Hummingbird Int’l Journal of Applied Ecology Env. Design Vol.22 (4)

Hummingbird Int’l Journal of Applied Ecology and Environmental Design (HUJAEED)

Vol. 22 (4) June, 2022.

Published by: Hummingbird Publications and Research International,

Centre for Trans-Saharan Studies, University of Maiduguri, UNIMAID,

Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.


Characteristic of Hollow Sandcrete Blocks in Kaduna South Local Government Area


T.Y. Akanbi; K.O. Kevin; M.C. Okah; & P. Uzzah

Dept. of Civil Engineering and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Ground Communication Engineering, Airforce Institute of Technology (AFIT) Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria.



Characteristic of hollow sandcrete blocks of some selected block producer in Kaduna south local government area. A total of five (5) block producers were visited and aggregates used in the production of sandcrete block collected, a total of 5 blocks per producer was collected and transported to the laboratory of Airforce Institute of Technology where it was cured for a total of 14 days. The test carried out on the aggregates used for the production of sandcrete blocks includes: sieve analysis, specific gravity and bulk density.  And the test conducted on the sandcrete blocks includes Dimension and compressive strength test. The mix composition of each of the block producer was also determined. The test result obtained from the physical properties of sand from the various block producers revealed that sand used by the selected block producers in Kaduna state do comply with the specified standard of grading of aggregates, the mix proportion used by the selected block producers is generally between one part of cement to twelve or  sixteen parts of sand by volume (1:12 or 16), In terms of dimension, most of the blocks did not meet up the required dimension, the average compressive strength of the blocks  ranged from 0.18 N/mm2 to 0.44 N/mm2. The study confirmed that mix ratio, quality, and mixing of the constituent materials affected the quality of sandcrete blocks.

Keyword: sand, Sandcrete Blocks, Compressive Strength, Material Composition, Curing




The Impact of Geo-Information Technoloy in Effective Healthcare Delivery


Ishaya Goje Musa¹; Solomon Dyachia Zakka²; & Abdulkadir Babale Lawal³

¹Department of Surveying and Geo-Informatics, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria ²Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria ³Department of Quantity Surveying, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria.



The environmental impact on human health is important. According to WHO 2013, environmental hazards are responsible for about 25% of the total burden of disease worldwide and nearly 35% applies to Africa. They also asserted that, millions of deaths would have been avoided if our environment had been healthier and some of the environmental problems that affect human health are properly address through the use of an effective and robust technology. In recent years, there is no doubt that technology has made a significant impact in the medical world. Advancements range from those that improve the comfort of many patients to those that extend their lives. Perhaps one of the most interesting technologies that has emerged onto the scene is one meant to more efficiently address geographical links to illnesses: Geo-information systems, or Geographic Information System (GIS). This paper therefore highlight the role of Geo-information technology in healthcare delivery and advanced some far reaching recommendations for effective management of healthcare services.

Keyword: Geo-Information, technology, applications, medical science, healthcare.




The Analysis of Site Value Tax as a Key Indicator to Revenue Mobilization in Nigeria


Orekan, Atinuke Adebimpe

Department Of Estate Management, College of Environmental Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.



Site value tax is a form of property tax which is levied on bare site without development. It is normally based on the open market value of land.  Previous studies have shown that land value tax has been practiced in other developed countries and has contributed to the revenue generation and also curbing of land speculation. Despite this, it has not been implemented in Nigeria before. In view of this, this study analysed the role and relevance of this tax in countries where it has been established and evaluate it. This is to serve as an avenue for revenue mobilization and also to curb land speculation in Nigeria. To achieve this, questionnaires were also administered to 171 residents in developing towns in Ogun state. Likewise, interview were conducted amongst 4 Top-government officials at the Bureau of Land and Survey in Ogun state. The information gathered were analysed using the frequency distribution table and relative importance index. The study revealed that most residents owners would prefer the introduction of site value tax to other form of property taxes because it would make land accessible to private individuals rather than land speculators, and this would improve government revenue. The result of RII from residents surveyed as the most preferred choice of property tax is 0.90, followed 0.89 ranked as second for tenement rate.   

