Hummingbird Journal of African Sustainable Development (HUJASD) Vol.20 (2) June, 2020

Hummingbird Journal of African Sustainable Development (HUJASD)

Vol. 20 (2) June, 2020. ISSN: 2218-8777

Published by: Hummingbird Publications and Research International,

Centre for Trans-Saharan Studies, University of Maiduguri, UNIMAID,

Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

E-MAIL: PHONE: +234-802-5604-997


Assessing challenges of Baturiya Wetlands and Game Reserves Biodiversity as Ecotourism Resource in Hadejia of Jigawa State, Nigeria: A viewpoint


Dr. U. O. Ujih* and Agye Adoka Ibrahim**

*Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Federal University, P.M.B. 7156, Dutse-Jigawa State, Nigeria **Department of Humanities & Social Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa



Wetlands are primarily targets for exploitation by man via, uncontrolled hunting, population, pollutions, sedimentation resulting from deforestation, desertification, eutrophication resulting from agriculture, runoff, channelization for irrigational farming, progressive industrialization, compaction of soil by pastoralists and their animals which further degrade the wetlands habitats as well as climate change and drought. The drying out of the wetlands and other loss of ecosystem services are common phenomenon of the Baturiya wetlands vis-à-vis the degradation of ecotourism resource potentials, poor administration, coordination and participation amongst communities are big threats to the wetlands. These situations present a great danger to the ecosystem biodiversity and the community livelihood options. Leisure and ecotourism resources are seen as veritable tools to economic development, if dependent communities are properly engaged to harness the endowments. Apart from generating wealth, Baturiya wetland tourist site enhance community cohesion; promote peace and security within the host communities. Tourism needs a high level of planning and this has to involve the local communities in order for them to have a sense of attachment to the nature endowment of water, local/migratory birds, gum Arabic trees, lunched grasses, economic palms are left uncontrolled and devastated by poachers, farmers and deforestation for fuel woods/timbers.  This paper looked at the wetlands and birds’ sanctuary as tourism and recreation bolster of Hadejia to boost jobs creation, health, economic and conservation of nature for its people and beyond. It presents the synopsis of how to engage the stakeholders and community members to efficiently use and managed the wetlands and other resources sustainably. The wetlands is considered by the communities as places to fish, graze, hunt and reservoir for firewood not for ecotourism as they have less business with leisure, recreation and tourism. The study used knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP), oral interviews and on the spot observation methodologies (qualitative data), communities and staff of Ministry of Environment (Conservation unit), Dutse as source of data generation. The discussions and results showed that the communities do not see the need to utilize the wetlands as tourism hub, nor appreciate its values. This paper recommended; that communities participation, awareness of wetlands as sources of socio-economic-value chain to people, conservation and management of the wetlands for posterity is key, funding for preservation of birds/wildlife and ecosystems is also pertinent, construction of  holiday chalets for domestic/ international tourists and halting of fishing and devastation of the ninety nine (99) identified ponds is suggested and students researches be tailored towards conservation of the Baturiya wetlands by Federal University, Dutse (Zoology, Botany, Forestry/wildlife, Environmental Sciences Departments), NTDC, Abuja, UNEP, UNDP, WWF towards passive wildlife and birds watching destination realizable. The communities and neighborhood of wetlands should be well sensitized and kept abreast of the fortunes of wetlands now and for future.

Keyword: Baturiya, ecotourism, deforestation, participation, wetlands




Drug Abuse and social malady in Nigeria:  Public Administration perspective


Dr Emhenya Anthony Iyoha

Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Edo University, Iyamho.



Drug abuse in Nigeria has been a  serious problem to this country.  The consequences of drug abuse are not only on the individual user but also on his or her offspring, family and the society. Drugs are commonly used by everybody whether young or old. It is true that drugs are used for beneficent therapeutic purposes, effective substance for good health, but they are being abused by people especially youths  who prefer an autonomous and independent life that is free from adult control, there by engaging in various delinquent acts (drug abuse, kidnapping, assassin, rape, robbery, cultism and vandalism) that are dangerous to the home, community, school and the nation. The impact of drug abuse among the youths  has been a stigma of moral decadence, violence, thugery, assault, madness and murder. The menace of drug abuse has eaten deep into the fabrics of our society; however, with effective counselling programmes, the problems can be tackled through campaign against drug abuse by government and other relevant authorities Drug control counselling centres should be established in every community and qualified health counsellors should be employed in helping drug addicts by giving them special advice on how to go about the withdrawal system. Drug awareness units to be set up in all states by the federal, state and local government not to tag people who use drugs as criminals, but to help solve their socio-psychological problem. This paper discusses the concept of drug abuse, types, theories of causes, effects, and strategies for counselling.

Keyword: Drug Abuse,, Addiction, Peer Group, Indiscipline, Frustration.




Boko Haram Insurgency And The Rights Of Women; A Study Of Internally Displaced Women In The North Eastern Part Of Nigeria


*Ahmed Mubarak Mashi & **Ngozi Thelma Mohammed PhD.

*Department of Political Science, Umaru Musa Yaradua University, Katsina. **Department of political science and Defence Studies, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna.




Nefarious activities of Boko Haram insurgency sect in North East Nigeria since 2009 led to the displacement of over two million people and majority are women, which has created adverse humanitarian consequence in the North East zone. Life in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa states, have been characterize in the celebrated words of Thomas Hobbes as nasty, brutish and most times short (Salkida, 2012). Women displaced by Boko Haram faced multifarious challenges of violation of their rights; such as lack of adequate shelter, lack of proper hygiene, hunger, threat of diseases, sexual harassment by camp officials and security personnel, inadequacy of safe water, force prostitution, force and early marriages, unwanted pregnancies, lack of participation in decisions affecting their lives. It is against this backdrop this paper sought to examine the rights of internally displaced women in the North Eastern part of Nigeria. Data in this paper were source from both primary and secondary sources and the paper adopts the human needs theory championed by Abraham Maslow. The paper concludes that, strict adherence to Kampala convention and National policy on the rights of IDP women, improving socio-economic situation of the IDPs, resettlement of the IDPs back to their original places of residence and good governance; which will reduce unemployment and poverty in the country, will mitigate the vulnerability of the IDP women in Nigeria.

