Hummingbird Int’l Journal of Agricultural & Env. Science Research Vol.22 (1)

Hummingbird Int’l Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science Research (HUJAESR)

Vol. 22 (1) June, 2022.

Published by: Hummingbird Publications and Research International,

Centre for Trans-Saharan Studies, University of Maiduguri, UNIMAID,

Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.


Effect of Plant Spacing and Weed Control Treatments on Growth and Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus (L.) Moench) in Derived Savanna, Nigeria


Osadebe, Vivian Ogechi; Obi, Oluchukwu Justina; Dauda, Nathaniel; & Uzoigwe, A. Donald

Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State Nigeria.



Field study was conducted at the Teaching and Research farm of Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria Nsukka from May to July 2016 to investigate the growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) in response to plant spacing and weed control treatments. Three plants spacing (60 cm x 45 cm, 60 cm x 30 cm and 60 cm x 60 cm) and weed control treatments (Dry grass mulch, Black polyethylene mulch, Sawdust mulch), and Hoe weeding at 4 and 8 weeks after planting (WAP) and weed free plots were used as control. The experiment was laid out in a factorial arrangement in randomized complete block Design with three replications. It consisted of eleven (11) treatment combinations. The mulching materials were applied before sowing the seeds. A split application of NPK 15: 15: 15 was done at 2 and 6 WAP at the rate of 200 kg/ha by side placement. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the data was carried out using (Genstat 12.1 Discovery Edition). Significant differences between means were estimated by the least significant difference at 5% level of significant. Result revealed that plant spacing were not significant in most of the parameters assessed. Plots mulched with black polyethylene mulch significantly (p < 0.05) performed better than other weed control treatments in terms of lower number of weeds (0.92/0.5m2) lower weed biomass (2.67g/0.5m2), higher crop pod yields (0.39 tons/ha) and higher plant height (63.33cm). plant spacing of 60 x 30cm and mulching with black polyethylene within the confines of the study was therefore recommended for pod yield production of okra.

Keyword: Okra, growth, weed biomass, pod yield, weed control treatments.




Efficacy of Selected Plant Extract Mixtures on Major Field Insect Pests of Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus Thun.)


Alao Fatai Olaitan; Olaniran Oladele Abiodun; and Adebayo Thimoty Abiodun

Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Department of Crop and Environmental Protection, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.



Use of secondary biologically active compounds in the protection of field insect pests of crops has been considered as an alternative to the use of synthetic insecticides. In the light of this, selected plant extract mixtures of Tephrosia vogelii, Moringa oleifera, Annona squamosa and Anarcadium occidentalis nuts were tested on the field insect pests of watermelon during the early and late cropping of 2019. The tested plant extracts were prepared with cold water. Lambdachyalothrin and control were included in the experiment for comparison. The experiment was set up in a Randomised Complete Block Design and each treatment was replicated three times. Data were collected on number of insect infestations, defoliated leaves, fruit damage and fruit yield. The results show that four insect pests were observed and all the tested plant extract mixtures exhibited insecticidal action against the observed insects. Among the plant extract mixtures, combination of M. oleifera and T. vogelii (MO + TV) had highest insecticidal efficacy (55%) during early season. During late planting season, insecticidal potential of plant extract mixture of M. oleifera and T. vogelii was comparable with synthetic insecticide (Lambdancyhalothrin). Highest yield (21.3 – 18.2 t/ha respectively) was obtained from the plants treated with Lambdacyhalothrin followed by the plants treated with M. oleifera + T. vogelii (19.1 – 15.0 t/ha) during both planting seasons. Therefore, plant extract mixtures can be incorporated into the field insect pest management of watermelon.

Keyword: Efficacy, Plant Extract, Mixtures, Insect Pests, Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus Thun.)




Assessment of Skills Required in Groundnut Value-Chain among Rural Farmers in Gombe State, Nigeria


Okwoche, V.A.; & Erasmus, G.

Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka, University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.



