Hummingbird Int’l Journal of Innovative Social Sci. & Human Res. Vol.22 (6)

Hummingbird Int’l Journal of Innovative Social Sciences & Humanities Research (HUJISSHR)

Vol. 22 (6) June, 2022.

Published by: Hummingbird Publications and Research International,

Centre for Trans-Saharan Studies, University of Maiduguri, UNIMAID,

Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.


The Impact of Foreign Aid on Female Human Capital Formation in Nigeria


Amanda Olowoniyi

Department of International Relations, Faculty of Humanities, Social and Management Sciences, Elizade University.



The impact of foreign aid on the female gender has remained a subject of debate among Scholars. While some Scholars asserts it positive contribution to the female gender, majority (Ndikumana ,2016 &Swain, Garikipati, &Wallentin, 2020) observes that its impact is dependent on other factors This study explores the impact of foreign aid on female human capital formation in Nigeria. It adopts the survey research method, using a random sample size of 240 females engaged in five sectors; academia (senior lecturers), medical profession (doctors and nurses), entrepreneurs (business owners), students (secondary/tertiary) and those in politics and governance. This study is hinged on the theory of liberalism and liberal feminism and post-gender theories. Our findings shows that there is no significant impact of foreign aid on human capital formation in Nigeria. This research concludes that the impact of foreign aid on female human capital is not significant in Nigeria. It recommends that foreign aid should be sector specific in order to enhance measurement of the attainment of objectives. The disbursement process should be made more transparent and donor agencies must work with non-state actors to ensure effective management of funds, proper coordination and monitoring.

Keyword: Foreign Aid, Gender, Human Capital




United Nations and ICJ Institutionalization of Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Quest for Self-Determination


Ogunde Abraham Adedoyin; & Adewumi Eyitayo Folasade (PhD)

Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Babcock University



The indigenous populace of Western Sahara pursuit of self-determination and the sovereignty of the Western Sahara territory emerged from Morocco’s annexation of the region in 1975 which was led by King Hassan II when he coordinated a march of Moroccans and Mauritania troops in 1975 into Western Sahara to assume occupancy of the region. This annexation made the Indigenous Sahrawi’s believe their self-determination had been denied after Morocco argued that Spain was officially pulling out of the greater part of its colonies and arranged the land to Morocco according to Madrid Accords of 1975. This pursuit of self-determination and sovereignty has since been institutionalized by United Nations, however, UN presence in the conflict has led to complaints on the basis that a mutually acceptable solution has not been provided. The objective of this study examined Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Quest for Self-determination. This study adopted the qualitative research design which involved the use of historical research method, sources of data are secondary data that includes; journal articles, textbooks and e-resources from the internet. The study found that the recognition of Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara in 2020 by the United States poses a problem to the attainment of Sahrawi’s right to self-determination. This study concluded that Morocco’s annexation of Western Sahara is illegal and thus, the Sahrawi’s should exercise their right to self-determination. Finally, the study recommended that UN change its approach of institutionalizing Sahrawi’s self-determination into a realistic diplomatic initiative.

Keyword: Annexation, Conflict, Self-determination, Sovereignty, United Nations




The Deficit of Governance in Africa: A Case Study of Nigeria


*Akindoyin, Dare Isaac; & **Akuche, Chukwuebuka Chukwuemeka

*Department of Political Science and International Relations, Augustine University, Ilara-Epe, Lagos State, Nigeria. **Department of Politics and International Relations, Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.



Good governance is indeed a major ingredient that sets apart countries in the global north from the countries in the global south. The deficit of good governance is one of the challenges of development in the modern state in Africa. African states occupy a paradoxical position, being rich in natural, mineral and human resources; however, they are grossly lacking in the ability to properly and sustainably channel these resources for achieving reasonable development. Citing Nigeria as a case study, this paper contends that, the deficit is really palpable. To be specific, examples of deficit of governance in Nigeria in this 21st century are: lack of good roads, epileptic power supply, health facilities that are in the state of dysfunctionality to mention a few. Given the foregoing, the present study makes a systematic and critical attempt at understanding the reasons for the deficit of governance and how the problem of the deficit can be sustainably addressed. The paper seeks to engage in a discursive analysis of the deficit of Governance in Nigeria, its major impact on the society at large, how this deficit affects the sustainability of democracy and the way forward in enabling democratic sustainability through good Governance in Nigeria. The study employs purely qualitative methodology with data sourced from secondary sources such as; newspapers, magazines, chapters in edited books, articles in scholarly journals, internet sources.