Keyword: Site Value Tax, Property taxation, Revenue mobilization, Gross domestic product.




Impact of Health and Safety Deviance Normalization on Labour Performance of Construction Projects in Abuja, Nigeria


Usman, A.; & Tsado, A. J.

Department of Quantity Surveying, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.



This study assessed the impact of health and safety deviance normalisation on the labour performance of construction projects in Abuja, Nigeria, with the view of suggesting strategies for eliminating health and safety deviance normalisation. A total of 155 copies of the questionnaire were administered, and 150 copies were returned and used for data analysis, with a response rate of 97%. The analysis of the data was carried out with the use of percentage, mean item score, and Spearman’s rank correlation analysis. The study identified fourteen (14) major causes of health and safety deviance normalization. All fourteen causes had a mean score (MS) ranging between 4.52 and 2.94, with an average mean score of 3.67, which implies the identified causes are important. The result of Spearman’s rank correlation analysis revealed that there exists a positive, fairly strong and significant relationship between the causes of health and safety deviance normalisation and labour performance. At the 5% level of significance (p = 0.01; r = 0.567). The study identified six (6) strategies for eliminating health and safety deviance normalisation by the workers and management (average MIS = 4.09). The study concludes that there is a low level of occupational health and safety policy application and performance in the construction industry. This poor health and safety performance is caused by HS risk normalization promoted by factors such as prioritization of production over safety at construction sites, lack of training of labor, employees’ attitude towards work, inadequate manpower at construction sites, planning issues during the construction process, employee demands, and lack of technical support to labor at the site.

Keyword: Impact, Health and Safety, Deviance Normalization, Labour Performance, Construction Projects




Environmental and Socio-Economic Impact of Artisanal and Small Scale Mining in Bosso Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria.


Mathew, G.; & Suleiman, M.Y

Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State.



Artisanal and small-scale mining is an informal activity undertaken by individuals or groups of people that rely heavily on manual labor through the use of simple instruments and methods without prior exploration and exploitation activities. The study assessed the environmental and socio-economic impact of artisanal and small scale mining in Bosso Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria. The objectives are to identify the environmental baseline conditions of the study areas before the mining activities, assess the environmental and socio-economic impacts of mining activities in the study areas and compare the impacts across the three study locations which analyzed and utilised both primary (Questionnaire, Observation and interview) and secondary ( landsat imageries of 1987, 2000 and 2020)  data in the study area Kpapi, Chanchaga and Mutum Biyu. The results reveals the impact of ASM in the study area on six categories of land use/ Land cover such as built-up, forest cover, grassland, cultivated land, bare surface and water bodies shows series of changes that have taken place from 1987 to 2020, also the use of frequency and percentage revealed that agricultural production have been negatively impacted which can be attributed to soil contamination through deposit of particulate matter, creation of employment have been on the increase even though there is need to reorganize and properly educate the miners, land degradation and pits collapse as a result of mining has been identified using X-ray Fluorescence techniques also water pollution due to ASM resulting in presence of lead, Aluminum, zinc among other makes water unsafe for domestic use and aquatic life. Lastly, the significance value (0.001) is less than the P-value (0.05) which shows that there is environmental and socio-economic impact across the study area. The conclusion is that ASM activities have significant impact on the environment and socio- economic of the study area. It is therefore recommended as a way of mitigating the negative impact of ASM in the study area to set up mining committee through royalties should ensure that the vegetation of exhausted sites are properly and fully recovered by refilling all the pits and replanting the trees in those areas. This could contribute to recovering the fertility and vegetation of farmlands and forests that are lost to mining and graveling activities. Mining activities are known to contribute greatly to the economy of any Community, Local Government, state, or country in which it is found. When properly harness and managed revenue generated from it can be channeled to the developmental aspect and used to create other sources of revenue for the host community.

Keyword: Environmental, Socio-economic, Artisanal and small scale Mining, Impact




Assessment of Yoruba Cultural Ornamentation on Nigerian Monumental Buildings in Lagos, Nigeria.


Inioluwa Herit Adefila; & Mukaila El-Hussain Abdulrahman

Architecture Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.



