leaders have idolized themselves and lost a sense of community. Mental petrification, rivalry, vain glory and leadership Alzheimer are abundant. One does not need to go far to see how leaders have been bewitched by sterile pessimism, insatiable hunger for wealth against the growth and development of their people. Backbiting, gossiping and operation in closed circles are evident. These diseases of leadership are eating deep into leadership and thus making followership come with pain and hopelessness. This piece has studied Very Rev. Fr. George Okorie’s model of leadership that is cultural and compassionate. His leadership model remains an antidote to the diseases or maladies of leadership, especially in our time. This research discovered that his leadership model is based on six pillars: listening, sympathizing, companionship, hospitality, protection and service. It also discovered that at the heart of this leadership model is compassion- a primary element of Igwebuike Igbo philosophy, which is born out of a profound understanding of who the other person is in relation to you. For the purpose of this research, the Igwebuike method of research was employed.

Keyword: Igwebuike, Very Rev. Fr. George Okorie, SMMM. Operative Condition, Compassion




Exploring the Stereotype of the African Parent in Selected Nigerian Comic Skits


Adenusi, Ramotalai Adetola and Onifade, Oluwafemi Sunday

Babcock University Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State Nigeria



The duty of parenting is not limited to the commissioning parents but the community at large as it takes a village to raise a successful child in the African context. Parenting style is a function of the society and the society holds a symbiotic relationship with the media as they reflect each other. Consequently, the media plays its role in shaping the role of parenting to the society through its content which is seen in various comic skits, drama and different genres present in the media. This paper examined the stereotype of the African parent and the parenting styles dominant in selected Nigerian comic skits. Media Dependency and Medium theories are the two theories the study was hinged upon and it adopted the qualitative design as thematic analysis was used for analyzing the data. The study discovered that parental aggressiveness, infidelity, gender bias, domestic power tussle and authoritarian style of parenting are the dominant stereotypes of the African parents present in the selected Nigerian comic skits.

Keyword: Stereotypes, African parents, Comic skits, Medium theory, parenting styles.




Management of the Nigerian Colleges of Education in Delta State for Sustainability Ofa Better Today and Tomorrow


*Ezugoh, Theodorah Chinelo, **Adesina Omolara Adeola and ***Yakubu, Sani

*School of Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Asaba, P.M.B 1044, Asaba, Delta State **Department of Educational Management, Faculty of Education, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria ***Department of Educational Management, Faculty of Education, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria



The Nigerian colleges of education (COEs) are teacher education institutions that train teachers for the Nigerian schools. They occupy the third cadre in the ladder of tertiary educational provisions in the country. As important citadel of academic learning, they play a pivotal role in producing highly qualitative, motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for the Nigerian educational system. It is therefore a matter of concern and distress when the (COEs) are no longer meeting up to expectations especially in delivering/rendering quality and efficient services that will lead to the achievement of educational goals. Today many COEs especially those of them in Delta State, are in deplorable state, facing so much difficulties and challenges, thereby affecting their management. This situation is against one of the goals of Nigerian COEs which states that all teachers shall be professional trained and equipped to become effective in performance of their duties. Therefore, the present study sought to investigate the importance of management of the Nigerian Colleges of Education in Delta State for sustainability of a better today and tomorrow. Five research questions were raised to conduct the study. The descriptive survey research design was adopted in the study. Population for the study comprised 1,051 lecturers from four (4) colleges of education in Delta State. The simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 526 lecturers from all the 4 COEs in Delta State. A questionnaire titled: “Management of Nigerian Colleges of Education for Sustainability Questionnaire (MNCOESQ)”, which contained 37 items and designed on a 4 point scale was used to collect data for this study. The instrument was validated by three experts from the Department of Educational Management and Policy, Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Reliability of the instrument was determined through a pilot-test conducted by the researcher on a single administration, selecting 20 lecturers from 2 COEs in Edo State, not part of the study. The result was found to have a reliability coefficient of 0.71 using the Cronbach alpha coefficient measurement which indicated that the instrument was trustworthy to collect the necessary data for the study. Data were equally analyzed using mean score at 2.50 rating. The findings of the study revealed among others that the extent to which educational resources are mobilized, teaching resources were maintained through the various strategies, funds were mobilized and academic staff career development boosted, were all to a low extent. Many of the COEs were devoid of the requisite educational resources for management of their sustainability of a better today and tomorrow. The study recommended among others that: Federal and State Governments should provide adequate funds that will promote effective management of the COEs for sustainability of a better today and tomorrow in Delta State, Nigeria.

Keyword: Management, Nigerian colleges of education (COEs), Sustainability, Better, Today, Tomorrow




Human Trafficking as New Variant of Slavery.


