Hummingbird Journal of Environmental Design & Construction Management (HUJECM) Vol.20 (4) June, 2020

Hummingbird Journal of Environmental Design and Construction Management (HUJECM)

Vol. 20 (4) June, 2020. ISSN: 2278-8892

Published by: Hummingbird Publications and Research International,

Centre for Trans-Saharan Studies, University of Maiduguri, UNIMAID,

Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

E-MAIL: PHONE: +234-802-5604-997


Analysis of Covid-19 Cases in Nigeria: A Short-Term Projection of its Current Status


Magaji, J. Y.

Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Abuja, Nigeria.



Forecasting the future trajectory of cases during an infectious disease outbreak can make an important contribution to public health and intervention planning. The growing importance of infectious disease forecasts is epitomised by the growing number of so-called forecasting challenges. The New Coronavirus also named as COVID-19 by WHO on Feb 11, 2020, is now causing a severe public health emergency in Nigeria. The data for this study was compiled by the author from the daily updates given by the Nigerian Centre of Disease Control (NCDC) from 27th February to 19th April, 2020, making a total of 52 days. The data covers infected cases, deaths related cases, recovery cases, active cases and Case Fatality Rates across Nigeria for the period under study. The nonlinear regression was used in the projection with the aid of Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Ms Excel was used in analyzing the data for CFR, trend analysis in charts and Tables. Results showed that, Nigeria recorded the first confirmed case of COVID 19 on 29th February, 2020, and as of 19th April, 2020, 627 cases had been confirmed. During this period, the Nigerian Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) confirmed 21 mortality cases and 170 recoveries from COVID 19 (NCDC, 2020). The projected figure shows that by Day 75 which is 12th May 2020 other things being equal Nigeria might hit 3179. Results also showed that Lagos was leading; followed by FCT and Kano that is fast recording high cases. As a curbing strategy against further spread of the disease, the Federal government closed down all learning institutions (public and private institutions) in the country. To further curb the pandemic, the federal government closed all public services; social gathering and any form of commercial activities that will disregard the rule of social distances in FCT, Lagos and Ogun state and asked everybody to stay at home while observing their personal hygiene. All religion gatherings are thereby banned public gatherings in excess of 10 people. In addition, all international and National flights including road services were closed except those on essential services.

Keyword: COVID-19, Confirmed cases, Case fatality rate, Projection, Lockdown, and Quarantine




Impact of Urban Growth on Residential Property Development in Ilorin, Kwara State Nigeria


*Esv. Hassan Olanrewaju Abdul **Oladoja Ismaila Olawale **Bldr. Owolabi Kayode Michael`

*Estate Management Department, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin. **Building Techology Department, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin.



The impact of population growth on housing development in a developing economy is usually consequence of the push of the rural areas and the pull of the town. There is always an upsurge and conglomeration of people in city centers with the resultant effect on housing growth arising from acute unemployment. The growth and physical expansion of cities have accompanied by planned or unplanned urban that consist the following: environmental pollution, deterioration, deficiencies in modern basis facilities, population and housing problem, and general urban decay As increased poverty and urbanization exert more pressures on urban facilities, most Nigeria cities fond to have lost their dignity social cohesion and administrative efficiency. All this deficiency named above lead to the impact of urban growth on residential property development. For the achievement of the research, research methodology that consist of  primary and secondary source of data were apply, sampling is employed base on administered and retrieved o f data from various part of the metropolises. From the view on  the field of study, the range of development are increasing in arithmetic order while the population increase in geometric order, and the facility in unbar area are low and poor condition. The recommendation is that the government should assist in providing houses and facilities  to the urban low income dweller and introduce the environmentalist in assists in development and management of urban houses and facilities.

Keyword: Population Growth, Urbanization, Metropolises, Migration, Development




Hawking and its Enviromental Effects in Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria


*Emankhu, Sunday Etemini; **Moh’d .K. Dahiru & ***Mua’zu Shamaki  

*Urban and Regional Planning, Nasarawa State Polytechnic, Lafia **Geography Department Nasarawa State University, Keffi ***Geography Department University of Sokoto.