Keyword: Africa, Deficit, Democracy, Governance, Nigeria, Sustainability




Ihi Anu: An Investigation into Igbo Therianthropy


Ikechukwu Anthony Kanu

Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Tansian University Umunya, Anambra State, Nigeria.



Therianthropy is a phenomenon that has been observed in different parts of the world. In some cases, it exists as a mythology and at other cases it exists in the form of magic; at some other times, it is understood as a reality. However, within the context of Africa, the idea of shape-shifting goes beyond magic and mythology. It is neither a myth nor a magic. It is real. This piece focused on the idea of therianthropy from the Igbo perspective- to see how it might have emerged in the Igbo traditional society and evolved until this time. This research is significant to the understanding of African Traditional Religion in general given than the Igbo are the largest ethnic group of southeastern Nigerian with very strong religious organizations that have sustained and shaped her worldview for centuries. An understanding of this dimension of the Igbo religion, would, therefore, open up new vistas in the study of traditional religion in Africa. This piece responded to questions such as: How is therianthropy practiced among the Igbo? Was it just a social practice or a religious practice? Is there any connection between Igbo therianthropy and witchcraft? Can Igbo therianthropy be understood as totemism? What is the philosophy behind Igbo therianthropy? This work discovered that Igbo therianthropy occupies a fundamental place in Igbo traditional religion. Even though it has social implications, it is fundamentally a religious practice. For the purpose of this study, the phenomenological method of inquiry was employed in the collection of data, and the hermeneutic method of inquiry was patronized for the purpose of the interpretation of the data collected. The culture area approach in the study of religion was used, given that this study is limited to the Igbo speaking people of Eastern Nigeria.

Keyword: Ihi Anu, Iyi Anu, Mmadu Igho Anumanu, Igbo, Africa, Nchoputa, Akuk




Effect of Perceived Ease of Use and Security of E-Banking on Customer Satisfaction


Ngozi Folashade Diokpa

Distance learning Centre, ABU Business School, Faculty of Administration and Law ABU Zaria Distance, Learning Center. Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria



E-Banking has transformed the banking industry in Nigeria with several new products and ways of conducting the banking business. This has led to increase competition in the banking sector and also to need to better satisfy bank customers. Therefore, there is a need to explore options that can improve customer satisfaction. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of perceived ease of use and security of e-banking on customers’ satisfaction in Abuja. The data of this study was collected from primary source using questionnaire to obtain responses from bank customers. The collected data was the analyzed using correlation and regression analysis with the SPSS version 20. Consequently, the findings from the study showed that perceived ease of use and security positively and significantly influence customers satisfaction of first bank customers in Abuja. The correlation analysis showed that there is a significant and positive relationship between E-banking attributes and customer satisfaction. Therefore, the study recommends that banks should improve the user friendliness of their e-banking channels and increase the level of encryption of their security to improve customers experience and increase satisfaction.

Keyword: Perceived ease of use, Security and Customer satisfaction




Relationship between Language Policy and the Prospect of Jenjo Langage in Taraba State


Isaac Abenitu Mathew

English Department, College of Education, P.M.B 1021 Zing, Taraba State.





Issues surrounding language shift and language extinction has become a source of concern to sociolinguistic in particular and minority language speakers in general. There is no doubt that many languages have gone extinction in Nigeria and many more are at the verge of extinction. Based on this assertion, this research work examined the relationship between language policy and the prospect of Jenjo language in Taraba State. It was a descriptive study guided by three (3) research questions and hypotheses with twelve thousand three hundred and forty-five (12,345) total population out of which one hundred and twenty (120) sample size were drawn using purposeful sampling technique. A researcher-developed questionnaire titled “Language Policy and Prospect of Jenjo Language in Taraba State Questionnaire (LPPJPTSQ)’ was used for data collection while face and content validity of the instrument was done by two experts in the field of languages at Taraba State university, Jalingo. Also, pilot study was conducted on thirty (30) respondents outside the study area, which yielded .74% coefficient with the aid of Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Analysis. The data collated was analyzed using Mean, PPMC and Regression Analysis @ 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed no significant relationship between language policy and the prospect of minority languages; there is no significant relevance of language policy in meeting the problems of Jenjo language as well as there is significant moderating effect of language policy on the prospect of Jenjo language in Taraba State. Among others, the study recommended that the speakers of Jenjo language should prioritize the use of Jenjo language at home and abroad, and that Jenjo people should use their language to document cultural values and heritage, and encourage their younger generation to use the language. The study therefore concluded that language policy is essential to the promulgation of Jenjo language beyond its current status in the state.