*Iguanre, Solomon, PhD1 **Awosiyan, Oluwagbemisola. O

*Department of Languages and Literary Studies, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo. Ogun State **Babcock University, Ilishan, Ogun State



This paper discusses the human trafficking as new variant of slavery, two novels reflected that human trafficking is a new variant of slavery i.e. a mutation of the old slavery. This study posits that human trafficking is like re-inventing the wheel and considered modern day slavery as it has inherent features of old slavery like human degradation, the sale of human beings, servitude, sexual exploitation, cheap work etc. However, the paper discover that in situations like this, women’s positions become precarious. Also discovered that the absence of their menfolk as the socially ordained ‘protectors’ exposes women to grave forms of harassment and abuse, but it also introduces a new order in which women become managers of the social system who not only contain the upheaval of slavery but also sustain the social order. 

Keyword: Trafficking, Explolitation, Degradation, Human, New, Variant, Slavery.




Source of Powerlessness of Women in Politics


Emhenya Anthony Iyoha

Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Edo University, Iyamho.



In Nigeria, systematic gender biases exist in various form of laws and custom that are capable of impeding women’s participating in politics. The 1989 and 1999 constitutions have created an enabling environment for its citizens who are willing to participate in politics. Nigerian women seem not interested in the game of politics regardless of the fact that they constitute a large percentage of the electorate. The data used for this paper were drawn from documentary sources. The paper recommends that women should also have articulated positions on political issues rather than being ambiguous, as well as ensures that the right people get elected into government, male or female.

Keyword: Constitution, Election, Politics, Powerlessness Liberation.




An Overview of Industrial Conflict and its Challenges to National Development


Sunday S. Ifah and Abdullahi Bashir Idris

Department Of Sociology, Nasarawa State University, Keffi



One of the major characteristics of modern Societies is a complex organization which serves as a whole that engulf many individuals in a pursuit of large administrative task. To compliment these, the workers are governed by service condition with rules and regulations established by their employers. The result of power imbalance leads to employer and employee disagreement or conflict.  This has far reaching implications to the development of the Nation. Hence, labour plays a crucial role in the quest for the Country’s development despite its current economic situation. However, the paper examines Industrial Conflict in Nigeria, its root, causes and effects to National development. Frustration Aggression theory was used as theoretical framework. As a descriptive type of study, the study utilizes Secondary sources such as Newspapers, Journals, and Textbooks as sources for data collection. The study discovers that a grievance as a result of low wages, poor working condition and lack of promotion leads to conflict. That strike of any nature impedes the development of the organization as well as the Nation. From the study, the Paper concludes that despite the functions of Industrial Conflict (Strike) it is bad for the society. It however recommends that owners of Industries and Employees should produce a communiqué that will better reduce conflicts. Employers of labour should also ensure that their employees are adequately motivated so as to increase productivity and job satisfaction. It is also recommended that government should ensure that Industrial Relations Act is adhered to properly so as to reduce conflict reoccurrence.

Keyword: Development, Industrial Conflict, Challenges, Overview, National Development.




Insurgency and the Rights of Women; a Study of Internally Displaced Women in the North Eastern Part of Nigeria.


*Ahmed Mubarak Mashi & **Ngozi Thelma Mohammed PhD.

*Department of Political Science, Umaru Musa Yaradua University, Katsina. **Department of political science and Defence Studies, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna



Nefarious activities of Boko Haram insurgency sect in North East Nigeria since 2009 led to the displacement of over two million people and majority are women, which has created adverse humanitarian consequence in the North East zone. Life in the various communities of Borno, Yobe and Adamawa states, such as Kawuri, Baga, Konduga, Bama, Shuwa, Ajigin, Gamboru, Giwa, Chibok, Gwoza, Madagali, Geidam to mention a few, have been characterized in the famous words of Thomas Hobbes where life is  nasty, brutish and most times short (Salkida, 2012). Women displaced by Boko Haram insurgents faced numerous challenges of violation of their rights; such as lack of adequate shelter, lack of proper hygiene, hunger, threat of diseases, sexual molestation by camp officials and security personnel, inadequacy of safe water, force prostitution, force and early marriages, unwanted pregnancies and lack of participation in decisions affecting their lives. It is against this backdrop this paper sought to examine the rights of internally displaced women in the North Eastern part of Nigeria. Data in this paper were source from both primary and secondary sources and the paper adopts the human needs theory by Abraham Maslow. The paper concludes that, strict adherence to Kampala convention and National policy on the rights of IDP women, improving socio-economic situation of the IDPs, resettlement of the IDPs back to their original places of residence and good governance; which will reduce unemployment and poverty will reduce the vulnerability of the IDP women in the North east.

Keyword: Insurgency, Women, Internal Displacement, Rights




Verb-Noun Selectional Restriction in Ngwa


Nneoma Fyne Ugorji Ph.d

Clifford University, Department of Languages and Literary Studies, Owerrinta, Abia State, Nigeria.