The study was conducted to assess the skills required in groundnut production value- chain among rural farmers in Gombe State, Nigeria. Multistage, purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select a sample size of 159 respondents. Data collected using a structured questionnaire were analyzed. Descriptive and inferential statistical tools like frequency, percentages and logistic regression were used for analysis. Findings indicated that 67.9%) of the respondents were between the ages of 25 and50 years, 83.0% were males and 56.0% were married. The result shows that 43.4% of the respondents had Grade 11/ Secondary education About 43% had household size of 5 -10 persons and 34.6% had farming experience of 6 -10 years. About 71% of the respondents had annual income of less than ₦100,000 from sales of groundnut and its products per annum. Most (30.2%) of the respondents had half (½) hectare as their farm size. Result on skills acquired on value -addition of groundnut production and processing shows that 30.2% of the respondents acquired skills on toasting peanut.  Result on products obtained from processing groundnut shows that 61.6% obtained oil as their product.  The study concludes that if farmers’ level of education and experience are increase there will be increase in value-addition.  Based on the findings, it is recommended that skills on groundnut value –chain should be taught to the farmers by the extension agents and government agencies.

Keyword: Assessment, Skills-Required, Groundnut, Value-addition, Rural farmers




Concentrations of Trace Metals in Five Freshwater Fish Species Caught in Majidun River, Ikorodu, Lagos State, Southwest Nigeria


Olatayo Michael Ogunbanwoa; & Sheu Odu-Onikosia,b,

aDepartment of Fisheries Technology, Aquatic Ecotoxicology Research Laboratory, Lagos StateUniversity of Science and Technology, Ikorodu, Lagos State, Southwest Nigeria. bUniversity of Plymouth, Faculty of Biological Science, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA, United Kingdom.



The purpose of this study was to check the levels and the accumulation of trace metals in the various organs of 5 freshwater fish species (Sarotherodon melanotheron, Protopterus annectens, Parachanna obscura, Panthodon buchholzi, and Eleotris picta) caught in Majidun river and to determine the toxicity and relationship between the collected samples and the trace metals detected in the samples.. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) evaluates their wholesomeness for human consumption. Nine metals, copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and silver (Ag) were analyzed on 50 fish samples (10 fishes per specie) to check the level of these trace metals in three major parts (gill, muscle and internal organs). The organs (liver) were observed to have the highest level of trace metals while the muscle tissue recorded lowest concentration. Some trace metals were not detected in all or some parts of the fish species. To eliminate and avoid the aquatic life loss as well as protect humans (consumers) there is need to use advanced technologies in treating waste waters being discharged into the environment in other to reduce trace metal pollution.

Keyword: Trace metals, Majidun river, Accumulation, Freshwater fish species, Organs




Assessment of Agricultural Credits Available to Fish Farmers in Bayelsa State, Nigeria


*Enoch, I.; & **Odinwa, A. B.

*Department of Agriculture, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Rivers State. **Department of Agricultural Education, Federal College of Education (Technical), PMB 11, Omoku, Rivers State, Nigeria.



The study assessed agricultural credits available to fish farmers in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. It was guided to examine the level of the fish farmers’ awareness of agricultural credits in the study area; ascertain the extent to which fish farmers access the agro-credits available in Bayelsa State; and examine the factors affecting access to agro credits among the fish farmers in the area. Descriptive survey design was employed, using questionnaire instrument prepared in Likert type rating scales to reach the farmers in their respective LGAs. Purposive and proportionate random sampling techniques were used to select three LGAs and one hundred and eleven (111) respondents, respectively and used for the study. Both descriptive statistics (weighted mean) and inferential statistics (Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used for data analysis and for test of significance at 0.05% probability level. The results showed that the level of fish farmers awareness of agricultural credits in the study area was low (CM = 1.79) in the cumulative point of view, but were individually high on personal savings (GM = 2.87), loan from money lenders (GM = 2.80), loan from relatives /Friends (GM = 2.77), loan from the produce buyers (GM = 2.16) and loan from Co-operative societies (GM = 2.14), among others. The results on the extent of accessing agricultural credits by fish farmers in Bayelsa State also indicated cumulatively low access (CM =1.77) to popular agricultural credits, except personal savings (GM = 2.69), loan from relatives /friends (GM = 2.66), loan from Money lenders (GM = 2.65) and loan from Co-operative societies (GM = 2.41), among few others that recorded high access in the study area. Test of significance on farmers’ level of awareness and access to agricultural credits, showed no significant difference in the group means. Finally, the findings showed: Lack of awareness of available agro credits (GM = 3.68), diversion of loans by farmers to other uses rather than fishing (GM = 3.64), inability to pay back the revolving loans by farmers (GM = 3.59), not having the required savings with the lending bank (GM = 3.57) and not belonging to functional co-operative organizations (GM = 3.43), among many other factors were found to be very serious factors hindering access to agricultural credits in Bayelsa State. The ANOVA result in this regard showed a significant difference in the group means of Kolokuma, Sagbama and Yenagoa LGAs. The study therefore recommended, among others that: Adequate awareness of Agricultural credits and their accessibilities both national and international should be created by the Extension Agencies working in Bayelsa State, More extension personnel be recruited and trained specially by the State government for supervision and recouping of government agricultural loans, and Government should make policy that would relax the collateral security to enable the poor farmers access to credits as at when due.