The study examines the  environmental  effects  posed  by   water  hawkers  and  its  associated effects in Lafia. The specific objectives are: to examine the socio-economic characteristics of sachet water hawkers, their mode of operation, methods of water sachet disposal, management practice and associated problems.  The study utilizes both primary and secondary data.  Primary data were obtained through questionnaire administration and direct observation in the study area.  60 questionnaires were administered purposively to 60 sachet water hawkers while the secondary sources were obtained from review of related literature on the subject matter. Data collected were analyzed through descriptive statistics. Results revealed that 43.3% of the hawkers engaged in hawking due to unemployment and that water sachet materials constitute 51% of the waste generation problems in the study area which is a major environmental problem. The study therefore suggested that  government  should  enact  laws  to  easy  collection  of  tax  from  the  hawkers  as  their  contribution towards  keeping the environment clean, sustainable solid waste management practices and enlightment campaigns on the disposal of solid waste.

Keyword: Economic, Water, Hawking, Environment, Waste and Management




Indigenous Techniques of Land Degradation Management in Kaita Local Government Area, Katsina State


Muhammad Nuraddeen Danjuma1 and Mustapha Zakariya Karkarna2

1Department of Geography, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria 2Department of Environmental Management, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria



The aim of this study is to examine indigenous techniques of land degradation management in Kaita Local Government Area, Northwestern Nigeria with a view to providing information for promoting sustainable land use in the area. The study area comprises a total of 10 wards namely Abdallawa, Ba’awa, Dan kaba, Dankama, Gafiya, Girka, Matsai, Kaita, Yandaki and Yanhoho out of which Dankama, Girka and Matsai were sampled using random sampling technique while Kaita was purposively sampled based on the underlying knowledge that the ward possesses the highest number of farmers complaining about land degradation. A total of 58 household heads were also selected from 463 houses using systematic sampling technique while seven were also drawn for in-depth interview using snowball sampling technique. Data obtained was analysed using percentage and mean while qualitative data was transcribed and presented in textual form. Result of this study indicated that livelihood sources have now become diverse across and within the study area owing to failure of the land. It also indicated that decline in yield of crops as the core indicator of land degradation in the study area (56.89%) while followed by soil erosion (31.03%). Findings also revealed application of synthetic fertilizer is the widely used method of combating and management of land degradation in the study area (48.27%). Moreover, households often engage in many diversified activities including seasonal migration as a livelihood strategy to contribute in reducing vulnerability. Assisted natural generation (48.27%) which farmers believed is efficient, less costly and do not require much labour is practised by overwhelming majority in the study area as a technique of management of land degradation. This study recommended that more commitments are needed from government to encourage the use of indigenous practices particularly assisted natural regeneration for combating land degradation in the study area through non-centralized means of resources sharing that unfairly allocate environment management funds to the central agencies thereby alienating the rural poor.

Keyword: Desertification, Sustainable Land Management, Livelihood




Evaluation of Compensation Value on Demolished Properties along Ita – Eko / Totoro Road, Abeokuta, Ogun State.


Orekan, Atinuke Adebimpe and Bello Kehinde Asanot

Department Of Estate Management, College of Environmental Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.



This Study evaluates the compensation value on demolished properties along Ita – Eko / Totoro road which is compulsorily acquired for the expansion and standardization of the road. To achieve this, in-depth interview was conducted amongst 4 (four) senior cadre staff of the compensation department at the Bureau of Lands and Survey. Data were also retrieved from the archive of the state government for review of documents. The interview conducted guided the study on the factors used in determining the compensation value, the method of valuation used and the present effect of the road expansion on the properties in that neigbourhood. It was found out that there is unfairness and absence of transparency in the compensation value granted to property owners. The Study recommends that there is a need to amend sec.2(2) and 30 of the Land Use Act requesting that disputes on compensation be referred to a committee whose entire membership is determined by the governor, so that justice and transparency can be established

Keyword: Compensation, Value, Compulsory Acquisition, Valuation Method, Ita-Eko/Totoro 




Effects of Technology Innovation on Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Nigeria


Nasamu Gambo (Ph.D)

Department of Business Administration, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State.