Verb-noun selectional restriction is a collocational  linguistic constraint that exists between the verb and the noun in order to avoid ungrammatical constructions in language. The word Ngwa refers to the language, the people and the geo-political area known as Ngwa land. The Ngwa people are found in Abia state in the Federal Republic of Nigeria. They are found in seven Local Government, Areas of  the state, namely: Isiala Ngwa North, Isiala Ngwa South, Obingwa, Osisioma, Aba North, Aba South and Ugwunagbo. Some of the objectives of this paper are: to examine the features that condition the collocation of verbs and their object complement in Ngwa, to demonstrate that pragmatics plays an important role in the interpretation of  unusual constructions.  The theoretical framework that is adopted in this paper is the theory of Componential Analysis. The reason for the adoption of Componential Analysis, is that it will help in the decomposition of the features  of the  noun in the object position.  The collection of data for this paper was done through the recording of  the speech of four  native speakers, aged 40 -60 years. Use was equally made of  library texts that were cited in the paper. Some of the findings of this paper are: that a negligence of selectional compatibility results in ungrammatical constructions and that a knowledge of the verb-noun selectional constraints in Ngwa, is part of the linguistic competenceof  the users of the Ngwa dialect. This paper, recommends the study of verb-noun  selectional restriction in Ngwa and other languages in order to determine the common linguistic factors conditioning its operation in many languages.

Keyword: Collocation, Componential Analysis, Ngwa, nouns, selectional restriction  and verbs.




The Goals of Islamic Law [Maqasid Al-Shari’ah] and its Wisdom in Mirath


Yusuf Abubakar

School of Arts and Social Sciences, A.D. Rufa’i College for Legal and Islamic Studies, Misau, Bauchi State



This paper is aim to highlight the goals of Shari’a (Maqasid) meaning, the Maqasid and public interest (Masalih) and the dimention of Maqasid al-Shari’ah. The paper will also try to come up with the wisdom or goal of Maqasid in Mirath.

Keyword: Maqasid [goal Shari’ah], Masalih [public interest], Mirath [succession, inheritance]




Acceptance as an Element of a Valid Contract


Sani Mohammed Esq

Department of Business and Management, School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



For a contract to be enforceable at law, it must satisfy certain basic requirements. And acceptance which is final and unqualified expression of ascent to the terms of the offer must be present. It must be brought to the notice of the offeror to be valid and can be revoked before it reaches the offeree.

Keyword: Requirement, Acceptance, Element, Valid, Contract.




Negative Politeness Strategies in the Punch Newspaper Interview Reports on Xenophobic Attacks


Onyemuru Kelechi Lilian and Okata Gift Ngozi PhD

Department of Languages and Literary Studies, Babcock University Ilisan Remo. Ogun State



This paper considers Brown and Levinson’s Politeness theory in the area of negative politeness such as, hedging, and generalization. Using purposive random sampling technique based on Brown and Levinson’s theory of politeness to select 7 interviews from the punch newspaper reports on xenophobic attack returnee’s interview, the paper examined what constitute negative politeness strategies used by interviewers and returnees on xenophobic attack interviews in the Punch Newspaper. Findings show that interviewers and interviewees made use of negative politeness strategies although at various frequencies. Negative politeness strategies were employed to prevent imposition on the hearer and participants used more of hedging which enabled them avoid excessive certainty and achieve tactfulness. The paper recommends that there should be analysis of natural dialogues not on print media which may be devoid of paralinguistic forms of language. More so, Interviewers should have sufficient knowledge of the concept of negative politeness as this will enable them avoid absoluteness.

Keyword: Negative politeness, hedging, tactfulness, excessive certainty.




Access and Utalization of Internet for Teaching and Learning among Secondary Schools in Bauchi State Nigeria: A Study of Six (6) Selected Secondary Schools in Bauchi Metropolis


Abubakar Baba Garba and Bello Madaki Beli

Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



This study identifies access and the use of internet for teaching and learning among selected secondary schools in Bauchi State. Internet has become a useful tool for education. Access to information communication technology (ICT), the internet in particular, has provided people especially students with a foundation for meeting their information needs. Many private schools can boast of computer laboratories, but only few can pride themselves on Internet access. Another frustration is the capacity to use the Internet. Methodology adopted in this study is the survey design in which questionnaires was used for obtaining data. The target population of this study was Secondary School students in Bauchi State. Result showed that students have the capacity to use the internet which they learnt from friends and family members. However, the level of internet access in schools is poor despite some schools having computer laboratories. Students accessed the internet from their homes and cyber cafes since they are denied access in their respective schools while most of the students use the internet for socialization and amusement. The research recommends that internet availability should be considered as one of the most important scientific tools in schools.

Keyword: Internet, Teaching ,Learning, Secondary, schools.  