Yoruba ornamentation involves the use of wood, clay, murals or metal works to represent the rich culture of the Yoruba people and this is presented in the form of paintings, relief ornaments or sculptures on building walls, doors, floors and window openings. The aim of this study is to evaluate the application of ornamentation in the design and construction of monumental buildings such as museum buildings in Lagos. This was achieved by examining some existing monumental buildings in Lagos to know how modernization has impacted on the rich culture of the Yoruba People in the urban milieu of Lagos. Five monumental buildings were purposely selected in Lagos and 400 questionnaires were administered to the workers in these buildings and professionals in the building industry. 271 questionnaires were returned out of which 235 was valid representing 58.75%. The responses were analysed at descriptive level. The result shows that respondents agreed to over bearing of modernization on monumental buildings but would prefer to prioritize the use of mural wall paintings and sculptures on monumental building designs. This study concludes that public monumental buildings should always reflect the culture of its location through the use of its ornamentation and this can be achieved by prioritizing cultural artistic inputs such as mural paintings on buildings and by extension, promoting the use of Yoruba ornamentation and relief on monumental buildings in the entire Yoruba speaking south-western Nigeria.

Keyword: Yoruba ornamentation, Murals, Sculptures, Monumental buildings, Culture.




Performance of Housing Finance through Commercial Banks in Kaduna, Northern Nigeria


Muhammad Umar Bello1, Lawal Usman Nasarawa1 & Hadiza Tijjani Bello1, Sakariyau Jamiu Kayode1

1Department of Estate Management & Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi.



The paper highlighted housing as an essential need of man, which is why it is described as a sine qua non of human living, the priority accorded the issue of housing is immense; to most governments, the availability of sufficient but basic housing for all is often stated as a priority for enhancing the social needs of the society. Habitable housing contributes to the health, efficiency, social behaviour and general welfare of the populace. Apart from providing man with shelter and security, housing plays a major role in serving as an asset. Commercial banks through their intermediation role engender economic development in every economy. Most studies divide the determination of commercial banks behaviors into two (2) categories that is: internal and external factors. The research approach adopted for this Study is the survey approach which is more of quantitative research. The sample frame for this study is 800 low income earners from the Kaduna State Ministry of Education. A sample size of 800 is 270.The sample size of this study is 270 Staff. Simple random sampling technique was adopted by the researcher in selecting study sample, because it allows for equal chances of the models or sample to be selected. The findings revealed that the interest rate is adequate is the item that rank first, while to obtained loan from commercial banks rank second on the adequacy of cost of housing finance by commercial bank in the study area. It was recommended that allocation for housing sector should be increased to enhance housing purchase and renovation of existing structures. The federal government should subsidize the prices of building materials which may make the objective, ‘’housing for all’’ achievable. That is provision of houses for all Nigerians at an affordable cost.

Keyword: housing, commercial bank, low income earners, residential houses and civil servants.




Integrated Assessment of Land and Water Resources Potentials towards Surface Irrigation Systems Development in Upper Ogun River Basin, Nigeria


Benjamin Ifedeji Ajisafe1, 3; & Simeon Oluwole Ogunlade (PhD)2

1Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal School of Surveying, P. M. B. 1024, Oyo, Oyo state, Nigeria. 2Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. 3C/O Ajisafe Benjamin Ifedeji, Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Facaulty of Geospatial Sciences, Federal School of Surveying, P. M. B. 1024, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria.



Global warming with resultant gross rainfall unreliability and variability negatively impacts agricultural production thus constituting serious threat to sustainable food production systems. To address this problem, there is great need for a sustainable irrigated agricultural development based on an integrated assessment of land and water resources to ensure optimal utilization. An integrated evaluation of the land and water resources of the upper Ogun River Basin was embarked on to identify suitable lands, based on mitigating factors such as terrain relief, soil physical properties, land cover/use, river proximity, road accessibility, farm settlement and markets locations, and to quantify the volume of accessible surface water to drive irrigated agricultural development. The methodology involves the utilization of georeferenced remotely sensed datasets (10m Sentinel-2 imagery, 12.5m ASTER GDEM, spatially interpolated climate and soil data on grids, etc.) and the employment of geo-statistical and geo-visualization capabilities of GIS tools (Sentinel SNAP, ENVI5.3, Google Earth Pro, ArcGIS 10.8 and HEC-HMS 4.7.1) for image processing and accuracy assessment, land cover characterisation, watershed delineation, soil suitability evaluation, hydrological simulation, etc., to generate the final products. Analytical Hierarchical Process was the fundamental scale for pair wise comparison matrix of the elements used for surface irrigation suitability evaluation. The results revealed that approximately 704.9 square kilometres (9%) of the total land area is suitable for immediate irrigated agricultural development while the total volume of surface water accessible was quantified as 11,194,205,087.223 cubic metre. This baseline information provides an important guide at the conception of an irrigated agricultural development project.