This study examines the effect of banking innovations on financial performance of listed commercial banks in Nigeria. This study adopted correlational research design, Secondary data was collected from all listed Commercial Banks in Nigeria between the period 2008 to 2019. The data was extracted from the annual reports of the listed Commercial Banks in Nigeria. Correlation analysis used to measure the relationship between variable. Specifically, the researcher used multiple regression analysis to establish if the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variables. The study found that ATM has a significant impact on the FP, IB has a significant impact on the FP and MB has a strong significant impact on the FP. Based on the findings the study concludes that technology innovation has a positive impact on the financial performance of listed Commercial Banks in Nigeria. Based on the foregoing findings and conclusions, the research recommends that Commercial Banks managers  and  government  should  properly  adopt  strategy  that  will encourage  businessmen  and  general  public  in  using  automated  teller  machine  which  will improve  effectiveness  and  efficiency  of the  banking  sector  and  therefore  financial  deepening and Internet banking should easily accessible by customers, so that quick service and convenience is maintained hence improving financial deepening.  At the  same  time  constantly  serviced  in  order  to  provide  reliability  of  the services.

Keyword: Financial Performance; Technology innovation; Internet Banking; Mobile Banking; ATMs.




Propagating Behavioral Architecture-Based Researches: Methodological and Conceptual Issues


Dr Zinas, Bako Zachariah1; Ruth Rakiya Martins2; Joseph Dalyop Audu2

1Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Bingham University Abuja & Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola-Nigeria; 2Department of Architecture, Bingham University Abuja



Architectural practice world over emphasise the ingenuity of space organization and technical presentations of such organized spaces. This is prevalent either in theory in our schools of Architecture, practice and/or both. More often than not, the human angle of architectural design and even research is not given equal emphasis as the design approaches. The best human design involvement is the taking of briefs from clients, which is not sufficient in dealing with congruency that the design outcome ought to engender between the person and the built environment. Our research approaches with regard to the architectural space is equally tailored towards the same direction as the design approaches. The human aspect in our architectural based researches is deemphasised. This conceptual paper aims to market and propagate a human factor based means-end chain (MEC) model that has the capacity to measure both the aggregate architectural issues and the complexities of the behavioural and perceptual orientations of the users of the architectural space for researchers. The conceptual framework will focus and highlight the housing environment. The methodology that the MEC model uses is called Laddering one-on-one interview technique, which is qualitative in nature. Research outcomes from this model will not only be relevant to the academic platforms, but can be commercialised by practitioners in the building industry. If we must have a sustainable built environment in the 21st century and beyond, our architecture based researches must emphasise person-environment congruent based researches as well. There are a lot of potentials using this research model available to the built environment researchers.

Keyword: Architectural design, built environment, laddering interview, means-end chain model, person-environment congruence.




Spatial Analysis of Urban Growth in Hadejia Metropolis from 1989-2019


Ahmed abubakar1

1School of Preliminary Studies, Sule Lamido University, Kafin Hausa



Rapid urbanisation is a global trend exerting an increasing impact on society. It is broadly accepted that for the first time, the majority of the world’s population lives in what can loosely be classified as urban areas. The study assessed the (LULCC) of Hadejia metropolis for the period of 1989 to 2019. Satellite imageries for the study period were obtained from Global Land Cover Facility website. Time series analysis was employed to analyze the process and extent of changes by monitoring ground objects based on remote sensing continuous observation data. The study identified six spectral classes; water body, built-up land, irrigated land, vegetation, farmland and bare land. This was based on landsat pathfinder classification scheme of the United State Geological Survey. The image data was classified via supervised classification for change detection. There was rapid urbanization throughout the study period. Expansion of settlements at the expense of farmland, businesses and schools at the periphery of the city. Augmentation and conversion of bare land into agricultural land. This is attributed to the increase in population and government policies that favour agriculture. Vegetation and water body are declining in size and area coverage. The latter is attributed to climate change and damming of the river along the for water supply and irrigation and former is characterized by cutting of trees for fuel wood, deforestation and urban expansion.

Keyword: GIS, LULCC, Urban growth, Hadejia 




Assessment of the Factors Hindering Value Management Practice in Abuja Construction Industry


Bashir O. Ganiyu; Danjuma Jacob

Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.