The Context of Poverty in Borno State and its Challenges to Socio-Development


Adam Muhammad El-Hamees

Department of General Studies Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi .



Poverty is a worldwide phenomenon and has attracted much attention in recent years. People perceive poverty as a threat to the existence of human kind, unequal distribution of global wealth has exacerbated the problem of poverty in the developing countries. It is estimated that one third of the world population live in chronic poverty. Poverty has become so endemic that the great majority of the citizens have lost hope and faith and have started considering their conditions as a given, unchangeable act of providence since the more they individually struggle to redeem themselves from it, the more they plunge deeper into its abyss. Nigerian citizens are daily faced with many paradoxes and contradictions. The most traumatizing and obvious of these contradictions is their abject and squalor amidst to the tremendous amount of wealth they witness been displayed by members of the power elite. The objective of this paper is to examine the challenge of poverty in Northeastern Nigeria Particularly Borno State and attempt to proper solution to the lingering crises. Both primary and secondary data constitute the main sources for the study.

Keyword: Poverty, challenges of poverty, North-Eastern Nigeria, Access to education, Poor leadership.




Influence of Socio-Economic Status on Marital Satisfaction among Makurdi Residents, Benue State, Nigeria


*Victoria H. Gbaste1 **Daniel, Benjamin Saanyol2 ***Utsan, Ngusha Redrick3

*Department of Home Economics, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare Bauchi State **Department of Community Health; IHSAN College of Health Science and Technology Azare Bauchi State ***UBE Junior Secondary School Mishi Ikpayongo, Gwer East LGA of Benue State



This study investigated the influence of socio-economic status on marital satisfaction among Makurdi residents. The study adopted a descriptive survey design where 304 participants were randomly drawn in Makurdi through random sampling method. Those who were from the ages of 18-29 were 92 (30.3%) and between 30 and above were 201 (66.1%); 157 (51.6%) males and 192 (42.4%) female were involved. One way analysis of variance was used as a statistic tool for analysis. The study postulated three hypothesis and the results shows that there was no statistical significant difference among people in different income bracket on marital satisfaction (f (df = 287) = .242; p> 0.05).  Significant difference among people with diverse educational qualification on marital satisfaction exist (f (df = 297) = 2.574; p<0.05). The study therefore recommended among others that proper knowledge from education should be used to improve marital quality and the educational level of the husband should be relatively higher than that of the wife.

Keyword: Educational Qualification, Income, Marital Satisfaction, Occupation, Socio-Economic Status.




Issues and options in Nigerian Media reporting of COVID-19 pandemic


Belinda Anyanwu & Ahmed Balarabe Sa’id

Department of Mass Communication, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria.



The outbreak of the novel Corona virus otherwise known as Covid-19 has generated global attention following its impact on economic, social and other aspects of human life, challenging institutions and practices including the reportorial roles of the media. As conveyor belts, the media’s roles include providing accurate, timely and knowledgeable information to audiences, against the backdrop of rapid changes occurring in the issues around the spread of the pandemic. Some of the issues are, the necessary prevention techniques to adopt, measures being taken to mitigate the risk of spread and all other interventions aim at curbing the spread, in addition to the interrogation or forecasts of actions and their consequences ahead. It is generally believed that, the media has fared well in its overall reporting roles on matters affecting citizens; although this maybe debatable in the face of a new pandemic and within cynicism of citizens on one hand and limited access or capacity of practitioners, on the other. This essay relies on the assumptions of the media agenda setting role, particularly within the context of the participatory communication model to discuss the issues limiting the media interpretation and interrogation roles in directing government and citizen action regarding the virus and its accompanying challenges. It identifies, among others that, media institutions, their practitioners as well as health practitioners and government bureaucracy combine among other social and cultural inhibitions to limit the media capacity to carry out their reporting of COVID-19 as they ought to. The paper recommends, among other options that, media organizations can do better in the reporting of the pandemic by prioritizing health related reporting and scaling up the capacity of practitioners towards same, while the necessary enabling environment including legislation should be evolved to complement the initiative.

Keyword: media, reporting, pandemic.




Economic Impact of Covid-19 Outbreak on Crude Oil Prices in Nigeria: A Structural Break Approach


*Ehighebolo, Izin Anne and **Shaib, Ismail Omade

*Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria. **Department of Statistics, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria.