Keyword: Boko Haram, Insurgency, Women, Internal Displacement, Rights




Study on the Relative Preference for Development by Tribolium Castaneum in Dehulled Wheat Flour of Different Wheat Varieties


Musaali Muhammad, Aisha Konto-Abbasulum & Joy Mbaya Turaki

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.



 The red-rust flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum is a serious pest of stored wheat flour in Nigeria. The study assessed the relative preference for development by T. castaneum in dehulled-fine flour of eight wheat varieties. The experiment was conducted between 24th February to 20th April, 2017, in the laboratory of Biological Science Department of University of Maiduguri, under ambient temperature (24±1.13 oC) and relative humidity (30.7±1.38 RH). The varieties consisted of Reyna-28, Nejmah, Soonot-5, Debeira, Faris-30, Imam, Reyna-19 and Nabuq-4. Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicate was used to compare the biology, population, population growth rate, and the susceptibility index in the eight varieties of wheat. The results showed that effect of variety on the biology of T. castaneum was not significant (P<0.05), thus developmental periods of larvae, pupae, and adult stages, closely ranged from 8.3 – 9.0 days, 30.0 – 32.7 days and 35.7 – 37.3 days, respectively, and was at par among the eight varieties. The average developmental periods of the larval, pupal, and adult stages were 9.0 days, 30.8 days, and 36.4 days, respectively. The study also compared the peak population of larvae, pupae, and adults among the eight wheat varieties. Results indicated a significant (P<0.05) difference in the population of larvae, pupae, and adults, which ranged from 47 – 100.7, 32.3 – 62.0, and 21.7 – 47.0 among the different wheat varieties, respectively. The highest population of larvae, pupae, and adults was consistently recorded from Debeira, while the lowest was from Nabuq-4 and Imam. The varieties, Faris-30, Soonot-5, Reyna-19, and Nejmah also gave a higher population than Nabuq-4 and Imam. The study also investigated larvae and adult population growth rates in the eight different wheat varieties. Larvae exhibited a polynomial growth pattern, in which the build-up phase from 10 – 28 DAI, was at the rate of 5.644 – 15.759, and population growth was higher and faster in Debeira, Nejmah, Soonot-5 and Faris-30 than in Nabuq-4 and Imam. The result indicated population decline at the rate of 0.4162 – 1.0739 larvae as from 28 – 55 DAI. The highest rate of larvae population decrease was in Debeira and the lowest was in Nabuq-4, closely followed by Imam. The adult population growth followed the sigmoid (logarithmic) pattern, which increased at the rate of 10.816 – 25.810 beetles. The highest rate of growth occurred in Faris-30, followed by Soonot-5 and Debeira. Conversely, the lowest growth rate was in Imam, closely followed by Nabuq-4. The study also assessed the susceptibility of the eight varieties to infestation by T. castaneum, and the susceptibility index significantly (P<0.05) differed from 7.57 – 11.31%. From the results, Debeira, followed by Nejmah and Soonot-5 were significantly more susceptible compared to the least susceptible varieties, Imam and Nabuq-4. From the foregoing results, therefore, Debeira, Nejmah, and Soonot-5 were the most susceptible wheat varieties, while Imam and Nabuq-4 were the least susceptible.

Keyword: Varieties, Flour, T.castenum, Susceptibility, Population, Adult, Larvae, Pupae, Wheat.




Effective Training of Border Security Agents in Languages for National Security and Development


Dibie, Godfrey Atunu (Ph.d)

Department of General Studies, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State.



Development has made the world to become a global village particularly due to the use of information and Communication Technology (I.C.T). This explains why interconnectedness and integration are very important and easy to come by. This ensures peaceful co-existence if well harnessed. To achieve this, the effective use of language has become a must especially by our security personnel, and in this case English and French Languages, the colonial and adopted official languages of Nigeria and her neighbours respectively. Nigeria must therefore take the training of her security personnel upper most. This has become an absolute necessity more so that security in the country is now at its lowest ebb, judging from the activities of Boko Haram, terrorist groups and armed bandits, especially in the North East, sea piracy, smuggling, incessant kidnapping, internal and external border disputes, among others.

Keyword: Boarder, security, languages, English and French.




Dessign, Construction and Testing of a Model Parabolic Trough Solar Collector for Water Heating in Bauchi State


Abubakar U. Babuje1, Jamila Adamu2, Kabir U. Tandama3, Adamu Sani4

1 3 4 Department of Mechanical/Production Engineering. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi 2Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, the Federal Polytechnics Bauchi



A Solar parabolic trough collector is a device for harnessing solar energy in a particular region. It consist of a shaped mirror reflectors linearly concentrate sunlight onto receiver tubes, heating a thermal transfer fluid which is then used to produce superheated steam. In this work, a 2 liters model parabolic trough solar collector was design, constructed and tested using Bauchi weather coordinates for the supply of hot water at 100oC for an average solar radiation of 550W/m2. The results obtained show that the maximum heated water temperature of 56oC was obtained at atmospheric temperature of 28oC and solar radiation of 176.7W/m2. This is so, because of the period of the testing at winter period of December.