Value Management (VM) has played a broad role in supporting effective decision making to construction projects, increased project performance and quality, balance project objectives, and manage community expectations in many countries around the world. But applicability of VM in Nigeria especially in Abuja construction industry has experienced a set back as compared with rest of the world. It is on this basis that the study examined the factors responsible for the set back with a view to recommending sustainable solutions. Therefore, the study sampled 235 professionals across the construction firms in Abuja through simple random sampling technique. The study employed descriptive (mean) and inferential (factor analysis) methods of data analysis. The  result revealed that through factor analysis technique, six most highly emphasized factors were identified which constituted about 65.690% variance in the original factors hindering value management application, which include technical and public policy factors,  professional negligence, non- complacency and management defects, human factor and inflexibility, lack of manpower and project focus, and poor knowledge. The study recommends that project managers should be proactive in addressing the aforementioned factors as they posed critical set back to value management implementation among Nigerian construction companies.

Keyword: Value management, project, construction industry.




Assessing the Effect of Sand Excavation in Kusotachin and its Environ Using Remote Sensing in Bida Local Government Area Niger State, Nigeria


1Jiya Solomon Ndace; 2Liman Yahaya Danjuma; & 3Dr Nwaerema Peace

1-3Department of Geography, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, PMB 11, Lapai, Niger State Nigeria.



This study examines the effects of sand excavation using remote sensing on the environment of Kusotachin, Bida Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria. Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to obtained coordinates of sand excavated areas, Google earth map was imported in Arc GIS and Geo-referenced then XY data was added and plot on map. From the analysis it was revealed that excavation points are treats to the village which will lead to disaster in the nearest future if excavation activities continue due to expansion of already pits that accumulate water especially during the raining seasoning making the area susceptible to flood and mass movement that will be destructive to lives and properties. From the results, Bear Surface 48%, Excavated Land 27%, River 15%, Farm Land 7%, and Settlements 3%. It is then concluded that sand excavation is highly subjected to land being flooded with mass movement in potential areas. Sand mining activities offers employment opportunities, and therefore means of livelihood to some working population of the community. Among the recommendation given in order to reduce the effects of sand excavation activities on the environment includes: Government agencies should ensure public enlightenment and by approving special land for sand miners. 

Keyword: Sand Excavation, Global Positioning System, Google Earth Map, Arc GIS




Assessment of Financial Cost of Accident in Building Construction Sites in Abuja


Ebije-Odeh Onjefu John, Dr. Y.D MOHAMMED

Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State



The construction industry has been identified with the highest occurrence rate of accidents. Financial cost of construction accidents on building construction sites is an issue that constitute the problem of this study; a lot of financial losses are applicable to it both in human and material losses. The objectives of the study were to identify and rank the accidents peculiar to building construction projects in Abuja, determine the relationship between accident cost and building construction cost and determine whether the cost of accident predicts cost of construction. The study began with the review of literature, books, journals and web pages. A field survey was conducted and archive data were used from construction companies. Questionnaires were administered through simple random sampling technique in Abuja. The data was analysed using correlation and regression. According to the research, fall from height was rated the highest with 24%. It was closely followed by fall from same level with 20%. Collapse of scaffold was ranked third with 15%. Injury from equipment, slip and trip, struck by moving object and collapse of building or part of it were ranked the least. There is a positive impact between accident costs on the total cost of building construction.  

Keyword: Accident, Accident cost, Building construction, Construction sites, Safety,




A Study of the Determinants of Rental Values of Students Accommodation around the Federal Polytechnic Bida


Daniya Yahaya Nma

Department of Estate Managementand Valuation, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State.



This paper is titled “Indigenous Knowledge of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) in Kafanchan and its environs” it is aimed at investigating the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents, indigenous ways of determining soil fertility and land suitability and soil fertility management. The Stratified and Random Sampling techniques were adopted in selecting the sampled respondents. A sample size of 313 was determined by applying the Krejcie & Morgan, (1970) formula for determination of sample size of a given population. Questionnaire and few oral interview were used in sourcing for the information. The collected data was analysed using the Statistical Package of Social Science. The Results show that 28.8% of the respondents are mainly farmers and the remaining 71.2% have one form of occupation or the other including farming. Virtually every body farms, hence the need for ISFM in the area. Results also show that

Keyword: Determinants, Student accommodation, Rental value, Quality,




Property Management and Tenants’ Satisfaction in Multi Tenanted Commercial Property in Abuja Nigeria