Keyword: Land suitability evaluation, Water resource assessment, Surface irrigation systems, Hydrological modelling, Analytical Hierarchical Process.




Impact of Logistics Infrastructure on Manufacturing Sector Performance in Africa: Lessons for Nigeria


*Muhammad Bello; *Yusuf Mustapha Muhammed; & **Toba Rachael Funke

*Procurement Department, National Productivity Centre, Headquarters. **Consultancy and Business Development (CBD) Department, National Productivity Centre, Headquarters.



In recognition of its role in achieving sustainable growth, which is capable of reducing high unemployment, high poverty rate and poor living standard that characterized African countries, industrialization remains an integral part of development plans of Nigeria and other African countries. In spite of this however, the manufacturing sector, which is a major driver of industrialization, continues to perform abysmally in African countries including Nigeria. The Sub-Saharan Africa average share of manufacturing in GDP of 10.6 percent in 2013 was well below the world average of 16.14 percent in the same period. This situation has resulted to a continued search for policy initiatives needed to address the problem of „manufacturing deficit‟ in the region. This study assesses the impact of logistics infrastructure, which has received very little attention in literature, on manufacturing sector performance in Africa. An unbalanced panel data for 35 African countries between 2007 and 2016 were analyzed using system GMM estimation technique. The result shows that logistics infrastructure has positive and significant relationship with manufacturing sector performance. An increase in logistic performance index by 1 point or 20% will result to an increase in the performance of manufacturing sector by a range of 3.61% and 7.48% depending on the component of logistic infrastructure used. Thus, logistic infrastructure improvement should constitute one of the industrialization strategies of African countries.

Keyword: Logistics, Infrastructure, Manufacturing Deficit, Industrialization, Performance, Improvement and African Countries




Flooding: An Environmental Problem in Built-Up Areas of Oyo Township


Oladokun, Tajudeen Ademola

Department of Geography, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Erelu, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria.



The paper assessed the activities of flood in built-up areas of Oyo Township. The assessment was based on the likely causes of flood, its effects on the Study Area and what could be the steps to be taken to control flooding activities in Oyo Township. Survey design was adopted and the study was descriptive in nature. Both primary and secondary sources of data collection were adopted. Structured questionnaire and personal observations were used and copies of the questionnaire designed were administered to 200 residents that were selected through clustered random sampling in the study area to collect primary information while secondary information were gathered from textbooks, magazines ,materials downloaded from websites. The data gathered on the field were analyzed using frequency counts and simple percentage methods. The results of the findings were presented in tables. The result however, revealed that flooding in built-up areas of Oyo Township increases due to: natural factors in some ways and largely by anthropogenic factors (human factors). The factors responsible for flooding to occur are: Excessive rainfall; erection of buildings and structures along drainage channels; dumping of refuse on the drainage paths; poor construction, inadequate urban planning and higher proportion of the surface being concreted and the structure (hard nature) of the soil surface due to population increase which could not allow easy infiltration and absorption of rain water just to mention a few. In view of the above, recommendations were made: Environmental education should be organized for people to exhibit good attitude towards their environment, town planning laws and environmental regulations should be enacted and followed for effective planning of towns, people should be equipped with adequate information about the seasonal variation in the volume of a river among others

Keyword: Assessment, Built-Up areas, Flood, Flooding activities, Oyo Township.