Nigeria is a mono-cultural economy with over 70% of federal government’s revenue emanating from the export of crude oil. This paper empirically analysed the impact of covid-19 outbreak on crude oil prices in Nigeria. Data used in the estimation were sourced online and the total number of daily observations was 58days. The models of the structural break analysis was evaluated using Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) maximum likelihood approach with the aid of E-views 11.0 software. The results reveal that the structural break model variables (COP and COI) at days 15 and 35 are significant at 5% as the F-stat 0.00<0.05. This implies that Covid-19 pandemic is significant to crude oil prices and negatively influences crude oil prices. Covid-19 (COI)) exerts negligible influence on crude oil prices by 0.00% in the short run but gradually affects oil prices by 6.61% in the long-run. The paper concludes that economic understanding of the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on crude oil prices in Nigeria using a structural break model at day 15 break point is most appropriate for prediction. It recommends amongst others that, government and private individuals must invest in funding research on sustainable vaccine and germane solution to the disease in Nigeria.

Keyword: Covid-19, Nigeria, Crude oil, Structural break Approach, Economy




Corruption and Democracy: A Reflection on the Nigerian Case


Yusuf Abdullahi

School of General Studies, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi



The Nigerian State has been a victim of high-level corruption in the comity of nations. Corruption has become more persistent since the country rejoined another train of civil rule in May, 1999 after long years of military rule. The jubilations, hopes, and outlooks which accompanied the re-democratization of the country since May, 1999 have been upset by bad governance, characterized by weak and/or lack performance, policy failures and, above ali, systemic corruption. Against this background, the paper examines corruption as all open disease of democracy in the country The paper employs qualitative method through the use of secondary (library) and primary (interview) source of data. The data were descriptively analyzed through details of the information gathered from the documentary sources and interviews. The paper therefore finds that Nigeria’s democracy-without any doubt has been facing overwhelming/flimsy challenges of corrupt practices in all aspect of the nation’s economy. Thus, all efforts put in piece,by the various successive governments to eradicate or curb the virus/disease corruption in Nigeria proved doubtful.

Keyword: Corruption, Democracy, Governance, and Challenges




Effects of Conflict Management on Organizational Performance (A Study of Broadcasting Corporation of Abia State)


Dr. Melletus Uchechukwu Agbo

Department of Business Administration, College of Management Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.



The study examined the effect of conflict management on organizational performance with reference to Broadcasting Corporation of Abia state. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. Sampling random sampling technique was adopted in analyzing eighty-five (85) questionnaire distributed with the help of SPSS package. Findings indicated that conflict management had a positive and significant relationship with organizational performance. Motivational packages adopted by the organization had the potential to positively influence the organization’s workforce when given the adequate attention it deserves. The study therefore concluded that organizational performance was enhanced when the organization maintained an acceptable level of conflict resolution in the work environment that help to coordinate and control the activities of the organization. The study thus recommended among others that; i) Adequate conflict resolution mechanism is recommended to be set up and maintained in order to serve as a catalyst to reduce accumulated grievance and trigger employees to better performance. ii) Strategic considerations on personnel competency is recommended as the benchmark for selecting conflict management parties. Finally, there is a need to continuously educate the workforce on the best way to channel their grievances. This is to ensure that the employees do not take laws into their hands.

Keyword: Conflict Management, Organizational Performance, Broadcasting Corporation.




An Overlook of Sources and Strategies of Minimising Lead Poisoning in Nigeria


Mohd Aliyu Mahuta

Chemistry, Adamu Augie College of Education, Argungu, Kebbi State, Nigeria



Lead is a useful metal that had been utilised for thousands of years but the lead metal is a dangerous poison when it is accidentally inhaled or ingested beyond the minimum level. This paper  therefore extensively examines the various sources of Lead poisoning which include cultural usage of lead, lead pipes and drinking water, lead in paints, lead and occupations, gasoline lead exhaust wastes, lead in human/animal foods, and lead from industries and mines. The paper thereafter outlined the strategies of minimising the lead poisoning from the family roles, increased cleanliness and avoidance of domestic sources of Lead exposure to wider governmental roles of monitoring and regulating of public drinking waters, foods, public environment, leaded gasoline, leaded paints and finally medication of lead poison victims and relocation of extremely lead exposures resident communities. Incidences of Zamfara State Lead poisoning must be eliminated if the nation is to achieve sustainable development goals.

Keyword: Lead Poisoning, Sources, Elimination/Minimising




The Concept of Extraterritorial Jurisdiction in International Economic Law: An Appraisal


Usman Bappah, Darazo,

General Studies Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State



This paper appraises extra-territorial jurisdiction in the realm of international economic law.  jurisdiction concerns the power of the state under international law” to impact or regulate people, property and circumstances and reflects the basic principles of state sovereignty, non interference in domestic affairs and equality of states. Jurisdiction is an exercise of authority which may change, terminate or create legal relationships and obligation; and is achievable through judicial executive or legislative action.  Although there has never been a universally accepted conception of what constitutes extraterritorial exercise of jurisdiction, extraterritorial exercise of  jurisdiction can be defined to mean an application of law by a state to a foreign national’s conduct, the whole or part of which is engaged outside the territory of that state. The paper examined some Nigeria legislations with provisions, having the taste of extraterritorial jurisdiction. Various types of jurisdictions and instances of the exercise of such jurisdictions were extensively discussed.