Muhammad Umar Bello1, Muhammad Zainab Khamis1, Iliyasu Ibrahim1

1Department of Estate Management & Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria



This study disclosed the relationship between property management and tenants’ satisfaction with emphasis on service charge administration in Garki shopping mall Abuja Nigeria. Investment in multi-tenanted commercial property is most time expressed as the biggest investment of a household due to its capital requirement for its procurement, the success of such capital-intensive investment could be attributed to its management. service charge is the money appointed to each of the tenants in multiple occupied premises such as Block of flats, tenement and shopping complex etc. for maintenance of common service which each tenant otherwise could not have be responsible for. The complexity and quality of environmental services in modern property, particularly multi-tenanted property, air-conditioned offices and enclosed shopping mall can result in service charges being a relatively higher proportion of rental. Such charges become a sensitive issue between tenant and landlord. Methodology adopted is quantitative where questionnaires were developed and administered to the study subject. The sample frame for this study are the occupiers of Garki Shopping Mall Abuja of which 102 shops are presently occupied by various tenants. The sample size was 80 questionnaires distributed with the study area. Simple random sampling was used as sampling techniques. The findings of the study revealed that tenants in the study area were satisfied with management of the shopping mall. It was evident that certain facilities were rank high in terms of satisfaction. The study recommends that facility managers should give adequate information to the tenants on the fees and management method before leasing out the property, it was also recommended that information gaps should not be allowed and appropriate channels of lodging complaints should be well established.

Keyword: Property management, service charge, Tenants’ satisfaction, Facility management, occupiers




Implementing Facilities Management for Infrastructural Development: An Approach to Achieving the Transformation Agenda for Evolving Third World Communities.


1Sakariyau, Jamiu Kayode & 2Esv Lawal Abdul Ganiyu Adekunle

1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. Nigeria. 2Suite A1-17 Olajumoke Akinjide Shopping Plaza, Dutse Alhaji, Abuja..



Infrastructures development refers to the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. It typically characterizes technical structures such as housing, roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications, and so forth, and can be defined as “the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions. However, all these coupled together can bring about the provision of good and affordable housing necessary for the smooth operation of a community. Not only does infrastructure development affect production and consumption directly, it also creates many direct and indirect externalities. It also affects large flows of expenditure, thereby creating additional employment. Infrastructure development has always played a key role in integrating economies within a region. Well developed and efficient infrastructure is essential for a regional economic development and growth. Infrastructure development is at its lowest ebb in developing nations because of dearth of fund.  The Transformation Agenda is a development initiative adopted in third world communities under the context of the Vision 2020, based on a set of priority policies which when implemented will transform developing economies into self-sufficient developed nations. Transformation Agenda entails set of priority policies which when implemented will transform developing economies into self-sufficient developed nations. Studies had revealed that about $57 trillion will be required to fund global infrastructure to aid sustainable GDP growth by 2030. However, given the widespread fiscal constraints in the wake of the global financial crisis, it will require innovative steps to boost productivity in the global infrastructure development. The impact of shortage of infrastructure in developing nations can be reduced by through the adoption of facility management. People in developing nations must see facilities management as a tool for infrastructure development and conscientiously embrace it. This paper assessed the roles of facilities management in infrastructure development in developing nations.

Keyword: Facilities Management, Infrastructure Development, Transformation Agenda, Third World Communities.




Evaluation of Niger State Public Housing Development Strategies: A Case Study of Niger State Housing Corporation


Samuel Jonathan

Department of   Estate Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria



Housing is one of the major needs of man. It was on this basis that this work sets out to evaluate Niger state public housing development strategies. In order to achieve the aim of the study, the research thereby identifying the responsibilities of NSHC in public housing development, evaluate its capacity, evaluating housing developments Vis-a vis strategies adopted by NSHC and factors responsible for poor performance of PPP in Niger State. The data used for the study primary and secondary data. Questionnaire was used to collect data from the residents of selected housing estates. An interview was used to gather information from official of Niger State Housing Corporation. A total number of 17 principal officers were purposively selected while a total number of 285 residents were randomly selected from the two housing estates. The research shows that the responsibilities of the Housing Corporation are clearly defined in the law that established it.Public-private partnership (PPP) as housing strategy being adopted from 1999-2019 achieved only 10.96% and 89.04% failure, with a completion of 1,710 housing units out of 15,596 units planned leaving 13,886 units uncompleted at various stages of development process and Government and developers responsible for the poor performance of PPP. The study recommends restoration of autonomy and provision of grant to Niger state housing Corporation and also that the government should revoke the contract of non-performing developers and sell them on the basis of rebus-sic-stantibus (as it stands). 