Evaluation of Occupational Safety Risk Factors in Building Construction Projects


*Mamman, Ekemena Juliet; *Okigbo, Ndefo Olushola; & **Oke, Abdulganiyu Adebayo

*Department of Quantity Surveying, the Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger state, Nigeria. **Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger state, Nigeria.



The inability of construction operatives’ to recognize and respond to hazards in rapidly changing and unpredictable environments hath led to the occurrence of high injury rates on construction site. The aim of the study is to evaluate the risk level of safety risk factors in building construction activities. Purposive sampling technique was used to distribute the questionnaire to construction professionals in Abuja. Risk prioritization number was used to analyse the risk level of hazard in building work items, result revealed that installation of electrical work, roof work, and installation of lift had the highest risk level with average risk scores of 11.48, 11.01, and 10.74 respectively. Evaluation of safety risk factors was conducted for the top three riskiest work items, result revealed that fall from high level, electrocution /contact with electricity and collapse of building structure were the most common accident type with average risk score of 11.23, 10.23and 8.46 respectively. It was concluded that different work operations have different magnitude of hazards and the levels of risk associated with them. It was recommended that different approaches should be applied in controlling health and safety risks across building work items and accident prevention measure should be provided for worker in order to control the tolerable risk on site. The study will serve as a guide for experts who want to carry out risk assessment on their site and will help construction practitioners in identifying the hazards in a specific construction work item on site.

Keyword: Building Construction, Hazard, Occupational safety, Risk level, Work item.




Contribution of Urban Land Use to Environmental Degradation amidst the Convid-19 Pandemic in Shuware Ward, Mubi Metropolis


Fatima S. Medugu; James Shingu; & Suleiman Mohammed Daji

Department of Urban & Regional Planning, Feberal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State.



The world is increasingly becoming urbanized and the rate at which city populations grow and countries urbanize is indicative of the pace of social and economic change. The urban infrastructural decay such as road network, lack of portable water supply, bad drainages and canals, poor housing and poor waste management systems have increased the environment threat within the urban population.. The inability of the Nigerian government to enforce those laws that would protect the environment and promote the success of its citizens only deepens the state of underdevelopment and consequence of poverty experienced by the people. The urban environment in the world have gone through various stages of deterioration which most of them can be attributed to poor planning practice, this is a very common phenomenon in Nigeria, and even so in shuware ward of Mubi town. The problem among other include  shortage of land, and population increase leading to refuse being thrown indiscriminately, congestion in houses and room spaces, flooding and erosion is also in increase around the Yazaram river bank, poor condition of housing due to poverty unemployment and joblessness. Also lack of officially constructed drainage leading to poor drainage patterns as 70% of the drainage are surface open drainage insufficient water supply also is another problem since about 50% of the respondent source of water is through water vendor.50% of the buildings are bad as revealed by the research These issues may likely lead to the development of Slum if it continued unchecked. Therefore, there is need for rehabilitation strategy to be carried out in this ward, Shuware.. Urban renewal is a planning strategy that has been introduced to improve urban conditions, which may have been observed to deteriorate in quality and efficiency.  It is also described as the aggregate of techniques which have been used for the treatment of urban problems in a physical basis. Therefore, City leaders will have to move quickly to renew urban areas, providing basic services, infrastructure, and affordable housing for their expanding populations.

Keyword: Contribution, Urban Land Use, Environment Degradation, Metropolis.




Assessment of the Impact of Cooperative Societies on Housing Provision   among the Employees of the Federal Polytechnic, Bida. Niger State.


*Dangana Ismaila; & **Abdul Sanusi

*Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bida Niger State. **Department of Architectural Technology, School of Environmental Studies, Federal Polytechnic .Bida. Niger State.