Keyword: Language policy, minority language, major language, Jenjo language, Tarabans




Re-Visiting Nigerian Pidgin as a Feasible Solution to Nigeria’s National Language Problem


Odekunbi, Sunday Kehinde; & Adelowo, Abimbola, D.

Department of English, School of Languages, Oyo State College of Education, Lanlate, Oyo State



This paper aims at contending that, if Nigerian government and Nigerians generally are serious with their intention to replace English language with an indigenous language, the Nigerian Pidgin is a feasible option. To drive home our argument, we start by giving the reason for the agitation for an indigenous national language and the efforts that have been made to arrive at one. We then attempt to define Pidgin and venture into defining the Nigerian Pidgin before stretching out the reasons for advancing it as a feasible option. We finally recommend that since teachers in the areas where NP is dominant have been using it unofficially for the teaching of their students, the Nigerian government should declare it as a school subject like Yoruba, English and Hausa, and as well make it the medium of instruction at the pre-primary and early primary school levels. The Nigerian people generally should also change their negative attitude to its use as a step towards making it a possible replacement for the English language in the not-too distant future.

Keyword: National language, Nigerian Pidgin, lingua franca, English, Broken English, indigenous language




An Assessment of the International Political Economy of Technology Transfer to the Third World


*Veno Micloth Yongo; & **Aminu Moses Namuko

*Department of International Relations and Strategic Studies, School of Social and Management Sciences, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. **Department of Social Development, School of Administrative and Business Studies, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.



In this paper, we investigate and present the political economy of international transfer of technology to the third world. The paper looked at the seeming insincerity of the so-called technology transfer as there are strings attached to all that is involved in the process and implementation of the transfer especially from the North to the South. The paper briefly exposes the fact, that the so-called transfer of technology is after all, not genuine and that is almost a continuation of exploitation of the South by the North in a sense. One of the recommendations is that, Africa should be declared a priority action zone and to make full use of the instruments provided by the Council of Europe’s North-South Center in Lisbon, by devoting a quadripartite meeting to discussing sciences and technology in Africa and in particular, the question of technology transfer and development especially to the third world.

Keyword: Assessment, International, Political Economy, Technology Transfer, Third World




Exploring The Language of Gender Metaphors in Ola Rotimi’s our Husband has Gone Mad Again and Mungo Beti’s Mission to Kala


Oladipo, Ishaq Olasunmbo

Department of Hausa, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo.



This study examines the tenor of gender metaphors in Ola Rotimi’s ‘Our Husband Has Gone Mad Again’ and Mungo Beti’s ‘Mission to Kala’ with a view to comparing how genders are portrayed by means of metaphoric expressions in two African nations of different colonial experiences. The heterogeneous nature of African cultures serves as a basis for the reader-based interpretation of gender representations involving an Anglophone African play-text and a Francophone African prose. The work assumes the narrative of gender value expression as a culturally conditioned attitude that could, however, be influenced through access to wider knowledge in cognizance of culture as a dynamic phenomenon. The notion of Womanism proposed by Kolawole (1998) and cited in Aliyu (2015), as a variant of the Afro-centric theories of Feminism that emphasises the significance of culture on gender issues is adopted as theoretical framework. Findings reveal striking diversity in both similar and dissimilar inter-gender and intra-gender practices representing the values assigned to males and females in the settings compared. The study, therefore, posits that relevant insights could be gained for improving mutual gender appreciation and positive interrelationships devoid of gender-based derogatory adjectives or related forms of discrimination, based on the knowledge of different cultures and practices that are reflected in literary texts across cultures.

Keyword: Metaphors, Diversity, Womanism, Gender, Discrimination.




The Effects of Internal Security on Educational Challenges and Development in Nigeria.


Akilu Umar Bakari

Department of Business Technology and Management, The polytechnic Bali.



The security trials threatening the Nigerian state in this 21st century have disregarded any definite justification both from the government and private viewpoints. Unexpectedly these challenges are internally generated. Expressions like militant, insurgent and terrorist became a nearby impression in line with the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria where attacks on people, property and government infrastructures are Spartan. The challenge is that some of these groups’ aggressions have rare the peaceful co-existence of the society and the core value of the Nigerian state. This paper explores documentary analysis on the severity of attacks on the Nigerian state from the fourth republic with a key interest on the possibility of these attacks to lead to the balkanization of the country into different nations as suggested by viewers.Terrorism is a global phenomenon. It is the use of violence and intimidation to coerce for various reasons. In recent times, the spate of terrorist attacks by various groups seeking political and religious reforms in Nigeria is alarming and has become worrisome as they pose a serious threat to Nigeria’s security. Furthermore, they are gradually destroying public confidence in the nation’s security system. Conditions which support the development and growth of terrorism in Nigeria range from socio-economic factors such as poverty to religion. The paper argues that terrorism has adverse implications for Nigeria’s security. Socio-economic transformation, security awareness and sensitization and collaboration among security agents among others are advocated as possible solutions to the menace.