Keyword: Solar Collector, Model Parabolic Trough




Managing Financial Record in Small and Medium Business Enterprises in Yola Metropolis, Adamawa State


Bala Abubakar

City University Cambodia



Because of their unstructured and independent nature, small businesses usually face growth difficulties which are usually attributed to poor financial record keeping. This paper studies small business within Yola, Adamawa state of Nigeria, the aim of this paper is to investigate if they understand the importance and applications of financial statement. A total of 79 businesses in Yola were sampled and questionnaires were distributed to them at random. The data collected was processed, presented and analyzed using simple percentage and frequency distribution tables in Yola have a vague knowledge of financial statement. They mostly have one-side perspective as to what financial statement is all about majority of the small business in Yola are not affiliated and another findings indicate that businesses are aware that proper financial record helps build an investor’s confidence in Business which could be implied that the businesses do not have partners of improper financial record keeping. It was recommended that business owners should employ individuals with moderate academic background who has knowledge accounting or can easily be taught. They should also embark on training so as to know how to keep financial records. It is also recommended that at least yearly or at certain intervals, the business owners should engage the services of auditors to evaluate the business financial records.

Keyword: Financial statement, Records, Enterprises, failure, income, cash flow, Balance sheet.




Assessment of Sachet Water Quality Produced in Gwagwalada Area Council, Fct Abuja, Nigeria


Magaji J.Y.

Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Abuja



This paper assessed the physiological and biological quality of Sachet water produced and sold in Gwagwalada Area Council, FCT, the study examine the both the water and the body of the nylon containing the water. It compares the results and with FME standard the research uses the combination of both primary and secondary data as a source of data collection the primary sources are the sachet water and the laboratory analysis results. Seven different brands of sachet water were randomly selected for the study. Descriptive analysis and inferential statistics were employed. Findings showed that the physiochemical properties of the sachet water all fall within the permissible limit set by the Federal Ministry of Environment, while the biological parameter failed, though some brands are free of contaminations. The inferential statistics shows that there is significant variation between and within the physiological and biological quality of Sachet water produced, but it also showed that there is a significant difference between the sachet water and the body of the nylon, there is also significant difference between the experimental results and the FME standard. The major concern is that of the body surface of the sachet/nylon that are highly contaminated. Therefore the research recommends that the ratio of all the essential minerals present in the water should be improved. The biological treatments of the drinking water should also be improved; above all, the personal hygiene standard of all water vendors must be considered and enforced through regular monitoring by NAFDAC.

Keyword: Sachet water, body of sachet water nylon, physiochemical, biological, Vendor, Gwagwalada




Assessing the Causes of Urbanization and its Impact on Housing Quality in City Of Lagos


*Akinyemi, Saheed O.  **Hadiza, Ahmed Musa. & ***Salau, L. T.

*Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. **Department of Estate Management. Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria.  ***Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



The phenomenon of urbanization is a consequence of population increase and migration from rural to urban areas and growth-centres. The urban growth rate in Nigeria today is put at 5.8% per annum (Draft NUDP, 2004). Rural economy is principally agrarian. But, under conditions of increasing population and diminishing rural resources, some contingent of rural population migrates to urban areas for helpful job security, higher education, higher income, better health and stay alive. However, in spite of multitude of generalizations in urban theories, little is known on the housing quality of this area. This study will therefore, examines the characteristics of the urban settlement with a view to maintain sustainability on the housing quality of residential buildings in the study area as measured by the physical, socio-economic and environmental conditions in the city of Ikeja-Nigeria. The research employed qualitative method, making use of secondary data due to the nature of information required and the time frame required to conduct the study, this is to say the researchers are of the postpositivist methodological philosophy of research. The data were sourced from journals, textbooks, online daily newspapers and other online publications and field survey.

Keyword: Assessing, Urbanization, Impact, Housing, Quality.




Politeness Strategies and Implicature: a Pragmatic Overview of Language Use at the Family Planning Clinic of Babcock University Teaching Hospital


*Okata Gift Ngozi PhD1 and **Okata Susan Nketachi2

*Department of Languages and Literary Studies, Babcock University Ilisan Remo. Ogun State **Department of Nursing Sciences, Babcock University Ilisan Remo. Ogun State.



The overview of pragmatics obtainable in literature points at its emphasis on the primacy of context for a meaningful interpretation of language in use. Language has been established overtime as a learned behavior and not an innate instinct. This is because the language we speak in Africa and Nigeria in particular is often employed as a veritable tool for face threatening, face saving and strategies by interlocutors.  Using quantitative analytical method based on Brown and Levinson (1983) concept of Politeness strategies and Paul Grice (1975)’s concepts of Implicatures as theoretical framework, the study reviewed the politeness strategies and implicatures in the language use of interlocutors at the family planning clinic of Babcock University teaching hospital, Ilisan Remo, Ogun State. The analysed data was selected using selective sampling technique and findings showed that although language is not ordinarily thought of as of essential interest to individuals attending family planning clinic at Babcock university teaching hospital, the context of the utterances played a major role in determining to what extent politeness strategies were employed in the various interactions of the interlocutors. The paper concludes that since language is a powerful tool that conditions our world view, the appropriate use of language will adequately increase the knowledge of contraceptive,  encourage women in general and enlighten the society at large as regarding the proper and effective use of contraceptives.

Keyword: Implicature, Politeness Strategy, Family planning, Language, Pragmatics




Perceived Role of Youth Team in Action Supporting Community Initiated Development Organization (Yotascid) Activities in Zango Kataf Local Government Area of Kaduna State


Michael .H.Y

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture,National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) 91, Cadastral Zone, University Village, Nnamdi Azikiwe Express Way, Jabi, Abuja, Nigeria.