Keyword: Extraterritorial, Concept, International, Appraisal, Jurisdiction, Economic Law.




Impact of MSME Output, Unemployment, and Inflation on Importation in Nigeria


Isere Victoria Oshuare Merab and Al-Hassan Abdul Kadiri Aigbona

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of General Studies, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi.



The impact of private sector contributions to the sustenance of economies is not in doubt; from the developed to the developing world the impact is immense.  In a bid to improve businesses, most developing countries resort to the importation of capital goods to aid or improve production. Importation is seen therefore as necessary for the economic development of countries. This paper empirically examined the impact of SME growth, inflation rate and unemployment on imports in the Nigerian economy between 1981 and 2018.  The study used secondary annual time series data.  Imports was the dependent variable while MSME output, unemployment and inflation were the independent variable.    The stationarity of the variables was tested using the Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test.  The ARDL bounds test procedure was used to establish the long run relationship among the variables of interest.  The paper reveal that MSME output had a positive significant impact on Imports; unemployment had a negative significant impact on imports while inflation had no significant impact on imports.  The paper recommends that further growth in MSME output can be enhanced if government monitors imports to ensure that imports are only on manufacturing inputs and not on consumer goods that can be produced locally.  Overtime the volume of these imports should reduce too. Imports from within African should be encouraged as this can help Nigeria reduce inflation caused by the fall in local currency value.

Keyword: unemployment, inflation, MSMEs, imports, Nigeria




Capital Market – Nature, Types, Sources and Securities: A Review of Literatures


Okpe Gabriel1, Oleabhiele Ernest Paul2 & Gregory E. Igiba3

1&2Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. 3Department of Business Administration, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



The capital market is a highly specialized and organized financial market and indeed essential agent of economic growth because of its ability to facilitate and mobilize saving and investment. To a great extent, the positive relationship between capital accumulation real economic growths has long affirmed in economic theories (Ayanwu,1997). Success in capital accumulation and mobilization for development varies among nation, but it is largely dependent on domestic savings and inflows of foreign capital. Therefore, to arrest the menace of the current economic downturn, effort must be geared towards effective resources mobilization. It is in realization of this that consideration is given to the measurement of the development of capital market as an institution for the mobilization of finance from the surplus sectors to the deficit sectors.

Keyword: Capital market, economic growth, development, savings and financial mobilization.




The Effect of Parenting Style on Children’s Involvement in Cyber Crime


1 Nonum Ernest Oyemndu, 2 Nwankwo Obinna Gilbert

1&2Dept. of Intelligence and Security Studies (Cyber Crime and Information Security Option), Novena University Ogume, Delta State, Nigeria.



Children in particular have increased access to ICTs and, in recent decades, have tended to adopt these technologies from an early age, result  ing in ICTs becoming thoroughly embedded in their lives. However, they have also been involved in cybercrime. This study aimed at investigating the attitude of parents as well as the effects of parentage on cybercrime among children in Abraka community,  Delta State. The research design used for this study is the survey design, using simple random sampling method. A Likert scaled structured questionnaire was administered to 173 randomly selected parents in Abraka community. The reliability of the instrument was tested using Cronbach’s alpha () for estimating the internal consistency of an instrument. The parenting style instrument has a reliability index of 0.70, while the parental involvement in child’s internet has a reliability index of 0.86. The cybercrime instrument has a reliability index of 0.79. The data obtained from the questionnaire was collated and analyzed using the descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The Data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 23. The results showed that the result obtained showed that most parents frown at the cybercrime involvement of their children. Parents who are authoritarians, the mean score of cybercrimes is 1.63 indicating that most parents from these group will not tolerate cybercrimes. As for the parents that are authoritative, the mean score is 1.62 indicating that they have fewer children who are involved in cybercrimes. But for the permissive parent (1.54) and uninvolved parents (1.42), the mean scores for the cybercrime is low indicating that majority of the young ones involved in cybercrime may likely come from such home where they are either allowed to do whatever they want or the parents don’t care at all how the child lives his/her life. There was a significant difference in the children involvement in cybercrime based on their parenting styles (F (3, 153) = 4.216, ρ = 0.007). Cybercrime involvement among children differ significantly between the Authoritarian and uninvolved parent (0.21, ρ= 0.002); was significant different between the authoritative and uninvolved parent (0.21, ρ=0.02). The parents in Abraka, should be enlightened on the legal consequence of cyber-crime. Parents in the homes where authoritative, permissive and involvement parenting is practiced should be encouraged to be more committed to involvement in their children’s use of internet.