Involvement of cooperative societies in housing development is an urgent step needed to bring about the much transformation in the Nigerian housing sector. This study therefore aimed  at  assessing  the  impact  of  cooperative  society  on  housing  development  among members of Employees of Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State. ,the objectives are  , identify the existing  cooperative societies in the study area and their membership  strength ,assess total annual savings of each cooperative societies and examine numbers of beneficiary from housing loan. The cooperative societies in the institution are CT &CS , Mass cooperative society Senstaf cooperative society, Halal cooperative society and G-16 cooperative society .Purposive random Sampling technique  was adopted in selection of 355 members of cooperative societies. Data collected were analysed using descriptive analysis, cross tabulation, and charts and. It was found out amongst others that Senstaf  cooperative society records highest  number of  housing loan beneficiaries  between years 2015 and 2019 with 31,47,15,63 and 63. It therefore recommended amongst others that Cooperators should be encourage to increases their savings into cooperative societies , so that they can have access to enough housing loan, since   individual savings   determine  the amount of loan to be granted. Also Government at all levels need to encourage the sustainability of housing provision among the  cooperative society in Nigeria with a view to reduce housing problems in tertiary institution  and  Cooperative societies in the institution should look inward for their fund raising portfolio through other financial institutions in and outside the country such as Federal Housing Authority, Real Estate Investment Trust, Building Societies, Federal Mortgage Bank, commercial banks, Central Bank of Nigeria and other international financial institutions with long moratorium.

Keyword: cooperative societies, housing loan, impact, funds. Cooperators.




Most Critical Effects of Non-Implementation of Public Procurement Policy on Construction Projects Delivery in Nigeria


Mohammed Isah Leje*1, Ameenah Haja Abdullah2, and Yahaya Ahmed3

1, 2 Department of Quantity Surveying, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State. 3 Department of Estate Management & Valuation, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State.



Public procurement policy aid to accelerate infrastructural development in the country. Despite this, the persistence of scandals in the public procurement and award of contract in Nigeria points to poor implementation of public procurement policy, the magnitude of which has led to an inequitable mode of project delivery. It is in this light that this study proposed to identify the most critical effects of non-implementation of public procurement policy on construction projects delivery, which constitutes the essential elements for reforming public procurement processes in Nigeria. Accordingly, a purposive sample of 160 experienced construction professionals involved in selected projects within F.C.T, Abuja was selected, comprising 40 each of Quantity Surveyors, Structural Engineers, Architects and Project Managers. Data analysis include Mean Item Score (MIS) for ranking the variables. The results of MIS revealed that the seven most critical effects of non-implementation of public procurement policy on construction projects delivery are cost overrun, time overrun, poor financial control, increased project cost, factious claims, legal disputes and litigation, and improper contract determination. The overall findings upholds the perception that non-implementation of public procurement policy could distort the whole construction process. It was thus recommended that the government should collaborate with allied construction professionals in improving implementation of public procurement policy in Nigeria, and appropriate strategies should be adopted for evaluating and getting feedback for the purpose of achieving effective project delivery.

Keyword: Construction professionals, Construction projects delivery, Mean item score, Most critical effects of non-implementation, Public procurement policy, Reforming public procurement processes.




Analysis of Flood Risk along Galma Dam in Kubau Local Government Using Geospatial Technique


*Surv. Mohammed Nanoh Bello; **A. A. Ahmadu; ***Surv. Shuaibu Umar; & *Surv. Adewale Adebayo

*Department of surveying and Geo-informatics, Waziri Umaru Federal polytechnic Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi state. Nigeria. **Department of Geomatics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Kaduna State. Nigeria. ***Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal polytechnic Bauchi.



Flood is the most common occurring natural disaster that affect humans and their surrounding environment. It regularly claims over 20,000 lives per year and adversely affects around 75 millions people world-wide. Flooding in various parts of Nigeria have displaced millions of people from their homes, polluted water sources, destroy farmland produces and also increase the risk of diseases. This study examined the land inundation of Galma Dam using the Digital elevation model (DEM) to create awareness for future purpose. The work is limited to elevation, slope and land use and land cover (LULC) of the study area. The LULC of the study area, shows that agriculture/farmland covers 86.7% of the study area. The Digital elevation reveals that most of the areas are low land, meaning that this areas will be submerge at the release of much rain or opening of the dam in order to reduce tension on it. As such, it could be seen that agriculture /farmland are the most vulnerable to flood while a little portion of the settlement will be affected since most of it are located upland.

Keyword: Construction professionals, Construction projects delivery, Mean item score, Most critical effects of non-implementation, Public procurement policy, Reforming public procurement processes.