This study determined the perceived effects of Youth Team in Action Supporting Community Initiated Development Organization (YOTASCID) – one of the most prominent rural based developments Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs) – in the agrarian communities of ZangoKataf LGA, Kaduna State. The sampling technique employed in the study involved a purposive selection of five (5) villages in the Local Government Area. The second stage was random selection of 23 household heads from each village to make a sample size of 114 household heads as respondents for Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and questionnaire administration for the study. Descriptive statistics such as means, percentages, and frequency distributions were used for data analysis. Results showed that 63% of the respondents were males, 57% had secondary school education and 57% indicated farming as their major occupation. Also, 69% and 48% of the respondents had received credit and fertilizer subsidy. The number of executed projects was lowest at Ramai-Daji and Madauchiand highest in Zonkwa. The most important influence of the NGO’s activities as indicated were self- employment, increased farm output, increased pupils/student enrolment and availability of portable water; while the beneficiaries’ effect of timely access to farm inputs subsidy was low. The major problem encountered was low credit disbursement. It is concluded that YOTASCID’s intervention has brought about increased income generation and some measure of development in the agrarian communities. It is thus recommended that, for sustainability of activities of NGO’s as YOTASCID, there is need for partnership between governments at all tiers; the private sector, international donor, and  philanthropic organizations; towards making reasonable contributions toimprove the living standard of the people in the rural communities.

Keyword: Perceived, effects, agrarian, rural, community, production, development, sustainability.




Community Mobilization for Health Care Delivery Service: A Tool for Sustainable Development in Nigeria


Amada-Owei W Forsman

Department of Primary Health Care Education, School of Vocational Education, College of Technical and Vocational Education, Kaduna Polytechnic



Community mobilization a key strategy for increasing demand for the use of health service. It is a process that help communities to identify their own needs and responds in order to address needs which give rooms for promoting health services and delivery. It also helps in promoting consideration of the need of specific population. This paper is written to carry out discussions on the community mobilization for health care delivery service: A tool for sustainable development; where certain issues are discussed right on this paper the contents are community mobilization and strategies, characteristic of community mobilization, community a dynamic entity, aim and purpose of community mobilization, factors that sustain community mobilization and finally the conclusion.

Keyword: Community, Mobilization, Health Care  Delivery, Services, Tool For Sustainable Development




An Evaluation of the Socio-Economic Contributions of Sachet (Pure Water) Supply to Taraba State.


1Yakubu, R.A, 2Emmanuel E.N and 3Shuaibu M.M

1Universal Basic Education Board, Jalingo 2,3Departmant of Agricultural Extension and Management, College of Agriculture, Jalingo



This research evaluates the socio-economic contributions of sachet (pure water) supply to Taraba State (a case study of Jethob Company Jalingo, Taraba State).The specific objectives were to assess the economic contribution of sachet (pure water) supply in Nigeria economy and assess the major problems arising from sachet water supply in Nigeria. The research used. Questionnaire and observation the assess the socio economic contribution of the sachet (pure water) supply in Jalingo. The data for this study was collected from employees, consumers of Jethob sachet water. Analysis of the data shows that Jethob sachet water have very wide demand within Jalingo metropolis that dealer are not satisfied with the present level of service they receiving product high quality should be maintained for continual greater market share. In view of the findings the followings recommendation where made; Jethob sachet water should increase the suppliers of those needed customers more then once a week, to increase production during hot season when there is always increased demand moreover to improve more on the socio-economic contribution by providing enough products at the right time and in the right quality. The driver and salesman should be trained to increase efficiency. The company should be customers orientated by paying attention to customers complaint and finding favourable solution to their problems. Advertisement should be embraced to create more awareness over their product including incentives to the customers, finally, the company should monitor the activities of drive salesman so as to make sure that they effectively and efficiently carrying out their duties.

Keyword: Evaluation, Socio-economic, Contributions, Sachet (Pure Water) Supply, Taraba State.




Influence of Students Study Habit on Academic Performance in Secondary School of Jalingo Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria


Akwayamai, P.J, Magdaline, G, Uzairu Dalhatu & Jafar Sale

Peacock College Education Jalingo, P.M.B. 2, Along FMC Way, Jalingo. Taraba State, Nigeria.



The study examined Influence of Students study Habit on Academic Performance of Secondary School in Jalingo Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria. 200 respondents were used in the study. The purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select students for the study. A questionnaire, Study Habits Inventory (SHI) was the main instrument used for data collection. Data from the questionnaire were coded, categorized and analysed using 4 point scale. The main findings revealed that despite other dimensions of study habits thus; examination, assignment, reading and concentration, only time management explains the bulk of the variables that predicts students’ study habits. Therefore, for an excellent performance, there is the need for students to form good study habits in respect of the other dimensions. Also, male students use time management related study habits more than their female counterparts. Based upon the findings, it was recommended that all stake holders in education i.e. parents, teachers and government should encourage students in their respective areas of responsibilities, such as providing study materials, conducive place of study, recognizing excellence, appreciating students hard work as soon as possible among others. These will help to motivate the students positively towards their study.

Keyword: Influence, habit, student, academics and performance.




The Performance of Deposit Money Banks on Economic Development in Nigeria


Bello, Babatunde Sikiru1; Nwokenkwo, Ben Olubunmi2; Ozimede, Elizabeth Iragbeson3; Ogundeji, Sunday Tolulope4; Idaomi, Taiye Olorunfemi5; & Abdullahi, Ibrahim6

1,2,4&6Department of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic, Bida 3&5Department of Business Administration & Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bida



This study examined the effect of commercial banks’ performance on economic development in Nigeria, which aims to evaluating the impact of bank credit on economic development in Nigeria and to appraise the impact of growth in liquidity liabilities of banks on economic growth in Nigeria. The collection of data for this research work is done through the administration of questionnaire with the sample size of 20. However, the methods of data collection were both primary and secondary method of data collection. Also the hypothesis was tested using ANOVA and meaningful suggestions were put forward in order to realize the organizational objective. Findings were made among them that that bank credit advancement is a tool for economic development. also, that availability of bank credit advancement can increase entrepreneurial development. The study therefore recommends that credit to the private sector should be directed at priority sectors for its impact to be felt in the economy. Also, commercial banks should always give credit advance to the owners of entrepreneurship businesses, who have proven characteristics and behaviour together with business viability and authenticity which in turn will boost the Nigerian economy.