Keyword: parenting style, authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, cybercrime, involvement




Using Mathematical Model To Assess The Impact Of Vaccination Of Measles


1Umar Saidu Bashir and 2Bashir Sule

1Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria. 2Department of Mathematical Sciences, Federal University Dutsin-ma, Katsina State, Nigeria. 



This paper presents mathematical model to investigate the declination of measles due to vaccination. The primary aim of this study is to increase global understanding and ability to prevent death and illness due to measles. We employed an SEVIR model which includes; susceptible, exposed, vaccinated, infected and recovered compartments. Stability analysis for Disease Free Equilibrium and Epidemic Equilibrium have been carried out to evaluate the impact of the vaccination method of control. We finally recommended that Immunization organisations in collaboration with government ought to reinforce routine vaccination system and effort should be intensified towards decreasing the level of contact rate.

Keyword: Mathematical model, infectious, reproduction number, disease free equilibrium, epidemic, measles.




Mediating Effect of Organisational Culture in the Relationship between Motivation and Employee Job Satisfaction in Gombe State University and MAUTECH Yola


*Ibrahim Ahmed; **Abdul-Aziz Muhammad Bobbori; and *Yemen Yohanna

*Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Gombe State University, Gombe-Nigeria **Fidelity Bank, New Commercial Area, Gombe-Nigeri.



As organizations grow, they tend to face more challenges. These challenges have, therefore, created the need to change the organization’s culture to be more supportive to their employees. This study aimed to examine the mediating effect of organizational culture on the relationship between motivation and employee job satisfaction. Survey method employed and personal interviews. Study population at MAUTECH is1459 staff and at GSU 1097 staff consisting of all academic and non-academic staff with sample size of 345 determined using Yamani Yaro formula. Questionnaire used to collect data from the respondent which was analysed using percentage analysis. Pearson correlation and regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses at 5% level of significance. Results revealed positive relationship existing between variables, (r-value of 0.840, 0.891, 0.941 < 0.05). This shows that there is relationship between employee motivation, organizational culture and job satisfaction. And that the management style practiced in the institutions is not characterised by security of employment, conformity, predictability, and stability in relationship. The study therefore, recommends that there is need for the principal officers of the selected institutions to develop good management style in the institutions to ensure security of employment, conformity, predictability, and stability in relationship. Employees should also be willing to stick their necks out to ensure organizational objectives are achieved.

Keyword: Organization, Culture, Motivation, Employee and Satisfaction




Relationship between Work-Life Balance and Employees Performance


Ndife, Chinelo Franca (Ph.D)

Department of Business Administration, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria



This research was a survey which elicited opinions of staff of selected private schools in Anambra State, Nigeria. The simple random sampling method was used to obtain the sample units. The study selected at random 500 teachers from 25 selected private schools in Anambra State. The convenience sampling method was used to select the school due to ease in accessing them. The simple random sampling method was then used to obtain the sample units. The primary source of data sourced was used in the study. The Spearman’s rank correlation was used in testing the required hypotheses at 5% level of significance. The results revealed a significant positive relationship between work-life balance and employees’ timely and effective decision making. It was also found that work-life balance has significant positive relationship with employees’ problem solving skills. The result also shows that there is no significant relationship between work-life balance and employees’ productivity. These lead to the conclusion that not all aspects of employees’ performance have significant relationship with work-life balance. Based on the findings in this study, it is recommended that organizations, private schools in particular should strike a work-life balance for improved decision making, productivity and problem solving skills. Organizations should also create a robust and flexible working routines so that employees can have time to attend to family and other non-job tasks.

Keyword: Work-life, decision making, performance, employees’ productivity




Assessing Violent Extremism and Radicalisation of Boko Haram  Insurgency in Northeastern Nigeria


*Usman Isa & **Sani Ibrahim Bawalle

*Department of Public Administration, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola **Department of Registry, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola.



The research work  focus on the evolution of insurgency and terrorist activities of the Boko Haram insurgency in North Easestern Nigeria, the study highlights the menace of insurgency on politics, economy and socio-cultural settings. The data gathering process was adopted and derived mainly from primary source. Questinnaire, interview and focus group discssion were conducted and the data collected was analysed using both descriptive vand inferential statistics. Findings of the study clearly revealed that radicalisation and recruitment of Insurgents in the northeastern part of nigeria is mainly influenceed from within the country even thouhg there are others who believed it has foreign influence. Findings also shows a significant relationship between government efforts towards curbing the menise of the insurgency and excalation of insurgents’ activities in the region. It can therefore be concluded that if government double it efforts, insurgency can be curtail and peace would return to the region. Based on the findings of the study the following we recommend that governments at both state and federal levels should intensify effort to bring insurgency to end by scalling up their efforts. Government should also come up with policy toward the attitudinal change among people living the region in order to reduce their chances of being radicalised. This research however, attempt with utmost neutrality to bridge gap and come up with policy options and open future research on curbing terrorist and insurgent recruitment and radicalization process.