Keyword: Assessment, Agricultural Credits, Availablity, Fish Farmers, Production




Growth and Development Components of Pearl Millet Varieties (Pennisteum Glaucum L. Walp) in Maiduguri, Sahelian Savanna of Nigeria


*J. A. Bassi; *B.K. Adam; & **S.Y. Simon

*Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri – Nigeria. **Department of Crop Production and Horticulture, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Adamawa State.



Field trials were conducted in 2015 and 2016 at Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria to determine the growth and development components of pearl millet varieties. Four pearl millet varieties SOSAT-C-88, ZATIP and LACRI- 9707-C which were filled into RCBD design replicated three times. Pearl millet agronomic parameters, Number of tillers/plant, number of leaves/plant, plant height, number of days to 50% flowering were superior for ZATIP than SOSAT-C-88 and LACR-9702-IC. The number of tillers/plant, leaf area and grain yield/ha were significantly greater for SOSAT-C-88, tillers/plant, plant height and grain yield/ha were significantly least for LACRI-9702-IC which was the shortest and earliest flowering variety. Superior grain yields were realized for SOSAT-C88 and LACRI-9702-IC in both cropping season, except ZATIP, Although both the grain yield and straw yields were higher for SOSAT-C-88 which was the most suitable in the Sahelian Savanna.

Keyword: Sahelian, Savanna, Pennisetum, Growth and Development.




Genotype by Environment Interaction Analysis for Agronomic Traits of Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L) Genotype at Guji Zone Southern Oromia


Aliyi Kedir1; Hussein Mohammed2; & Tesfaye Letta3

1Bore Agricultural Research Center, Bore Ethiopia. 2Hawassa University College of Agriculture, Hawassa, Ethiopia. 3Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.



The study of GEI has assumed great importance in genotype testing programs because yield performance of a genotype is a result of the interaction between the genotype and environment. This study cried out with objectives to determine the effect of genotype, environment, and GEI on agronomic traits and to identify stable genotype for specific adaptation. Twenty bread wheat genotypes were evaluated by RCBD using three replications at five locations in Guji Zone Southern Oromia. Combined analysis of variance showed very highly significant differences (P<0.001) among environments, genotypes and GEI. The significant GEI indicated that performance of the genotypes in agronomic trait was not consistent over environments; some genotypes performed well at some locations but poorly at other locations. The genotype, environment and GEI contributed total treatment sum square 10.63%, 67.06% and 9.62% in PH respectively. This trait was determined mainly by the environment. Genotype contributed less than 10% to total treatment sum square in KPS (5.89%) and SL (5.62%) traits while GEI contributed less than 10% in HLW (4.02%) and PH (9.62%) to total treatment sum square. Genotype and Environment contributed 29.9% and 14.55% to total treatment sum square in HLW respectively. Similar proportion was contributed by genotype, environment and GEI to total treatment sum square in SkPS which was 29.40%, 32.9% and 29.6% respectively. The genotype, environment and GEI contributed total treatment sum square 26.35%, 12.72% and 40.32% in TKW respectively, while Genotype (12.03%), Environment (25.31%) and GEI (43.15%) in TPP and this trait was mainly determine by Environment. The biplot of AMMI revealed clear insight into the specific and general adaptation of genotypes across locations. The AMMI biplot, which accounted for 88.7 PH, 89.97 PTT, 92.42 Bm, 86.39 HI, 91.93 KPS, 86.58 SkPS, 80.18 TKW, 88.7 HLW and 88.16% GY of the GxE interaction, provides the interaction principal component scores of the 1st and 2nd IPCA. High grain yield was obtained from genotype Wane (G2) and lowest from Gelama (G13). Alidoro (G12) was the tallest genotype and Hawi (G3) was found to be the shortest in plant height. The maximum fertile tiller numbers were obtained from advanced genotype ETBW8415 (G15) and minimum tiller number was obtained from Digelu (G14). Dashen (G6) had high number of grain spike-1 and Gelama (G13) had low mean number of grains spike-1 over locations. Wane had high biomass yield over the location and Digelu (G14) had low biomass yield. Maximum harvest index was observed for PBW-343 (G20), while minimum harvest index noticed for Kubsa (G11).