Keyword: Effects, Internal Security, Educational Challenges, Development, Nigeria




Language, Culture and National Development


Simon Timothy ; Landi G. Amos ; & Fatima Sani Umar

English Unit, School of General Studies, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi.



Nigeria is the most multilingual nation in Africa with about 500 to 525 indigenous languages with diverse cultures which have various status ranging from developed, developing, and underdeveloped (Emenanjo 1993:3, Aziza 1998:257). Language has been identified as a conduit for transmission of culture, idea, thought, etc. from one generation to another. The work recognizes that 54 years after independence that English (the ex- colonial masters’ language) is still the language of education, governance, commerce, judiciary, etc. in Nigeria and as such has hindered equal participation of the entire citizenry in governance, access to information and full involvement in government policies and programs. The paper is a critical appraisal of the role of language and culture in national development. The work is a call on government, stakeholders, and individuals to put effort towards forestalling exclusion of a representative population, language endangerment and possible extinction of the indigenous languages; this can be achieved through vigorous and regular language preservation and maintenance programmers. A lost language is a lost identity and that amount to a lost race and culture.

Keyword: Language, Unity, Culture, Development, National Development




Social Media as the Fifth Estate of Public Communication


Nlemchukwu, N. Fidelis; & Bitrus, A. Festus

Department of Mass Communication, the Federal Polytechnic, Mubi.



Social media as the fifth estate of public communication was looked into and discovered that social media is emerging as a powerful phenomenon across Nigeria as showcased by popular citizen journalism websites. The Sahara Reporters, one of such websites, is noted for its timely reports on issues and events as evidenced in a study conducted by Dare (2011, p.44) where 86 of the 120 respondents surveyed cited the Sahara reporters as a source of breaking news. By its interactivity and ability to deliver news in split seconds, social media seen as the “fifth estate” have posed a serious challenge to the mainstream journalism in Nigeria as the “fourth estate” of public communication. In congruency with the Democratic Participant Media Theory and the Public Sphere model, the researcher came to the reasoned conclusion that in this modern age, the social media have emerged as alternative news sources; since audiences now depend on them largely in meeting their information needs. In as much as social media in Nigeria has broadened people’s access to a variety of news, this study suggests that a proper synergy between the mainstream journalism and social media journalism is recommended to ascertain the best way(s) forward for effective and efficient journalism practices in the country which will suit the modern age public communication. The need therefore to sensitize Nigerian social media journalists on proper use of this emerging brand of journalism is obvious. Among other things, it was recommended that operators of social media should endeavour to observe the core ethics of conventional journalism, that is, accuracy and objectivity in their news dissemination endeavours.

Keyword: Children, Nigeria,, Niger Delta,, Violence, Women.




Language through Community Theatre as Cultural Alternative to Insecurity Challenges in Nigeria in the 21st Century


Musa Toro Galadima; And Febisola Olowolayemo Bright, PhD

Department of English, Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria



Language as a means of communication enables human beings to speak and be understood by others who are in the same language. It is one of the important components of community theatre that helps to disseminate information to people living in a community. The use of language in this type of theatre also helps in putting across messages with the aim of stimulating community actions to address identified problems and issues bothering the entire community. This paper discusses the concept of community theatre, the function of theatre in the society and the role of language in it. It also looks at the insecurity challenges in Nigeria and the use of community theatre as a cultural remedy to insecurity challenges in the country. Recommendations such as initiating of community theatre groups in local government areas all over the country to help in educating and enlightening the local communities on insecurity issues through drama presentations are proffered.

Keyword: Language, Community theatre, Cultural alternative, insecurity challenges




Customer Relationship Management And Marketing Performance Of Deposit Money Banks In Bida, Niger State


Shehu Salihu & Bello, Babatunde Sikiru

Department of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic, Bida Niger State.