Keyword: Evaluation,Public housing, Development, Strategies




Evaluation on Land Conflict in Selected States of Nigeria: The Causes, Pattern and Way Forward


*Salau L. T.; **Akinyemi Saheed O.  and ***Hadiza Ahmed Musa,

*Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi **Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi. ***Department of Estate Management, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna



Land conflicts have imposed a lot of problems in most states in Nigeria and the world at large. Dispute over land has made brother to rise against brother in which, many lives and countless properties have been lost lately in Nigeria. In other cases, many have been displaced from their original settlements as a result of these conflicts, rendering individuals homeless. The immediate implication of these conflicts is tremendous decline in economic and every other activities of man which are greatly dependent on land in the immediate scenes and the world at large. This research seeks to find out, why the sudden land conflict that has become so latent, affecting communities in Nigeria. The research employed qualitative method, making use of secondary data due to the nature of information required and the time frame required to conduct the study, this is to say the researchers are of the postpositivist methodological philosophy of research. The data were sourced from journals, textbooks, online daily newspapers and other online publications. The data collection focused on published articles of herdsmen-farmers conflicts and other communal and interpersonal land conflicts in Nigeria. It could be deduced that the rate of prevalence of land conflicts are high in Benue and Delta state of Nigeria depicting the fact that land is an essential resource for the survival and existence of man in which it has becomes a subject of dispute due to man‟s strong desire to possess it.

Keyword: Evaluation, Land Conflict, Selected States, Nigeria, Causes, and Forward




The Shift of Commercial Properties Development from High-Rise to Medium and Low-rise in Kaduna Metropolis


Hussaini Alhassan Funtua

 Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental Studies, Federal Polytechnic P.M.B. 1006, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria.



The development and management of high-rise commercial buildings involves a lot of complex decision making process that requires skilled manpower. Most of these decisions are concerned with the application of appropriate skills, technology, man power, and market tools to harness returns on investment. In many situations the problems of these decisions are not friendly to the structure, tenants and the environment of our high rise commercial buildings, which causes shift in demand of accommodations by the increasing number of the potential tenants to other buildings that are non-high-rise and rendered high-rise properties investment less profitable. The study investigated the reasons behind the decrease in high-rise real properties investments in Kaduna metropolis. Data collection was achieved through the use of structured questionnaire, field survey and inspection, informal interview and literature sources. Data obtained from the study were analysed in tabular forms, and narrative description. Parts of the results includes: higher rate of interest on the borrowed capital couple with the longer period of time covered by the development, lack of technical know-how, insufficient plants and machineries to undertake the development and about 28% of the existing high-rise buildings are not prove to be properly insured against hazards and disaster. Some of the recommendations include; soft loan at lower interest should be made available to the developers, stakeholders in building industry should be adequately train on the new development techniques and government should ensure all high-rise buildings are properly insured with registered insurance agencies.

Keyword: Commercial, Buildings, Development, High-rise, and Shift.




Topographical Survey of College of Education Hong, Adamawa State.


1Dauda Waziri A, 2Bulama A. Abatcha, and 3Lawali Rabiu.

1,2&3 Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria.



The research work involved the Perimeter, Detail, and Topographical survey of College of Education Hong in Adamawa State. The purpose of this research is to carry out a perimeter, detail and topographical survey of the site for the production of a topographical plan of the area. This will assist in the effective planning and design of the school and proposed future plan within the project area. The horizontal and vertical positions of the beacons along the perimeter of the property were determined by third order traverse and third order spirit leveling respectively using total station. The spot heights were determined by method of grid leveling. Leica TS02 total station was used for the execution of this research work. The research covers a total area of 1,521.16 hectares of land. A linear accuracy of 1/10,000 was achieved at the end of the research work. The final plan was plotted at a scale of 1:25,000.

Keyword: Topographical survey, Horizontal/Vertical Positions, Leica TS02, Third order, Spirit leveling and Spot heights.




Evaluation of the Impact of Burnt-Bricks Production on Vegetation and Potential Flood in Naka, Gwer-West Lga, Benue State


Tpl. (Dr) Solomon Tar Ikpe

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Schol of Envitonmental Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State. 



This paper evaluates how burnt-brick production has impacted the vegetation and potential flood in Naka urban centre. Using a survey research design, it combines observational and questionnaire Data collecting instruments, where 30 questionnaires were distributed to the stakeholders in the production sector (10 to Land owners, 5 toland leasees, 5 to transport owners, 3 each to molders and loaders). Frequency distribution tables and graphs were employed for data presentation. Descriptive statistical tools were used for analyzing the data. From both literature content analysis and empirical analyses, the study finds that, burnt production activities are exerting adverse effects on the ecology of the sites and on the vegetation especially hardwood around Naka town as longer distances are being covered for the same quantity and at a costlier price. The investigation also shows that the repeated cases of flooding in southern part of Naka in the recent years are significantly caused by the continuous soil excavation and expansion of borrow-pits to get soil for molding. The research concludes that burnt-brick production has positive building economic benefits but exerts significant adverse effects on the richness of stream ecology, underground organisms and air pollution at the kiln, depleting certain species of trees (vegetation) used for firing the bricks within 15 kilometers radius and is responsible for flooding of southern Naka. Therefore, the study recommends that government should regulate the burnt-brick activities from ownership of land, extent of excavation, felling of wood for firing at the kiln, and provide drainages to mitigate the perennial flood that has rendered thousands of resident homeless, destroyed hard-earned properties and human lives.

Keyword: Evaluation, Impact, Burnt-Bricks Production, Vegetation, Potential Flood, Naka.




Development of Geodetic Vertical Control Network Computational Algorithms for Affective and Sustainable Environment


Zakari, Danladi & Adamu Makama Pindiga

Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria



This research is aimed at developing geodetic vertical control network computational algorithms for affective and sustainable environment. The objectives of this research include; establishment of geodetic vertical control stations, formation of matrices and development of computational algorithms. Two bench marks were used as reference datum for connection. The reduced level of the bench mark was collected from the Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi as shown in Table 1. Eight (8) geodetic vertical control stations were established and their respective coordinate were determined using Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. The geodetic vertical control network is shown in Figure 1. The horizontal and vertical controls are recorded in Table 2. The height difference was deduced from the observed reduced level which was used in the formation of the matrices. The computational algorithms were developed for parametric and condition equation model as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3 respectively. The results generated from these algorithms indicated that, it is the fastest and less rigorous procedure of least square adjustment of large geodetic vertical control network. The result obtained using these computational algorithms are shown in Table 4. It is recommended that surveyors/engineers should be conversant with the procedure of using programmable calculators, android phones and computers in order to facilitate precise and accurate results, when discharging their responsibilities for effective management of environment.

Keyword: Computational algorithm, Vertical control point, Bench mark, Adjustment and Model




An Assessment of Public Housing Delivery in Ilorin, Kwara State


*Esv Olowoleru Olaitan Adedeji **Arch. Familua Oluwaseun Solomon ***Abdulkareem Reshidat Arike

*Estate Management and Valuation Department, Federal Polytechnic, Offa. **Architecture Department, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. ***Estate Management Department, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.



Nigeria is a multi-ethnic nation with over 250 tribal groups. Despite striking uniformity and sameness visibility in various house reforms in Nigeria. Each tribal group has created its own unique model of housing which is sympathetic to its environment and mode of life of the people. Thus, the Nigeria government has demonstrated its concern for the state of housing in the country in ways through the establishment of mortgage finance organizations whose responsibility is that of housing delivery, although, these institutions have little or no success. Therefore, the federal government most proposed reforms that would strengthen the various mortgage finance institution all over the states so as to enable them be committed to their functions which is to support in provision of affordable housing in the country. This study will examined the assessment of housing delivery in Ilorin, kwara state Nigeria with objectives of identifying the various design of housing, the assessment of the housing condition, and the affordability. 75 Questionnaire were administered to the resident (i.e55 questionnaire) and the ministry of Housing and Urban Development (20 questionnaire) through sample random technique base on different location of the houses and the departments of the ministry. From the field work, there are findings that involve in affordability of the housing, poor Architectural design and low quality building materials. From the view of the fact that the public sector has displayed greater flexibility and potential for housing production. I am of the opinion that in line with the provisions of the national housing policy, government should provide necessary amenities like electricity, streetlight, access road, water and also to provide land for developers and create chance to professional in building industries.