Keyword: Commercial Bank, performance, Economic development, Liquidity liabilities, Credit advancement




Pigoons and Objectification of Nature in Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake


Bello Usman

Department of General Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu.



This essay aims to examine how corporate greed in association with scientific research has commodified nature. New life forms were bioengineered for the sake of catering to the whims and caprices of man which is human being’s quest for longevity and immortality. It is significant to examine how nature has been objectified in Oryx and Crake because it had negatively affected the relationship between man and nature and thus, the balance in the planet’s ecosystem has been upset. The concept eco grotesque will be used to analyse the novel. Previous studies of Oryx and Crake did not highlight the eco grotesque mode in this important work. This study will aim to fill this gap in the huge body of knowledge on her fiction. Oryx and Crake shows what could happen if man is allowed to behave as if he is the only species on the planet. For harmony to be maintained there must be ethical guidelines for man’s scientific search for a post human existence. Man’s excessive corporate greed led to the bioengineering of new life forms such as the pigoon, children of crake, wolvog and many more. These creatures led to a shift in balance within nature. As a result, there was a major catastrophe on the planet

Keyword: Bioengineering, ‘children of crake’, Gene splicing, Immortality, Longevity,   ‘new life forms.




E-Transformation: A Panacea to Challenging Public Sector


Ahmad Sabo

Department of Public Administration, School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi



          Restriction to vital public information in most developing countries poses serious challenges of lack of honesty and transparency in the affairs of public sector that give rise to the problems of citizen-public institution partnership. The revolutionary derives of organizational culture of public administration towards service oriented has become necessary considering the need for intensive information flow within and outside organization. The need for advance ICT technologies is stressed to overcome societal menace of tackling corruption, poverty, law infringement and unemployment, which all call for reinvention and reinvigoration of organizational process, structures and performance. Literature on the strategic importance of e-transformation of public sectors in developing countries is not only rare but inadequate. At the heart of the need for these dynamic changes in the public institutional structure, development of IS research witness a more complex political process stressing the important of technological development of state institutions to moderate transaction between clients. The need for robust technology is stressed to address non-performance of public institution including corruption, inefficiency, lack of transparency, cost reduction, all of which requires reinvention and reinvigoration of organizational culture, process, structures, rules and performances that appear retrogressive. Due to increasing internal and external influences, it has become difficult to examine relationship between organization and its surrounding environment. The scenario calls for a new paradigm shift based on affirmation and mechanical theories where organization is view as a living biological system comprising of several related sub-systems. Consequent to this development, organization become flexible and decentralized with multidimensional corporation and partnership at both horizontal, vertical and diagonal with increasing internal and external influences between organization and its surrounding environment. More than the traditional means, IT provides enabling capabilities for government to support individuals and organizations towards promoting healthy competition in digital market, IT structure and social linkages.

Keyword: ICT, e-Transformation, e-Government, e-Administration, Bureaucracy, Nigeria




Gis-Based Location Analysis of Boreholes in Damaturu Metropolis


Lawali Rabiu, Bulama A. Abatcha, and Dauda Waziri A.

Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria.



The study accesses the spatial distribution pattern of boreholes in Damaturu metropolis. The research aim at providing information that will serve as a guide for boreholes distribution planning to the policy makers of Damaturu metropolis. The geometrical data of sixty eight (68) boreholes were generated using hand held GPS receivers, and the attribute data were generated through office records, site inspection and oral interview. The geometrical data, attribute data, and satellite imagery of the study area were used as input data in ArcGIS software. Digital map and spatial distribution pattern of the facilities were produced. The attribute data were linked to spatial data to enable the researcher examine the spatial distribution of the boreholes which in turn revealed their spatial pattern. Queries were conducted to ascertain the pump capacity yield, status, year of establishment (construction), etc. The creation of zones of interest also known as Buffering was carried out to determine the boreholes distribution patterns that are within 500m and 1000m radius from each other, and nearest neighbor index (Rn) was computed. The result showed the distribution pattern is clustered, which concentrated at core indigenous area of the town. It is clear that the policy implementation in the study area is not properly guided by GIS technique; hence there is need for more efficient distribution of boreholes in the non indigenous area of Damaturu town.

Keyword: GIS, ArcGIS Satellite Imagery, Geometrical Data, Attribute Data, Borehole.




Impact of New Product Development on Organisation Performance


*Atadoga Mark Ojoajogu **Mbakwe Francis Kenechukwu *Samuel Badi Yusuf & *Zahra’u Bala Malami

*Department of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi **Dept. of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.



This paper titled “Impact of New Product Development on Organisation Performance” seeks to examine how firms can make a difference in a dynamic business environment where competition is extremely high, and every organisation is looking forward to outweigh its competitors as regards to developing either entirely new or modifying the existing product has become extremely essential for enhancing the performance. Therefore, the firms are now required to focus more on the quality of the product and its important value to the market instead of internal efficiency. Hence, more emphasis is being placed on the new product development processes that enable the firms to develop more complex products to provide good quality products and services to the customers. It also made emphasis on the features of successful product development as well as challenges or hindrances of new product development. The methodology adopted was the use of relevant and related literatures from the existing ones. Based on the findings of the previous researchers, it was concluded that Conscious organisations must see product development and innovation as important to their existence and competitiveness. Recommendation was made that firm should collect as many ideas as possible and a large number of these should come from customers so that the firm can be in a better position to design and develop new products.

Keyword: New Product Development, Innovation, Product Development Process, Product Quality and Design, Idea Generation, Market Testing, Commercialisation




Effective Information Dissemination and Sustainable Inter-Governmental Relations in Nigeria


*Adamu Buba **Bello Halilu

*Department of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi **Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.