Keyword: Bread Wheat; Agronomic Traits, GEI, Guji Zone




Nexus between Agricultural Insurance Scheme and Performance of Agribusiness in Nigeria


*Osho, Shola Soene; **Adeyemo, Damola Lukman; & ***Adebayo, Oluwaseun Akorede

*Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State **University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State (Enugu Campus) ***Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State.



This study focused on nexus between Agricultural Insurance Scheme and Performance of Agribusiness in Nigeria. In order to achieve the objective, a time series research design was employed to gather data for the study from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin various reports and Annual Report on Small and Medium Scale Farmers published by the Federal Ministry of Agricultural from the period 2014-2018. Population of the study was the 260 registered Small and Medium Scale Agricultural Businesses in Nigeria from which only 40 registered Small and Medium Scale Agricultural Business were purposely selected on the basis that the selected agribusiness must had taken up insurance scheme. Both descriptive and inferential statistics of Panel Regression were used to investigate the objective of the study. The result of the panel analysis obtained revealed that agricultural insurance scheme was positive but not significant on the performance of the selected agricultural businesses in Nigeria (p-value = 0.2347>0.05 with regression coefficient of 0.89). The researcher concluded that although agricultural insurance scheme might not be significant on performance of the selected agribusiness presently but the long term effect of the scheme was still powerful enough to enhance the performance of the business in the long run. It was recommended that the government intervention in agricultural insurance scheme is seriously needed in Nigeria.

Keyword: Agribusiness, Agricultural Insurance, Performance, Turnover, Solvency, Agricultural Risks




Bioactivity and toxicity Effect of imidacloprid insecticide against Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) in Stored Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) (Walper)) Seeds


1Bukar, A.; 2Kabir, B.G.J.; 2Gaya, S. S.; & 2Gambo, F. M.

1Department of Agricultural Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, P. M. B. 1427, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 2Department of Crop protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, P. M. B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.



Laboratory experiment was carried out in Entomology Laboratory of Department of Crop Protection Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri to evaluate the efficacy of imidacloprid insecticide against Rhyzopertha dominica (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) on stored cowpea. Temperature and relative humidity during the study were range from 35oc and 68-72 %. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The insecticide was tested at application rates of 0 (untreated control) 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10 mg/kg. For each treatment combination and control, 50 g grain samples in 5 replicates were place in 250 ml capacity jars, and 30 adults insects were place into each replicate. Adult mortality was observed after 7, 14 and 21days exposure. After additional 56 and 112 days intervals the jars were opened and examined for adult progeny emergence. The result shows that higher application dose rate of 10.0 mg/kg of imidacloprid insecticides gave appreciable adult mortality after 7 days of exposure interval, after continuous exposure to 21 days, complete 100% adult mortality were noticed at 10.0 mg/kg application rate. Progeny production was considerably suppressed after 56 and 112 days storage period. Where >97% progeny suppression where observed at the lowest dose rate of 2.0 mg/kg, complete progeny inhibition was noticed at the highest application rate of 10.0 mg/kg when compared with untreated controls. Also, based on the study reveal that, R. dominica is considered to be susceptible to the imidacloprid insecticide treatment. Furthermore, no damaged kernel and weight loss were recorded, also 98.2% seed germination potential were observed at the application rate of 10.0 mg/kg. Based on the findings of this study, it is possible to recommend 10.0 mg/kg of imidacloprid insecticide against management of R. dominica in stored cowpea.