Keyword: Housing Affordability ,Housing Design, Housing Condition, Housing Delivery




Socio-Economic Perspective of Sustaining Covid-19 Pandemic in Nigeria


Jegede Joy Anwuli

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, the Federal Polytechnic Idah, Kogi State. Nigeria



This examined the socio-economic perspective of sustaining covid-19 pandemic in Nigeria. The stability of Nigeria has been threatened in the last few months over the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic, worsened by the insecurity and epileptic infrastructural development coupled with the decaying health facilities. All these have brought a downturn in the economy of Nigeria hence the people are suffering more from financial virus rather than the prevailing corona virus. The success of any sustainable development initiative depends on the willing participation of all sectors of the society. UNEP (2002), continues to advocate that decision makers in government, industries and businesses should develop and adopt eventually sound policies, strategies, practices and technologies. This involves raising awareness, building international consensus, developing codes of practice and economic instruments, strengthening capability, exchanging information and initiative demonstration projects. The utmost role of the government and the people to play in this period of pandemic is to device means of containing the spread of the virus of which the people should strictly adhere to

Keyword: Socio-Economic, Perspective, Sustaining, Covid-19 Pandemic, Nigeria.




Skyscrapers Construction Technology: A BIM Approach


Agbodike Chinedu Chigozie

Department of Architecture, P.M.B 1012 Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria.



Over the last ten years, the city of London and other cities of the western world have seen a significant densification and the provision of tall buildings. It is not perceived that many of the innovative techniques associated with the delivery of these buildings have been directly attributable to working in a BIM environment but, notwithstanding this, the BIM environment has brought greater opportunities in planning and communication of construction intent. It is to this end that this paper examines the BIM Approach involved in Skyscrapers Construction Technology. The Study reviewed existing works on Skyscrapers Construction Technology, a brief history of Skyscrapers design and Construction, the meaning of BIM and its features, application of BIM in Skyscrapers Construction and a Case Study of BIM Implementation in Shanghai Tower. Recommendations were made, and the paper concluded on the note that BIM makes the entire building process simpler and more efficient.

Keyword: BIM, Technology, Skyscraper, Approach, Construction 




An Assessment of the Level of Collaboration between Print-Based Industry and Public Universities in Nigeria.


Maxwell E. Roberts; Ibrahim F. Christopher; and Ibrahim Suleiman Ubam.

Department of Arts & Industrial Design Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State.



The study is established on the assessment of the level of collaboration between Print-based graphic design industry and public universities in Nigeria, as it intends to encourage productive knowledge acquisition after graduation by the students of Graphic Design. The right machines and equipment should be provided by the Universities authority, in the 21th century, design schools should be equipped in preparation for inclusive participation in the Nigerian Print industry. The following objectives were considered. (i) Assess the level of collaboration between Print-based industry and public Universities in Nigeria.  (ii) compare the teaching facilities in Nigerian universities and those of the print-based industry. Descriptive survey method and percentage analysis were employed for the study, Primary data was gathered from 4 federal universities; Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria; Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi; Federal University of Technology, Akure and Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola and from eight graphic design companies; two from each location. Findings from the study show that the Print Based industry has more state of- the art- printing facilities, as such; graduates need re-training/internship programme to be able to function properly in the print-based graphic design industry. The level of collaboration between print-based graphic design industry and public universities in Nigerian is important but does not exist. Recommendations are, (i) to create mechanism that will foster the relationship between university and industry which will help to impart relevant knowledge and will be sustainable in the changing conditions. (ii) University management should initiate ways of sourcing fund for the acquisition of machines and equipment, for better quality of graduates.

Keyword: Print based, graphic design, machines, equipment, public universities



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