A number of preceding governments in Nigeria have repeatedly made efforts towards attaining sustainable inter-governmental relations in the country. Policies and programmes towards achieving that were fashioned out and either abandoned or haphazardly implemented. Most of these policies and programmes failed because of the inadequacy of effective information dissemination within the business of government. Memos are often raised without explicit communication, and as such they are either misinterpreted or misrepresented. If a sustainable inter-governmental relation is the trademark of responsive and responsible governance, then effective information dissemination should be the focal point. This paper seeks to examine the interaction between effective information dissemination, governance and sustainable inter-governmental relations in Nigeria. It will assess the level of information dissemination effectiveness within the levels of government circle especially in a Federal System and how lack of effective communication flow is affecting inter – governmental relations. Accordingly, the paper endorses a beneficial collaboration of inter – governmental relations that will enhance the communication effectiveness through effective information dissemination for the betterment of Nigeria and all Nigerians. This paper based its appraisal on secondary means of data collection.

Keyword: Effective, Information Dissemination, Tool, Sustainable, Inter-governmental Relations




The Emergence of Modern Muslim World Such as Pakistan, Palestine and Iran


Yusuf Abubakar

School of Arts and Social Sciences, A.D Rufa’i College for Legal and Islamic Studies, Misau, Bauchi State.



In the modern Muslim era, most of the Muslim world came under the influence or colonialcolonial domination of European powers. The nation States that emerged in the post-colonial era have adapted a variety of political and economic mode ls and they have been affected by secular and as well as religious trends. The terms ‘Muslim World’ and ‘Islamic World’ commonly refer to the Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to the societies where Islam is practice d. In the modern geographical sense, these terms refers to countries where Islam is widespread, although there are no agreed criteria for inclusion.

Keyword: Islamic State, Notion of Dawla, Notion of Islamic State.




The Needs to Hold Inventory


Musa Umar Farouq

Marketing Department, School of Administrative and Business Studies, College of Administration, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi



The main reasons for holding stock are; (i) to accommodate variations in demand; (ii) to take account of variable supply times; (iii) to take advantage of quantity discounts; (iv) to take advantage of seasonal and other price fluctuations; (v) to provide customers with a service ex-stock, rather than having to wait for production cycles; and (vi) to minimize production delays caused by lack of parts. According to Pandy (l991:902) and Starr and Miller (l962:17), there are three motives for holding inventories; (1) the transaction motive which emphasized the need to maintain inventories to facilitate smooth production and sales operation; (2) the precautionary motive which necessitates holding inventories to guard against the risk of unpredictable changes in demand and supply forces and other factors; and (3) the speculative motive which influences the decision to increase, or reduce inventory levels to take advantage of price fluctuations.

Keyword: Reduce, Forces, Factors, Inventory, Influence, Decision, Increase, Motive, Speculative, Take, Advantage, Disadvantage, Holding, Transaction, Fluctuations, Materials, Support, Supply, Demand, Company, Services, Quality, Dublication, Objectives, Continuity, Maintain, Price, Simple Records, Order, Programme, Industry, Operation, Basic, Concerned, Competitive, Avoid, Flow, Standard, Meet, Adequate, Level, Stock, Analysis, Schedule, Delivery, Key, Items, Periodical, Reviews, Adjust, Open, Techniques, Commitment, Value.




WAQF and Enterprenuership: An Ignored Mechanism for Modern Economic Development in Nigeria


Abubakar Yerima Chabbal

Department of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State



This study is a qualitative research and employed an Explorative Content Research Design, which aimed to evaluate the role Waqf can play toward entrepreneurship development in Nigeria.Waqf institution is design as a social intervention by the community for helping one another, especially those in financial difficulties. It started right from the time of Prophet Muhammad (SAW), where wealthy individuals during His life surrender their properties and resources for the use of less privilege members of the community. The institution creation some sort of social belonging and unity among faithful Muslims. In latter time, it was turn into a system of developing the whole society by creating opportunity of reducing unemployment rate because the waqf subject become a source of livelihood to the less privilege members of the then community. In view of this, there is need for the Nigerian to explore the possible advantages of the waqf institution in such a way that it will benefit its citizens. That is wealthy and philanthropic individuals and can invest portion of the resource for the use of less privilege citizens. As this will help the government alone in doing all the needed basic services.

Keyword: Enterprenuership, Ignored, Mechanism, Modern Economic, Development, Nigeria.




Comparative Analysis of Least Squares Adjustment of Ellipsoidal Heights for Effective and Sustainable Development


Zakari, Danladi, Adamu Makama Pindiga and Abdulkadir Abubakar

Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, School of Environmental Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



Leveling operation was carried out with a digital level in order to determine the reduced level of points. BM223 was used as the bench mark whose reduced level is 605.155. This reduced level was collected from the Ministry of Lands and Survey, Bauchi State, which was used as a reference point. The level circuit consists of six (6) points including the bench mark and ten (10) independent lines which were repeatedly measured and recorded as described in Figure 1. The reduced level of ZK1, ZK2, ZK3, ZK4 and ZK5 was determined and the distance between the bench marks were measured and recorded. The height differences were deduced from the observed reduced level which was used in the least squares adjustment. Each line in a circuit was measured five (5) times and their most probable values, standard deviations and variances were computed and tabulated in Table 2 and the reduced level of the points are showed in Table 1. This research compared three methods of least square adjustment which includes; least square principle, observation and condition equation by the application of programmable calculator. The results obtained from the three methods are the same as showed in Table 4. The adjusted reduced level of the point might be useful in civil engineering, building project, environmental monitoring and geodetic application etc.

Keyword: Analysis, Squares Adjustment, Ellipsoidal Heights, Effective, Sustainable Development.




Usage and Influence of Social Media on Polytechnic Students in Nigerian Tertiary Institution


Ahmad, A.,1 Yakubu, N. D.,2 Sulaiman, A. H.,3 Abdullahi, A. H.4

1ICT/MIS Directorate, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi 2 & 3Computer Science Department Federal Polytechnic Bauchi 4Library and Information Science Department Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.



This paper examined social media usage among polytechnic students vis-à-vis its influence on their studies. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. The population for the study comprised all polytechnic students of the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria. All the Six schools (faculties) were involved, from which 240 students were selected using random and convenience sampling techniques. A self-designed questionnaire titled “Social Media Usage and Influence Questionnaire (SMUI-Q)” was used for data collection. The results show social media platforms used by the students, include WhatsApp (95%), Facebook (86%), Instagram (67%), YouTube (61%), Twitter (23%), LinkedIn (20%), Google Plus (11%), Snapchat (8%), and Skype (5%). Further, the students spend an average of 2-3 hours daily on social media, and their perceived purposes of social media usage include: socialisation (85%), information (76%), academic (75%), business (55%), and entertainment (51%). The results highlight Internet addiction (47%), distraction (35%), anti-social behaviour (7%), cyber bullying (2%), and writing and spelling skills deficiency (28%) as the influences of social media on polytechnic studies. The study concludes that the social media platforms mostly used are WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube; which are used mainly for socialisation, information, and academic purposes and may also perhaps suggest the reason for addiction to social media.

Keyword: Usage; Influence; Social media; Polytechnic Studies; Nigerian Tertiary Institution.




Educating Sub-Cultural Groups: A Remedy for Peace and National Development [A Case Study of Borno State]


Maman Nathan Enos and Mari Likita

Department of Christian Religious Studies, Kashim Ibrahim College of Education.



This is to review the educating sub-cultural groups: a remedy for peace and national development [a case study of Borno State]. Violence and chaos have been reported as major causes or factors that threaten national development. Making reference to Borno State with peculiar case of conflict many have suffered. Peace also implies the condition of freedom from strife whether internal or external. The sub-cultural group is a group identified by shared pattern of behaviour which differs from those of the surrounding culture in terms of religion, economy or region. When a sub-cultural group is identified, the next question that comes to mind is ‘What type of education is suitable to this group?’ and ‘What are the strategies that will be suitable to this group?’ Education is understood to be a tool for systematic and sustainable human and material development of nations. Therefore the need to educate other sub-cultural groups among the people with special target by way of canvassing is of immense priority.

Keyword: Educating, Sub-Cultural Groups, Remedy, Peace, National Development.




Working With Educational Idea of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for the Achievement of Education for All in Nigeria


Ahmed Sharu Khalid

Department of General Studies, Federal College of Education Kano



This paper seek to map out the millennium development goals and sustainable development goals, educational idea for the achievement of education for all in Nigeria. In doing so the paper highlights the Mandeep Development Goals as established by the United Nations, and Sustainable Development Goals for narrowing education for all agenda, by integrating millennium and sustainable development educational goals. The paper then closes with some recommendation for the government to implement the education goals of both millennium and sustainable development as this will enhance the achievement of education for all agenda.

Keyword: Millennium Development Goals, Sustainable Development Goals, Education for All, Integrating, Achievement




Public Perceptions of the Challenges in Implementing Early Childhood Education (ECE) in Imo State, Nigeria and the Way Forward


Linus Onyeme, Cajetan Osuagwu & Uchechi Dike

Department of Public Administration, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo-Ohaji, Owerri Imo State Nigeria.



Early years in life are accepted as the most important period during which children experience cognitive, language, socio emotional, perceptual and motor development which they will need for future achievement and social functioning. This is why the government has given special attention to it through various interventions that include formulation of policy documents and network of relationships among different sectors. This paper examines the public perceptions of the challenges toward implementing early childhood education in Imo state, Nigeria. It establishes that the federal government of Nigeria in its national policy on education has given official recognition to the development and provision of early childhood education in the country, the paper also identifies the inability of government among others to put to effect most of the measures it stated in the national policy on education aimed at ensuring that the policy objectives are achieved. These, it (the paper) does through the distribution of 400 questionnaires, selected through cluster sampling and analyzed with the percentage method of analysis. Some practical ways to overcome the challenges are provided.

Keyword: Early Childhood Education, Challenges, Early Years, Interventions, Programs, Implementation. National Policy on Education.




Assessment of Federal and State Government Participation in the Financing and Promoting of Small and Medium Enterprises in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria


Esther Yimi Bagobiri (Ph.D) & Nasamu Gambo (Ph.D)

*Department of Business Administration, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, State, Nigeria. **Department of Business Administration, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State.



This study assesses the role of government in financing and promoting small scale business organizations in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. Survey and correlational research design were adopted for the study. Secondary and primary data through Questionnaires were obtained from purposively selected SMEs. Regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) method were employed in the study. The outcomes show that there is a positive connection between role of government and small-scale business organizations advancement and government plays a significant role on small scale business organizations in Nigeria through their different activities. The investigation recommends among others that government ought to compel banks to put aside certain level of their credit disbursement for loaning to small business organizations and consistently consider the size of the business and profit produced when imposing tax on them. Promoting small and medium scale ventures as a strategy for economic improvement and development has consistently been a significant issue in the development approaches.

Keyword: Institutional Financing; Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs); Industrial Development




Shaft Design Analysis of a 0.1kw Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine


Ayadju1, I.W. Ujevwerume2, A. O. Edema3

1, 2, 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria.



This study is on shaft design analysis of a 0.1KW horizontal axis wind turbine. This shaft transmits mechanical power from the tip of the blade at one end to the a streamlined enclosure called a nacelle that houses key turbine components (usually including the gears, rotor and generator) at the other end. For this small 0.1 kW horizontal axis wind turbine having rotor mass of 5.85 kg and rotational speed of 381 rpm, the main shaft diameter and its design torque evaluated as 16mm and 2.64 Nm respectively. A smaller braking torque of 1.34 Nm was also observed at the output shaft (4.5mm diameter) to the alternator end.