Keyword: Imidacloprid .Exposure .Mortality .Progeny inhibition .cowpea




Food Value Of Baobab (Adansonia Digitata L) Leaves


1Wakili, A., 2Gwallameji, L.B. and 2Saleh, M.

1Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. 2Department of Forestry Technology, Bauchi State College of Agriculture, Bauchi.



Baobab (Adansona digitata L), a big tree that grows principally in Africa was investigated for its nutritional composition. Stratified random sampling techniques were employed to identify the baobab trees from which samples were collected. Bauchi state was stratified according to its three ecological zones: Northern Guinea Savanna, Sudan Savanna and Sahel Savanna.  Within each of these ecological zones, a Local Government Area (LGA) was randomly chosen to form the sampling unit. The three LGAs selected were Dass from Northern Guinea Savanna, Kirfi from Sudan Savanna and Katagum from Sahel Savanna ecozone. From these three LGAs, three Baobab trees each were identified and fifteen fresh leaves randomly collected with secateurs from each of the nine identified Baobab trees.  Sample collection bags were used to convey the samples from collection areas to the laboratory (Forestry Technology Laboratory, Federal polytechnic, Bauchi) where the samples were dried under shade for two weeks. The dried leaves were grounded using pestle and mortar, mixed thoroughly to obtain a composite sample and pass through 2mm sieve. The analysis was conducted at Biochemistry Laboratory of Federal College of Animal Health and Production Vom, Plateau State – Nigeria using the instructions of Association of Analytical Chemists (2000). The results of the analysis reveals that at the time of the analysis, the Moisture Content was found to be 2.24%, Ash 8.30%, Crude protein 6.15%, Carbohydrate 9.25%, Crude Fat 3.36%, and Crude Fiber 2.42% respectively. The observed nutrient levels and types may add value to the dietary needs of both human and animals.  Considering its popularity among inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa as a soup thickener, source of fibre and above all, its ecological attributes, its regeneration is highly encouraged and being the most populous tree in terms of usage among households in the Sahelian region, processing and packaging of the leaves will go a long way in promoting food security and add value to the product.

Keyword: Leaves – Nutrition – Baobab – Ecological Attributes -Households




Risk Perception and Response to the Usage of Pesticides among Irritational Farmers along the Bank of River Ngadda, Maiduguri – Borno State.


1Mathias Nzitiri Bwala, 2Philip Gana Malgwi (CLN), 3Abdulrahman Bukar Usman, 4Usman Musa Yusuf, 5Paul Mada Kambasaya

1National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA), Borno State Office, Nigeria. 2Department of Library and Information Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 3FHI360, Maiduguri Office, Borno State, Nigeria. 4Department of Applied Biology, Kaduna State Polytechnic, Kaduna State, Nigeria. 5Centre for Disaster and Risk Management, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.



Risk perception is a factor of available information, socio – economic background, educational background, location, duration and frequency of occurrence of the risk, and previous experience from the risk. Irrigational farmers along the bank of river Ngadda were faced with risk associated with the handling (usage and application) of pesticides and as such the study was aimed at assessing the risk perception and response to the usage of pesticides among irritational farmers along the bank of river Ngadda, Maiduguri – Borno State. The study adopted a quantitative method using a descriptive survey design where questionnaires were developed and administered to some selected irrigational farmers (1 farmer per farmland) along the bank of River Ngadda. 202 questionnaires were retrieved and used for the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS using descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages. The result indicates that the majority of the irrigational farmers were within the age bracket 26 – 45 years 121 (59.90%), male 198 (98.02%), obtained secondary education 101 (50.00%), married 103 (50.99%) and grows leafy vegetable 88 (43.56%), DD – Force 94 (46.54%) is the most commonly used pesticides, majority of the respondents were informed and enlightened about the risk associated with pesticides usage and handling by their friends and family 137 (67.83%)only 18.81% (38) were found to read labels, fliers and other printed information from the pesticide’s manufacturers, 98.02% (198) respondents perceived pesticides to cause stomach upset, diarrheal 189 (93.56%). The study further reveals that the commonest respond to the perceived risk associated with pesticides usage, handling and application is the avoidance of eating and drinking 99.51% (201) during applying/spraying pesticides on fields, followed by proper disposal of empty containers 98.52% (199). The study recommended government and NGOs to embark on enlightenment campaign to irrigational farmers on pesticide risk associated with aquatic pollution, biodiversity loss and ecosystem disruption and systematic monitoring of pesticides residue in irrigated farm products, aquatic biodiversity and soil sediment.