Keyword: Violent, Extremism, Radicalization, Insurgency, Boko Haram.




Information Communication Technology (ICT) and BBC Received Pronunciation: Focus on English as Second Language (ESL) Learners in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions.


Oluchi Nwodim , J.

Liberal Studies Department, School of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State.



Pronunciation exercises can be quite difficult especially for ESL learners. But if we take out everything difficult from language teaching and learning, we may end up doing very little beyond getting students to play simple communication games. Obviously noticed are the predicaments threatening pronunciation proficiency for ESL learner in Nigeria tertiary institutions. The problems regarding pronunciation have attracted academic contributions from linguists globally. This article adding to their voices explains the differences between first language (L1) and second language (L2) around theories; identifies the pronunciation problems ESL learners face in Nigeria tertiary institutions; explores (ICT) as an effective tool for learning pronunciation in English as second language – causes of pronunciation problems as well suggests teacher/ learner pedagogical  commitments to assuage the problems so that learners can attain proficiency level in English pronunciation.

Keyword: Pronunciation, English, ICT, BBC, Technology




The Role of the Administrator in Policy Development and Implementation in Nigeria


*Aligbe, B. Abdullah Ph.D **Momoh, M.Mariam

*Department of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo state, Nigeria **Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria



This paper attempts a critical elucidation of the dynamics of administrative contributions in policy development and implementation in Nigerian federal system along the lines of inter and intragovernmental relations. It applies a descriptive research method to ventilate the views of varied scholars on the key issues affecting policy development and implementation in Nigeria federal system. The paper observes that there are inconsistencies in development policy formulation and implementation amongst the different organs and levels of government in Nigeria, the paper believes that the non-inclusion of the administrator has been the missing link. The current situation where the federal government is a towering overlord over the constituent states needs re-examination and possible realignment. In spite of this, the paper maintains that there is still hope for the consolidation of Nigeria’s federalism through effective policy formulation, implementation, evaluation, communication, and feedback mechanism which are the hallmark of an astute and seasoned administrator. The paper recommends the inclusion of the administrator in the mobilization of adequate resources for effective policy actions.

Keyword: Role, Administrator, Policy development, Implementation, Nigeria




Relationship among Staff Development, Staff Performance and Students’ Academic Performance in Senior Secondary Schools of Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria


*Mustapha A. Baba IBI; **Grace Ify Okafor; and *Ibrahim Sale Bali

*Department of Educational Foundations, Taraba State University, Jalingo. **Department of Education, University of Maiduguri.



The study examines the relationship between staff development, staff performance and students’ academic performance in SSCE in Maiduguri metropolis Secondary Schools. Three objectives and hypotheses were set and tested. The study used a correlational design with the population of 3,319 teaching staff and 86,295 students. 980 staff were randomly selected across the sampled 13 Senior Secondary Schools in Maiduguri Metropolis. Questionnaire was used to collect information from the teaching staff while proforma was used to collect data on students’ academic performance in SSCE for 2010 – 2012. The instrument was validated by experts in Education Department. Pearson Product Moment Correlation were used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 significant level. The findings revealed that teaching staff development and performance had significant positive relationship with the students’ academic performance. The implication of the findings was that students’ academic performance cannot be determined with a single factor of staff developments alone, but may be determined by the extent to which a combination of the teaching staff development and performance to be persistent. Based on this study, it was recommended among others that creating a conducive atmosphere for teaching and learning and updating teachers through capacity building would improve on teaching skills, knowledge and efficiency.

Keyword: Staff Development, Staff Performance, Students’ Academic Performance




Decay and Challenges of Traditional Cults in the 21st Century Nigeria


FolaBalogun, Morenike

Faculty of Humanities, Management and Social Sciences, School of Visual and Performing Arts, Department  of Creative Arts and Tourism (Art History Unit), Kwara State University, Malete



Nigeria before the 21st century relied solely on traditional cults for its day to day events, policing, information dissemination, control of ancestral worship and initiation. The geographical ethnic cults taught the norms, values, beliefs, myths and morals to their society. In the 21st century the role of traditional cults was paling out and giving way to modern cults. Modern cults have directly and indirectly affected the beliefs, myths, norms, values, religion, education and cultural values in Nigeria. The positive significance has weaned out, but it is an area where many weaknesses are observed, yet it forms an important cultural foundation of the past. This study therefore investigated the characteristics of traditional and modern cults in Nigeria, and the challenges associated with the cults in the 21st century. The study’s scope is narrowed down to Nigeria. Methodology adopted for this write up is qualitative which includes; non-participant observation, relics, interviews, historical, literary texts, Internet resources and oral tradition.

Keyword: Cult, Challenges, Modern, Nigeria, Traditional.



Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *