Hummingbird Journal of Environmental Design & Construction Managt. (HUJECM) Vol.19 (4) December, 2019

Hummingbird Journal of Environmental Design & Construction Management (HUJECM)

Vol. 19 (4) December, 2019. ISSN: 2278-8892

Published by: Hummingbird Publications and Research International,

Centre for Trans-Saharan Studies, University of Maiduguri, UNIMAID,

Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

E-MAIL: PHONE: +234-802-5604-997


Indigenous Knowledge of Integrated Soil Fertility Management in Kafanchan and its Environs, Jema’a Local Government, Kaduna State, Nigeria.


*Magaji J.Y. And **Shat A.T.

*Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Abuja **Department of Environmental Management, Kaduna State University.



This paper is titled “Indigenous Knowledge of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) in Kafanchan and its environs” it is aimed at investigating the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents, indigenous ways of determining soil fertility and land suitability and soil fertility management. The Stratified and Random Sampling techniques were adopted in selecting the sampled respondents. A sample size of 313 was determined by applying the Krejcie & Morgan, (1970) formula for determination of sample size of a given population. Questionnaire and few oral interview were used in sourcing for the information. The collected data was analysed using the Statistical Package of Social Science. The Results show that 28.8% of the respondents are mainly farmers and the remaining 71.2% have one form of occupation or the other including farming. Virtually every body farms, hence the need for ISFM in the area. Results also show that farmers’ soil classification was mainly based on soil colour and texture observation and slope position was used as the determining factor for land suitability. Crop yield, crop appearance, natural vegetation, soil colour and texture were used to estimate soil fertility. The management strategies mostly adopted in the study area were crop rotation, application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. It is then concluded that Indigenous Knowledge of ISFM is rather subjective when compared with the commonly obtained scientific knowledge. This was evident in farmers’ soil classification which only takes into account the soil colour and the way they perceived and assessed soil fertility. Farmers’ fertility indicators and soil taxonomy are based only on visible soil and crop properties. The results show that only 32.3% of the respondents with a mean score response of 112.8, a standard deviation of 313.1 and coefficient of variation 277.6 attempted to integrate their soil fertility management. This implies that their knowledge of ISFM is very low, following the state of technology and the pressure on land resources. It is therefore recommended that, the Ministry of Agriculture in conjunction with Research Institutes should availed Agricultural Extension Officers to the field in order to educate the local farmers on the more scientific ways of integrated Soil Fertility Management for Sustainable Crop Production and Food Security.

Keyword: Indigenous knowledge, Integrated, Soil fertility management, organic and Inorganic fertilizers.  




Morphometric Characteristics of River Chanchaga Using Hydrological (Rainfall) Variable, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria


Yunusa & Abdulkadir Nasiru

Geography Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna.



The river Chanchaga is understood to be characterized by hydrologic and geomorphologic problems such as erosion and flooding. Though studies on Morphometric characteristics of rivers exist in Nigeria generally, not much exist about this study area. Therefore evaluating the morphometric characteristic of River Chanchaga was necessary. To achieve this, secondary and primary of data collection such as rainfall data, questionnaire administration and reconnaissance survey were undertaken. The finding revealed that entire length of river Chanchaga is a constant variable, 15km of the river downstream from the bridge was evaluated. It was ascertained that the relationship between the width and depth of the river varies from one point to another. In determining the relationship between morphometric characteristics and hydrological (rainfall), it was ascertained that an increase in rainfall amount also leads to a proportional increase in the depth and width of River Chanchaga. Therefore this evaluation is an essential tool in the river analysis in terms of planning to develop a better water usage mechanism adequate water supply and water conservation for sustainability.

Keyword: River Chanchaga, Rainfall, Morphometric characteristics.




Incorporating Entrepreneurship as a New Paradigm in Art Pedagogy in Nigerian Tertiary Institution Programs


Tijani Iyabo Khadijah PhD.

Art Pedagogy Section, Department of Fine Arts, Faculty of Environmental Design, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.



Entrepreneurship education is important to students of tertiary institutions because they are expected to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes that would enable them become self-reliant and adapt to changing needs of the society due to globalization and integration processes. Education is readily accepted as the instrument that aids societal development in all climes of the world. However the success of the objective of education requires that the people saddled with the responsibility of bringing education to the people must be forthright and loyal. The Nigerian education is riddled with all sorts of myriads of problem which has led to the downfall of the quality of education being delivered in the country. To ameliorate this problem entrepreneurship education is being proffered and Art pedagogy will do better to incorporate this advantage into its paradigms. This study sought to find out the best modality to adopt to incorporate entrepreneurship as a paradigm into the teaching and learning of Art Pedagogy. Literature review was done using available online materials and several libraries were consulted. It was found among others that the Nigerian education is suffering from poor funding and thus poor educational infrastructures, inadequate classrooms, teaching aids (projectors, Computers, Laboratories and libraries), paucity of quality teachers and poor / polluted learning environment. The developments of entrepreneurial skills in Art Pedagogy is considered an avenue to increase the supply of future entrepreneurs in Nigeria so as to alleviate poverty, reduce unemployment, establish new enterprises and reduce the possible failure rate of existing businesses. All of these are key instrument for entrepreneurship education to take place adequately. It is recommended that Government need to encourage entrepreneurship education by improving and making available an enabling environment because what is needed in the country today are improving the skills and knowledge of entrepreneurs through various trainings and classroom programs.   

Keyword: Art Pedagogy, Entrepreneurship, Paradigm, Nigeria Tertiary Institution, Incorporating




Assessment of the Industry Performance of Real Estate Graduates in North-Central Nigeria.


Hamza, Abdullahi Na’uzo1 Jaafaru, Ibrahim Akibu2 Zakari, Dodo Usman3

1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal University of Technology Minna. 2Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal University of Technology Minna. 3Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru.



The paper assessed the industry performance of Real Estate graduates in their first job in north-central Nigeria with a view to examine the performance and those areas where the graduates performs best in relation to the real estate area of specialisation. The Performance of real estate professionals at the industry is a key element in testing graduates’ achievements. It requires real estate graduates to demonstrate knowledge and skills as well as prove the achieved higher education standards. Performance over the years have been on the shortfall and leaving many graduates jobless, this is what the study seeks to assess and visualise then real estate graduate’s performance in their place of work. The study was carried out in north-central Nigeria, utilized both primary and secondary data, a descriptive method (Mean Item Score) and the sampled opinion was ranked, a reliability test was also run using the Likert scale. The results of descriptive analysis across the sampled opinion was shown. The study reveals that, real estate graduates in north-central Nigeria performs relatively good in their place of work and performs best in the area of Feasibility and Viability studies and valuation, followed by the development appraisal. The study recommends that, the academics and the practitioners should linkup and visualise the gaps between what is been taught and what is required in the industry to better the performance of real estate graduates.

Keyword: Analysis, Real Estate, Performance, Practitioners, Likert scale.




Introduction Tidal Analysis and Prediction Based on Harmonic MoDEL at Lagos Harbour using   U-TAPS


Auwal Garba Abubakar *1,2. Abubakar Alhaji Umar2 and Mohammed Nanoh Bello2

1, Department of Geomatic Engineering Faculty of Build Environment, University Technology Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malayisa. 2, Department of Surveying and Geo-Informatics, college of Environmental Studies, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria.



The conventionally harmonic analysis is usually used to predict a tide, the amplitude and frequencies are determined from an analysis of measured sea level tide gauge which is a superposition of many sinusoidal constituents known as tidal constituent. Mostly long-term measurement of at least 6 months to 18.6 years are needed and analyzed to form an accurate tidal prediction by using the method of harmonic analysis. This paper presents the method of harmonic analysis for the tidal level records from Lagos Harbour tide gauge station located at the South west of Nigeria. The result obtained from the validation shows that long time water level data that was used is enough to produce an accurate tidal prediction, but the new version of   the UTAPS need to be produce to meet up with the current state of the art.

Keyword: Tides, Harmonic Analysis, Tidal Prediction, Tidal Constituent, Harbor




Impact of Social Media Usage on Performance of Small and Medium Construction Businesses (Smcbs): A Conceptual Framework


Olorunyomi, Seth Olufemi1 and Oyewobi, Luqman Oyekunle2

1,2Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State.



Many small and medium construction businesses are currently building and keeping social media pages in order for their enterprises to be visible to the public to improve their social interaction, promote business interest, build trust and relationships with their targeted audience on social media. The growth as well as the usage of social media amongst organizations cannot be overemphasised. However, there is no any known research that has investigated the impact of social media usage on the performance of SMCBs in Nigeria. This paper adopts desktop research approach which affords the researcher opportunity to obtain basic information that can be used as benchmark in process of further research. Therefore, the paper presents a literature review of past studies relating to impact of social media usage on business with specific attention on the construction organisation. The research approach assists in identifying constructs that reveals three aspects of organisation’s physiognomies that impact the process of espousing, implementing and using technological innovations in conducting businesses. Literature findings on the relationship between these constructs form the basis for the development of a conceptual framework that will serve as foundation for further empirical research targeted at quantitatively indicating the nature of relationship that exists among the constructs and their combine impact on construction business performance in the context of the Nigerian construction industry.

Keyword: Business performance, Social media, Construction industry, Technology and Business environment




Introduction Use of Wood Ash from Bread Bakery as Partial Replacement for Cement in Concrete


Gana A.J, Atoyebi O. D. & Akinbola O. D.

Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Landmark University Omu-Aran, Kwara State.



A large amount of wastes produced in the process of using wood as a source of combustion fuel in bread bakeries across the nation provides challenging opportunities for the use of wood waste as a construction material, this will not only have a good environmental impact, it will also reduce the cost of construction. In this research, wood ash from bread bakery of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight of cement was added as a supplement to a concrete of mix proportion 1:2:4:0.5 (cement:sand:coarse aggregate:water-cement ratio) and the slump, compaction factor, compressive strength and split tensile strength were evaluated. The results of the experiments showed that with increasing wood ash content workability of the concrete increases. The compressive strength of wood ash concrete increases with the curing period and decreases with increasing wood ash content. There was a sharp decrease in compressive strength beyond 10% wood ash substitution. The split tensile strength at 15% replacement showed relatively high strength when compared to that of the control specimen (0%).  It was concluded that a range of 10% to 15% of wood ash substitution is adequate for use in structural concrete.

Keyword: Wood , Ash, Bread Bakery, Partial, Replacement, Cement , Concrete




Evaluation of the Effect of Flooding on Danchitagi Community of Lavun Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria


Emigilati 1 Abdulkadir Nasiru 2

Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna – Niger State, Nigeria.



Niger State and precisely Danchitagi community in Lavun Local Government Area will continue to labour under the pains of flood disaster unless there is a radical approach to avert the disaster. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of flooding on Danchitagi community in Lavun Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria. The researcher randomly distributed 355 household questionnaires while the instrument of in-depth interviews schedule was administered to the respondents. Frequency percentage statistics was utilized for data analysis and presentation. The finding shows that 193 (54.4%) of the respondents believed that the main cause of flood in the study area is from heavy rainfall, 148 (41.7%) of the respondents agreed that the main cause of flooding is due to flood plain development, poor drainage system ranked third with 13 (3.7%) of the respondents and blockage in the drainage ranked the least with one respondent. The results also shows that about 341 (96.1%) of the respondents said that their farmlands were being affected by flood while 14 (3.9%) said their farmlands were not being affected by flood since their farmlands were located far away from flood plain. Loss of crops on the farmland ranked the highest with 247 (72.4%) of the respondents, loss of livestock ranked second with 61 (17.9%) of the respondents and wash away of un-mature crops ranked the least with 33 (9.7%) of the respondents. In general, a greater proportion (66.8%) of these buildings observed less than 5 meters setback to the river channel, followed by 24.9% building within 6m to 10m and 11m to 20m record the least setback. Specifically, 91.7% of the buildings have a setback of less than 10 meters. It’s therefore recommended that flood monitoring and management in Danchitagi community should be encouraged and funded by both Lavun and Niger State Government and non-governmental agencies.

Keyword: Danchitagi community, Flooding, farmland and Lavun




Post-Occupancy Evaluation of the Staff Quarters of Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State


Yisa, Gloria G. & Prof. M. B., Nuhu

Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal University of Technology Minna.



This study aim at evaluating the staff quarters of the Federal Polytechnic Bida, using Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) as a tool the researcher achieved the following objectives; Identified the facilities provided in the staff quarters of Federal Polytechnics Bida, Assessed the performance level of the existing staff quarters of the Federal Polytechnics Bida, Evaluated the levels of users’ satisfaction in terms of design and functionality and Examined the correlation between the level of building performance and the users’ satisfaction. Sixty-two (62) questionnaires were distributed to the residents of The Federal Polytechnic staff quarters made up of 4, 3, and 2 housing units A total of forty-seven (47) questionnaires were returned representing a response rate of 76%. The data was gathered by the use of questionnaire and observation schedule and the SPSS software was used to analyze the results. The research concludes that through post occupancy evaluation (POE) The Federal Polytechnic staff quarters gives the occupants a high level of satisfaction and POE offers a valuable methodology for analyzing the performance of buildings in general, particularly the tertiary institutional buildings like Federal Polytechnic Bida in Niger State. The study recommends that Post Occupancy Evaluation of the facilities in Federal polytechnics Bida be conducted to determine the adequacy and state of the facilities for maintenance and improvement where necessary. The research also recommend that the Federal Polytechnic should carry out post occupancy evaluation for all the facilities in the polytechnic before carry out a development of similar design or use. Result gotten from the physical observation and walkthrough survey show that due to lack of landscaping in the staff quarters there are a lot of grasses and unregulated agricultural activities around and too close to the apartments this can breed reptiles in the quarters

Keyword: Evaluation, Post Occupancy, Facilities, Institution, Users Satisfaction.




Sociology through Visual Art: Using Organic Vestiges as Media for Social Commentary in Painting


Nadama Mustapha Garba. PhD

Department of Fine Art, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria



The study is a qualitative research that adopted the Practice-based research design, which drew its conceptual framework form the Conceptual Art of the Postmodernist era. This form of art practice encourages the use of alternative media and breaking away from the norms of conventional art practice. It concerns are vested more in the intellectual approach of artmaking rather than the aesthetics. The research explored alternative media for the presentation of social commentary. One of the objectives of this study is to identify organic vestiges that would be used to highlight some social ills within society. Although it did not try to measure the response of the viewers to the artworks created during the study, it borrowed aspects of sociology in trying act as a means of change within the society by raising awareness about social ill. The social ills that formed the subject matter for this study are Child Begging Almajiranci and Corruption in the Nigerian. The study shows the possibilities of making statements with emphasis on the subject matter rather than the aesthetic appearance. The installations spurred the viewers towards discussions about the content and context of the artworks. It further found that the appropriations of symbols for the creation of social commentary in artworks ensures simplicity and clarity.

Keyword: Postmodernism, Conceptual Art, Installations, Social Commentary, Organic, Vestiges, Aesthetics




The Effects and Challenges of Ephemeral Artworks on Sculptural Monuments in Kano Roundabouts


Adedokun, Samson Adedigba and Eseyin, Maye Joel

Department of Fine and Applied Arts, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria



It is observed that several monuments in the city of Kano depict cultural heritage, sculptural pieces of Hausa-Fulani tradition. Four of them were considered for this study, Silver Jubilee, Kwarya Fai’ Fai, Commune of Elders and Sabo Bakin Zuwo and two out of them has been removed only one is being sustained which is Silver Jubilee. These are monuments auspicious to self-reliant and exposes people to various entrepreneurship skills that reduce unemployment among the youths particularly women. Several of these monuments represent traditional foods and drinks, symbols of unity and authority. But it is unfortunate that these monuments have to give ways for infrastructural development through the expansion of roads and construction of overhead bridges since the population of road users increase daily in the cosmopolitan cities of Kano. The removal of concrete monuments give room for display of ephemeral artworks in some junctions. These had turned to challenges that strongly undercut local manufacturing tradition. The present display artworks are banners of political campaign of last election and stewardship of the Governor Abdullaih Ganduje which are becoming hidden place for tout. The size of several of them block the faces of road users as a result of wearing out of the banners. The paper observes that the place of billboards and banners for advertising is not roundabout, rather than expressway. In a nutshell, those removed monuments should be replaced with modern forms or send them to a particular garden or keep them in museum for coming generation to learn from it. The paper discusses the forms and contents of these four monuments and observes that change of names of some roundabout had occurred as a result of infrastructural development. The paper concludes that adequate attention should be given to monuments that speaks about the art and culture of a society and the beauty it accorded to the appearance of city like Kano. These should not be truncated for any infrastructure, rather elevates it standard if properly planned.

Keyword: Glocalization, Ephemeral Art, Architecture/Monumental and Sculpture




Architectural and Related Factors Which Affect Worshippers Attraction to Campus Mosque; a Case Study of the Faculty of Environmental Design Musallah, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria


Babangida, & B.B. Musa

Department of Architecture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State Nigeria.



The Musallah is a mosque which specifically refers to a place or space dedicated for the observance of the Muslims five daily prayers (Khamsu Salawat) found in various locations such as residential neighborhoods, places of work and institutions.  While many factors could be attributed to worshipper’s attraction towards a particular Musallah over others in these places, this paper investigates the role of Architectural and other related factors which affect worshipper’s attraction towards a particular Musallah by using the Faculty of environmental design Musallah in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria as a case study. The data for the study were collected through a questionnaire survey, interviews with worshippers and documentation of physical characteristics of case study Musallah. Analysis of data was undertaken to calculate the Level of Attraction (LA) among worshippers and Relative Attraction Index (RAI) of measure factors. The results of the analysis indicated that closeness to office/department has the highest level of attraction with LA score of 24. 7% followed by availability of water (23.6%). Similarly, the results of RAI the further confirmed ‘closeness to my office/classroom/studio’ (with RAI value of 0.87) as the element which has the highest contribution to worshipper’s attraction to the Musallah.  Overall, therefore, for worshippers to be attracted to campus Musallah, distances between offices, classrooms or studios to the Musallah should be as short as design standards allow. The practical implication of this study is for architects and campus planners to identify and strategically locate Musallah in spaces and places where staff and students interact formally such as libraries or close to the academic areas within university campuses.

Keyword: Architectural Design, Musallah, Attraction, Staff, Students




Appraisal of Project Delays in Tertiary Institutions Niger State


1Isyaku, Landan Mohaamed, 2Dr Kasimu, Mohammed   3Yandalu, Mohammed Manko

1Department of Quantity Surveying Federal University of Technology, Minna. 2&1Department of Quantity Surveying Federal polytechnic Bida 3&4Department of Quantity Surveying, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Niger State.



Development of economy in every nation is based on construction projects undertaken through several types of contracts. However, construction industry is suffering from delay phenomenon. The causes and effects of delay in construction projects seem critical and if not handled appropriately, it could result to wastage and less utilization of resources. This has contributed to negative impact on stakeholders in the construction industry. This research aims to appraise the main causes and effects of delay on tertiary institution construction projects with a view to minimizing its causes and improve project delivery, examine the factors responsible for project delay in tertiary institution in Niger state. However,150 structured questionnaire were distributed to the following  professionals in the construction industry: ( Architect, Quantity surveyor, Project manager, contractor and civil engineer ) and 135 were  retrieved for computation of the result and discussion. Several analyses such as mean, ranking, correlation, t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA), were used to analyze the data. The result shows that insufficient funding, non payment of completed works, cash flow problem during construction and interference with project performance are the major factors that causes delay in tertiary institutions construction project. The mitigation measures in their order of importance are: use of appropriate construction method, systematic control mechanisms, proper emphasis on the past experience and developing human resources in the construction industry. The research also concludes that the major effects of construction delay are abandonment of the building projects, adequate planning, variation of project scope, incompetent project manager and delay in progress payment by the clients. Furthermore, the research also conclude, that there between is a positive relationship between client related factor and all other related factors that causes delays. However, the research recommended that appropriate construction method and systematic control mechanism should be use appropriately for effective management of construction project in addition, an effective strategies management approach should be adopted at the top management of construction industry. through proper planning and scheduling.

Keyword: Construction Industry, Niger State, Phenomenon, Project Delays, Stakeholders.




Assessment of Challenges of TQM Implementation in the Maintenance of Tertiary Institution Buildings


Muhammmad Umar Santali, And Bashir O. Ganiyu

Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology, Minna



Total Quality Management (TQM) is inevitably common factor that will shape the strategies of higher educational institutions in their attempt to satisfy various stakeholders including students, parents, industry and society as a whole. Countries quality management research and implementation are at a more developed stage relative to other countries or regions especially Africa, and the Middle East and can invariably be due to lack of information about the nature and stage of quality management practices in these regions. It is on this basis the study examine the factors affecting the implementation of TQM in Minna, Nigeria. the employed simple random sampling techniques to select professional management staff through closed ended questionnaires. The study utilized descriptive analysis through relative important index, the result showed that Lack of vision within the maintenance department  and lack of worker  participatory in policies formulation were major factor influencing the implementation of TQM application. The study concludes that careful application of TQM is fundamental to sustainable maintenance of tertiary institution building.

Keyword: Implementation, Challenges, Assessment, Maintenance, Building,




Assessment of Risk and Return on Residential Property Investment in Kano, Nigeria.

Zakari Usman Dodo1, Rukayyat Adeola Ogunbajo (PhD)2 and Musa Bawa3

1&2Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal University of Technology Minna. 3Department of Building Technology, Niger State Polytechnic Zungeru.



The paper assess risk and return on residential property market in Kano with a view to examine the trend in returns of residential property investment types and the risk-return in relation to residential property investment. Residential property investment return in Kano has been influenced by several risk factors which affect the property market and the economy, Kano has been chosen for this study because is the commercial city of northern Nigeria and due to the inflow of people the residential housing infrastructure is growing.  The study utilized descriptive (standard deviation, viariance, coefficient of variation) and inferential method (ANOVA). The results of descriptive analysis across the five markets showed. The properties sampled are 2Bedroom, 3Bedroom and 4Bedroom which showed that Badawa and Bompai maintained double digit over the other three market. And the variance result revealed that, variation in returns on residential property investment across the market in the selected areas of Kano is statistically significant since the p.value across the market are less than 0.05 level of significance.

Keyword: Analysis, Risk – Return, Residential, Property Investment, Anova.




Assessment of Risk Management Techniques for Construction Projects under Design Bid Build and Design & Build Procurement Methods in Abuja, Nigeria 


Cecilia Oyelami and Abdullateef Shittu

(Department of Quantity Surveying, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.



The non-implementation of risk management techniques constitutes a lot to most of the project failures encountered nowadays. This leads to variations, incessant claims due to time loss by the contractor and loss of significant stakeholder’s value. This study assessed risk management techniques for construction projects under Design Bid Build and Design and Build (DBB and DB) procurement methods in Abuja, with a view to enhancing the level of understanding and implementation of risk management in DBB and DB procurement methods. Data were collected from 150 respondents who are professionals registered with Federation of Construction Industry (FOCI). Tools used for data analysis were Relative Importance Index (RII), Mean Item Score (MIS) and Spearman Rank Correlation analysis. Findings from the study revealed the identified major risk management techniques on construction projects are often practiced (average RII = 0.71). The most effective Risk Management Techniques in construction projects are “Risk mitigation/Reduction” and “Risk Acceptance” (MIS = 3.94 and 3.60 respectively). Risk Management Techniques for the DBB Procurement Method is therefore more effective than that of DB Procurement Method (Mean DBB = 3.4754; Mean DB = 3.0659). It was concluded that the assessment and management of risk for construction projects under the DBB (Design Bid Build) Procurement Method is more effective than when carried out under the DB (Design and Build) Procurement Method in Nigeria. It was therefore recommended that stakeholders should consider the use of DBB Procurement Method for procuring projects in order to more effective manage risks in construction projects.

Keyword: Construction, Procurement Projects, Risk, Techniques.




The Effect of Socio-Economic Activities of Trends in Values of Residential Properties in Apapa, Lagos, Nigeria.


Hassan Olarenwaju Abdul & Oladoja Ismaila Olawale

Department of Estate Managemet, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin.



Rental values of residential property should be expected to vary with different socio-economic activities in different location in the country. This paper reports the assessment of trends  in rental values of residential properties based on commercial activities inline with import and export (sea port) of goods in the location. A  Questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to 304 of residents(i.e 267) and estate surveyors and valuers  (i.e 36) by systematic random sampling technique to get information on values of various residential properties with differences design and conditions of the properties which contributed to values. The finding specify that 45% of the resident dwell in tenement building, 20% dwell in mini flat, 5% in self contain, 13% in 2 bedroom flats, 5% in 3 bedroom flats, 2%in bungalow,  3% on duplex and 1% on detached house with old design. The study recommends that government should decentralise the sea port, and introduce tenement act that will effective to the nation.

Keyword: Rental Value, Trends , Socio-Economic Activities, Residential Properties




The Impacts of Poor Maintenance of Drainage System in Damaturu Town, Yobe State Nigeria


* Umar Yarima, *Yusuf Dawa Sidi & **Abdullahi Ismaila

*Desert Research Monitoring and Control Centre, Yobe State University, Damaturu, **Advance Space Technology Application Laboratory, Kano. National Space Research and Development Agency.



The study was formulated to investigate the impact of poor maintenance of drainage system in Damaturu town, Yobe state. The materials used for data collection include mainly the questionnaire administration, direct observation, and facility survey. The result indicates that dumping of refuse in water channels is the major cause of poor maintenance of drainage system in the area. The finding further revealed that poor maintenance of drainage system lead to distortion of aesthetic environment; it also lead to excess of soil erosion, and destruction of infrastructural facilities such as road, and houses. It is common to see flooded streets with litter floating everywhere after a short period of rainfall. Such situations create very unsanitary conditions for residents of the neighborhoods and contribute to the degradation of the environment.

Keyword: Impact, Maintenance, Drainage system, Dumping of refuse, Yobe.




Assessing the Impact of Filtering Process as a realistic Strategy for Urban Housing Supply in Damaturu, the Capital of Yobe State


Babagana Bukar 1, Muktar Usman Alhaji A1, and Mohammed Danlami Inuwa2

1 Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental Studies, Federal Polytechnic P.M.B. 1006, Damaturu, Yobe State. 2 Department of Estate Management and Valuation, School of Environmental Studies, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru.



Housing targeted at lower income groups often becomes unaffordable to them on completion, and ultimately become available to medium and higher income groups. Thus, through the filtering process, such beneficiaries will move and create vacancy in units they were previously occupying and thereby making them available to the low income group. The data required for this research work was obtained through the primary and the secondary sources. Data collected were analyzed using chart, percentage, narrative, and descriptive methods. Part of the finding shows that filtering process help in reducing housing price (61%) housing affordability (51%) problems and also aiding housing supply (55%), although governments have always assumed that the housing situation would improve as soon as a general economic condition improves it was recommended that government should encourage the use of local building material for construction so as to reduce building cost, Private Public Partnerships policy (PPPs) on housing should be review as the present approach is profit oriented, National Housing Fund (NHF) eligibility technically excludes the low-income group, such policy need to be reframed to meet the ever increasing housing demand from the ever increasing population.

Keyword: Assessing, Filtering Process, Impact, Realistic Strategy, Supply, Urban Housing




Public Land Management and Encroachment in Mubi Metropolis


*Kadala Solomon Bandi, *Simon Eli, Stephen Joseph, and **Francis Pwaakori Vorondo

*Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State. **Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola.



The study aimed at examining planning implications of public land encroachment in Mubi metropolis with a view to determine the extent of encroachment on public lands in Mubi Metropolis and proffer physical planning measures for proper management of public lands in Mubi Metropolis. The pressure on land in mubi resulting from population upsurge due to the Boko Haram crisis which translates into demand for available land to house settlers displaced from neighboring settlements has cause challenges of encroachment on the various public lands in Mubi. Public lands numbering about 35 were considered for the study and 10% was used as sample. Spatial data on original sizes and nature of lands, existing characteristics of the land including developments were collected using questionnaire in which 342 respondents were drawn randomly. High resolution imagery was also acquired to show the extent of encroachment on public lands in an interval of five years beginning from 2004 to 2017 which were analyzed using triangulation to calculate spaces and extents of land encroachment within the study period. The findings reveal that public lands are still prone to encroachment even as the population increases and the means of land acquisition has not improved. The study shows that public lands are not properly controlled and managed and the control agencies have not done enough to protect parcels of land in their control thereby making it porous for land grabbers and speculators. The implication for planning is that these encroachments will distort planning documents and render public agencies powerless to discharge their constitutional objectives to the community. Recommendations suggest that Government should re-evaluate the processes of land allocation, strengthen the synergy between relevant authorities as well as have all remaining portions of public lands fenced and developed and also to provide master plan document for all government agencies to avoid further encroachment.

Keyword: Encroachment, Public Land, Metropolis, Maagement, Mubi.




An Assessment on the Level of Compliance with Sustainable Construction Practice Using the Undergraduate Quantity Surveying Curriculum


Katun, M. Idris1 Yarima Mohammed1 & Bello Kabir3

1School of Environmental Technology, Department of Quantity Surveying. The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi 2School of Environment Technology, Department of Building Technology. The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.



Sustainable construction practices are being advocated globally to bring about ‘green’ construction, prudent resource utilization and the preservation of ecological harmony within our environment. These emerging concepts are expected to be incorporated and integrated into the training curricula of construction industry institutions. This study assessed the level of compliance with sustainable construction practices as contained in the undergraduate Quantity Surveying curriculum in the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi (FPTB). All the 148 number of courses contained in the curriculum were listed using stratified random sample of students in the Department of Quantity Surveying, FPTB were asked to score the level of association of each course with sustainable construction practice philosophy. The result showed that the respondents are uncertain whether the undergraduate of FPTB Quantity Surveying Curriculum in its entity both the former and currently revised version captures adequately the issues of sustainable construction practice. Only three courses in HND 1 level and HND 2 level (cost control) were ranked to have very significantly capture sustainability issue. Most of the response made were uncertainty (<=3) with 32 courses out of 116 offer ranked uncertain. Most of the courses identified to capture sustainability issues were at higher levels (HND 1 level to HND 2 level) with very few in the lower levels (ND1 level – ND 2 levels). The conclusion is that awareness with the sustainability is quite low among the respondents particularly their understanding with the concept and the key issues. From this it is recommended that as there is uncertainty with the curricular, regarding sustainability issues, minimum standard curriculum needs to be revisited by NBTE and the concerned professional body to reflect the sustainability issues (i.e environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and social sustainability) in the curriculum of undergraduate Quantity Surveying programs, since quantity surveying profession has a participation in construction activities.

Keyword: Sustainability, Construction industry, Academic institutions and undergraduate curriculum.




Comparative Analyses of the works of El Anatsui and Lamidi Lasisi


*PROF. EFEMENA ONONEME  & **OSIBOYE, Oluwaseun Opeyemi

*Fine and Applied Arts Department, Faculty of Arts, University of Benin, Benin, Edo State, Nigeria **Fine and Applied Arts Department, Federal College of Education (Technical) Bichi, P.M.B. 3473 Kano State.



The aim of this study is to make a comparative analysis of the sculptural artworks of El Anatsui and Lamidi Lasisi, to be précised the artworks are four in number, two for each artist, they are El Anatsui: Drying Towels and Pant and Man’s Cloth, while that of Lamidi Lasisi: Cultural Performance and Elegance II, respectively while the objectives are the medium of expressions and use of colour on their artworks. Observational and Survey method of research design is employed while data is analyze through descriptive method. Along with other similarities and differences, it was discovered that both artists are mixed media explorers which is assumed to suggest the richness and wealth of their artworks. Also it is believe this paper will serve as a source of document to scholars and inspire other artist and art critics alike.

Keyword: El Anatsui, Lamidi Lasisi, Art works, Medium.




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