An Analysis of Risks Factors in Public/Private Partnership Projects and their Mitigation Measures by Contractors as a Strategy for Infrastructure Procurement in Katsina State, Nigeria


Ibrahim Sani Yar adua

Department of Quantity Surveying, Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic, Katsina.



Public Private Partnership, a cooperative venture between the public and private sectors, built on the expertise of each partner has been a veritable procurement strategy in many developed and developing nations of the world.  In Katsina state, the desire by the public authorities to enhance infrastructure development led to a number of partnerships with the private sector in the housing and other sectors.  Risk factors associated with PPP in Katsina state were studied and the contractors risk mitigation measures were assessed in this research.  Using a survey approach, the perception and feelings of stake holders in the construction industry were obtained from a sample of 76 respondents drawn from a population of 101 registered contractors and consultants in Katsina state.  Using questionnaires, data for the study was generated and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results of the data analysis show that 80.7% have ever been engaged in PPP projects and 50% of the respondents have encountered risks in most of their projects. Political risk factors from unstable security circumstances, Poor Governance and New governmental acts or legislations, Lack of coordination/cooperation between partners, Changes in management ways and poor information availability, Poor communication and Ambiguous planning due to project complexity, Undocumented change orders, Design changes and Lower work quality in presence of time constraints, Environmental risks from adverse weather condition and Difficulty to access the site are major risk factors and variables in the implementation of PPP in the state. 84.7% of the respondents have proactive measures for checking out risks in their firms. Given the huge amount needed and the drive necessary for development; it has been recommended that in order for the government to address the problems of huge infrastructure deficit, the use of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) for infrastructure development and thus addressing the challenges constraining the growth of the Nigerian economy is a necessary option.  Contractors must not just have proactive measures to check against risk, but should be able to ascertain the suitability and reliability of the measures based on risk factors and project peculiarities.  Public sector involvement should be encouraged by provision of more concessions.

Keyword: Contractors, Infrastructure, Mitigation Measures, Procurement, Projects, Public/Private Partnership, Risks Factors.




Effects of Socio-Economic Factors on Tenants’ Residential Preference in Barnawa and Television Areas in Kaduna South


Adebayo, Oyekanmi Oluwole; Hamza, Umar Yaro; & Abdulazeez, Shakirat Remilekun

Department of Estate Management & Valuation, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. Nigeria.



Residential household preference is one of the driving forces of urban dynamics. It impacts employment, economic development, social structure, spatial segregation, and the transport system. This study examines the effect of socio-economic factors on tenants’ residential preference in Barnawa and Television areas in Kaduna South. It examines the socio-economic characteristics of the tenants, it identifies the various type of residential property, it determines the socio-economic factors that influence tenants’ residential preference, it examine the effects of socio-economic factors on tenants residential preference. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires and related literature on the concept of socio-economy, effects of socio-economic factors on residential preference from the internet. 162 respondents were sampled, the analysis was carried out using Likertscale and Regression analysis was used in testing the effects. The results show that various factors such as; security, income, infrastructure among others were considered by respondents in choosing a place of residence. The result of the Regression analysis reveals that socio-economic factors have weak but positive effect on the residential preference in Kaduna South Metropolis. The study therefore recommends that Security outfit should also be provided to all the neighborhoods by the Government/property owner to safe-guard the lives and properties of tenants.




Defects in Buildings: A Study of the Twin Theatre, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi


1Mabadeje Joshua A. 2Umar Abduljaleel I.

The Department of Architecture, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, PMB 0231, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



As days go by new buildings are erected and as such new construction defects are discovered. As defects are discovered, some defects are obvious while some others remain hidden within the building erected and eventually manifest themselves after a long time. Since materials used in constructing buildings depreciate in quality at a very unpredictable rate, the rate at which any defect visualizes itself in a building façade is likely to vary according to the nature and tempo of the attacks on the building components. Usually, during the erection of buildings, several determinants are put into consideration to secure the strength and integrity of buildings but defects will still manage to surface. This research is based on the causes and remedies of defects in lecture theatres, by using the case study method. The case study used is the twin theatre, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. This paper concludes that the recognized defects can have a great impact on buildings.

Keyword: Building defect, Lecture theatre, Finishes.



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