Keyword: Shaft, Design, Analysis, Horizontal Axis, Wind Turbine




Malaria Risk Mapping in Abuja, Nigeria Using Geospatial Techniques.


Jiya Solomon Ndace

Department of Geography, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, PMB 11, Lapai, Niger State Nigeria.



Malaria incidence is annually increasing at an alarming rate due to the influence of climatic variables most especially temperature and rainfall which varies with seasonality. Thus there is need to integrate climatic and environmental parameters in the mapping malaria risk areas for effective mitigation of malaria menace. The aim of this research is to develop an operational malaria risk map for effective control and mitigation using remote sensing data and geospatial techniques. The objectives of this research include; to identify the malaria initiating parameters that contributes to the risk of malaria using remote sensing data, to determine the effects of identified factors and criteria from the identified criteria using AHP, to evaluate the identified parameters and to compare them with the existing health care facilities, to develop malaria risk map of Abuja using geospatial techniques. To achieve the stated objectives of this research, Weighted Overlay Analysis (WOA) of multi-criteria for the Climatic factors, topographic, and infrastructural was carried out. These data were processed and analyzed by ArcGIS, Erdas Image, Envi Classic Software. The findings show that 11.61%, 24.84%, 29.51%, 22.64% and 11.37% of the study area land mass were found to have Very low, low, moderate, high, and Very high malaria risk respectively. The findings from this research demonstrates clearly that geospatial techniques provide consistent and reliable information for better understanding of the causative of malaria incidence within the study area. Thus this research work hereby recommends that remote sensing and GIS should be adopted in modeling malaria initiating parameters for effective control of the menace and to enhance helpful decision making regarding malaria control.

Keyword: Malaria, Mapping, Geospatial, Remote sensing, GIS.




Evaluating women Participation in Leisure and Tourism activities within Bauchi Metropolis, Nigeria


*Eldah Ephraim Buba & **Florence Elma Lagasi

*Department of Leisure and Tourism Management, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi **Department of Hospitality Management, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi



Bauchi town is the capital of Bauchi state which is located in the North Eastern part of Nigeria. The city is multi-cultural consisting of over twenty tribes of indigenous and non-indigenous tribes. Because of the cultural believes there are certain occupation, places and activities that women are not allowed to participate. In northern Nigeria, which Bauchi metropolis is part, women are seen as people that are supposed to be at home to take care of the kids. They are mostly not to be seen in some places where men are. This study evaluates women participation in leisure and tourism in Bauchi metropolis and identified areas women participate in tourism and examines the influence of family life on the choice of tourism or leisure activities. 120 survey questionnaires administered out of which 112 were returned. The women were categorized into married, unmarried, those with kids and those without kids.  Findings show a pattern in the participation of the leisure activities. Those married and those with kids choose same leisure activities. Those not married and those without kids go for almost same too. Women married and with kids participated in less leisure and tourism activities. The natures of the leisure activities they choose are mostly passive. While those without kids and those not married go for active leisure activities and travel for tourism. Factors that hinder their participation are lack of travel mobility, disposable income and free time. Other factors are insecurity, lack of facilities for women alone, religious reasons, too many children and family restrictions. The study area is a conservative area where culture and religion excludes women from freely interacting in the public. This contributed to the women inability to take on tourism activities of their choice. The government should make available recreational facilities for women so that there will be freedom of participation. Tourism cannot take place without the available income and time to travel to a place of interest. As such, employees should try to raise pay of their workers as the current minimum wage is not enough to take care of the family and with that, it is impossible to have disposable income. Women groups should try to enlighten women on the need to have leisure time and to participate in tourism. Such groups can organize such activities for its members too.

Keyword: Tourism, Participation, Leisure, Evaluating, Women, Bauchi Metropolis




The Prevalent of DevOps Operation in Current Global Application Upgrowth


Shamsuddeen Rabiu1, Dr. Abubakar Aminu Mu’azu2

1Department of Computer Science, Federal College of Education, Katsina. 2Department of Computer Science, Umaru Musa Yaradua University, Katsina.



In current world application development, organizations are introducing agile and lean software development techniques namely DevOps, in operations to increase the pace of their software development process and to improve the quality of their software. However, such practices increase workload by tremendous amount until it is difficult to achieve without the help of technology. In this paper we describe the role of docker in DevOps. We first summarize the results of a Literature Review that we performed to discover what researchers have written about DevOps and Docker. We then gather the related works on our special topic proposal. In the next section, we discuss our findings from the papers we review. Then, we describe the results of different study on DevOps, Docker and the relation between them. As part of our findings, we observed that most organizations that practices DevOps require Docker technology to empower their production.

Keyword: current Global application development, DevOps, Containerization, Microservices.




The Involvement of Cultural and Creative Arts   in the Use of New Information and Communication Technologies – A Case Study of Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo


Ojo Oluwasegun Micheal

Department of Cultural and Creative Arts, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo



This paper examined the strategic plans in promoting the use of new Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in teaching and learning of Cultural and Creative Arts at Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo.  Fifty subjects (30 males and 20 females) were involved in the study. Their ages ranged between 12 and 25 years. The analysis of data was based on group therapy operation known as “Delphi technique” used for developing and improving consensus. It showed how this kind of study in Nigeria and Africa could be used to provide support, facilitate and manage cooperative learning. Recommendations were made on concrete decision on the use and application of information and communication issues, democratization of access to information, improving the links to the worldwide networks as well as user’s actions etc. It was concluded that technology are vehicles of social transformation and technology transfer etc.

Keyword: Information Communication Technology, Promotion of Cultural and Creative Arts with new technology.




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