Customer relationship management is no doubt strategic in the marketing performance of Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Nigeria. It is clear that DMBs Must work on their relationship with customers to achieve cordial customer relationship, organizational profitability and smooth running of their businesses. The purpose of study is to explore the effect that customer relationship management has on the marketing performance of Deposit Money Banks in Bida, Niger state. Zenith Bank Plc Bida Branch operation office is being considered as the focus of this work. Revelations from the review of related works showed that strategic customer relationship management has always been having major role to play in the operational performance and progress of Deposit Money Banks (DMBs). The study used exploratory methodology, population of the study is 80 Zenith Bank customers out of which 67 were picked using Taro Yamani’s formula. Closed ended questionnaires were administered as research instrument for convenience and to save time of respondents. Frequency analysis was run on the collected questionnaires and hypotheses were tested with Chi-square at 5% level of significance. This shows that there is strong relationship between Customer Relationship Management and Marketing Performance of Banks. A major finding of the study states that DMBs with good customer relationship management will have good marketing performance. The study therefore concludes that DMBs should provide necessary platform for relationship with their customers and ensure that regular review of the strategies for customer management relationship.

Keyword: Customer, Relationship, Management; Marketing, Performance, Deposit, Money, Banks




Trace Theory of Movement in the Mwaghavul Language


*Gungret Andrew Dawet; & **Chukwuemeka Christian Okorie

*University of Jos, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. **The Federal polytechnic Damaturu, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria



The study examines the application of the trace theory of movement in the Mwaghavul language – a Chadic language of the Afro-asiatic phylum – while exploring the syntax of the extraction site within Chomsky’s Government and Binding framework and the types of trace that can possibly be found in the language. The data for the study were elicited from native speakers of the Mwaghavul language through face-to-face interviews and structured questionnaires. The analysis showed that Mwaghavul allows non-terminal trace (gap) and terminal trace (a pronominal element) at the extraction site of a moved element in wh-movement but allows only non-terminal trace in NP-movement.

Keyword: Trace, extraction site, Mwaghavul, wh-movement, NP-movement.




Explaining Africa’s Economic Dilemma in the Context of the Dependency Theory


Deborah Ebunoluwa Oluwadara

Department of History & International Studies, Babcock University, Nigeria



Africa has experienced a number of drawbacks in its attempt to achieve economic development. While some of these challenges are derivative of the internal inadequacies of the African nations, some others such are attributable to external factors. It is obvious from extant literature that many African states are still struggling to overcome these hurdles, Africa as a whole does not seem to be faring well as far as economic development is concerned. Using the historical analysis method, this paper sought to investigate the extent to which the dependency theory is sufficient as an explanation for the economic dilemma of African states. In the bid to achieve this, books, journal articles and other online sources were consulted to explain the dependency theory, identify some of Africa’s daunting economic challenges, attempt an explanation for those challenges and explain them in the light of dependency theory. The paper found that dependency theory offers a satisfactory explanation for the state of perpetual economic dependence of African states on the industrialized nations of the world and their trade imbalances. The paper also found that just the apostles of dependency theory put forward, economic development in the Global North has not translated to development in the Global South, and rather it comes at the expense of the latter. This paper concluded that as far as economic theories of international relations go, the dependency theory offers a rather satisfying explanation for the myriad of challenges and the complexities of Africa’s underdeveloped nations with the developed countries. The supposition made by the dependency theorists that economic development in the Global North does not translate to economic development everywhere else in the world; rather, such development comes at the expense of the less developed nations whose interests are perpetually subverted and subordinated to those of the Global North is worthy of mention as it proves to be true.

Keyword: African Development, Africa’s Economic Dilemma, Dependency Theory, Global North, Global South.




Skill Improvement Needs of Technical Teacher’s in Teaching planer, and grinding Machines Operations in Technical Colleges in Kaduna State


Dr. Ali, Awalu Maliki; Yashim Yohanna; & Chimen Sabo Jamous.

1Department of Technical Education, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Kaduna State College Education Gidan Waya, Kafanchan



The major purpose of the study was to determine skill improvement needs of technical teachers in teaching planer and grinding machines operations in technical colleges in Kaduna State.  two research questions were answered and two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.  The population for the study consisted of 103 experienced and less experienced technical teachers, drawn from technical colleges in Kaduna State.  The entire population was studied; hence no sample was taken.  Survey research design was used for the study.  Structured questionnaire on (SINTTMSOTC) was used to generate data for the study.  This instrument was face validated by three experts from the faculty of Vocational and Technical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.  The questionnaire was pilot tested with a sample of 20 experienced and less experienced technical teachers’ in technical college, Kano State.  Cronbach Alpha reliability test was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and this yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.84.  Data analyzed using mean statistics for the research questions and t-test was used to test the null hypotheses.  It was recommended that experienced and less experienced technical teachers in technical colleges should build capacity on skill improvement needs, needed by students for effective functioning in the planer and grinding machines operations.  This could be achieved by organizing workshops and seminars, and also to undergone re-training in their areas of specializations.

Keyword: teaching, technical teachers, machines, skills, improvement needs.



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