Keyword: Pesticides, Irrigation, River Ngadda, Risk Perception




Rheological Modification of Donkwa (Ground Cake Snacks) Using Food Gel


1Hussaini M. S.; 2Olorunsogo S. T.; & 1Abubakar, Y.

1Department of Agricultural and Bio-environmental Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 35, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B.65, Minna, Niger State.



Donkwa is a common snack that is commonly taken in the northern part of Nigeria and it is prepared from roasted groundnut (peanut) mixed with roasted cereal (maize) flour and spiced with ginger and pepper, and sugar are added to taste. The mixture were pounded and moulded into balls that can be eaten without further processing. The need to optimize donkwa to meet the daily nutrient need of the malnourished were made by improvement of  the textural and /or pasting properties of donkwa using food gels. The compositional effects of major ingredients on donkwa textural properties were also determined.  Samples of groundnut, maize, and sorghum were obtained locally from Kure modern market, minna, Niger state.  The groundnut were cleaned, sorted and roasted. The maize were cleaned, sorted and ground into powdered and sieved.  The sorghum were cleaned, sorted and soaked in cleaned water for 24hours.  The wet sorghum was milled to paste and 4litres of water were added to the paste and allowed to settled and sieved. The pastes were sun dried, and used as gelling agent (Binder). The roasted groundnut were mixed with the maize powder and milled to paste for the three ratio (G80-M20, G70-M30, G60-M40) with varied proportion of binder (food gel), 2%, 4%, and 6% respectively. These specified ratio of groundnut paste,(x1) maize powder(x2) and binder(x3) were mixed accordingly. The  mixture were constituted differently into a number of experimental treatments with 0.000053g of Sugar, 0.0000025g of Salt, and 0.0000012g of pepper as ingredients proportion for each run. The mixture were allowed to cool and settle, and moulded into various shapes and sizes. A three variables three levels factorial design matrix (N=33) were used to analysed the sensory data. The results were subjected to data analysis using SPSS 16.0, 2010 version. Analysis of variance was used to check if there were significant differences between the treatments and Student-Newman-Keuls Multiple range test (SNK) was used to separate means that were significantly different. The results showed that out of the 27 experimental treatments, treatment 2 with 70% groundnut, 20% maize and 2% binder gave the highest qualities in terms of adhesiveness, firmness, chewiness, textural hardness and cohesiveness. Therefore, it was recommended as the best formulation for high quality donkwa preparation.

Keyword: rheological, modification, donkwa, foodgels.




Assessment of Processing Methods, Ways and Forms of Garcinia Kola Sales in Ogun, Ondo and Edo States, Nigeria


Hadiza Bello Katagum

Department of Soil Science Technology, Bauchi State College of Agriculture.



This study was on assessment of Processing methods, forms and ways of sales of Garcinia kola in in Ogun, Ondo and Edo State, Nigeria. The objectives were to examine socio-economic characteristics of the respondents; evaluate the different processing methods of G. kola sold in study area; analyse the forms and ways in which G. kola is sold in the study area. The data for the study was obtained using structured questionnaire administered to 133 respondent selected using multistage sampling technique. Descriptive statistics such as charts, frequency and percentages were used to evaluate the data. The results of the demographic characteristics indicate that 61.7 % of the respondents were female, 61 % were married and 65% confirmed G. kola cultivation/harvesting was their home-based business. The result on the Processing Method Used reveals that larger percentage of the respondents processed G. kola before selling (with 6.0% processed it by cutting the pulp fresh and 41.0% keeping it outside to decay) while 32.0% dispose it raw without processing it. Among those who processed G. kola, 36.9 % of them process G. kola for the purpose of preservation only while 28.6 % processed G. kola in order to prevent damage of the seed. When Selling, the larger percentage of the respondents (99.0%) prefer selling it processed and within 2-4 months, and they sell it by themselves directly to the consumers (83.0%) or to middlemen. It is recommended that the Federal Government should explore the potentials of NTFPs such as Garcinia kola by employing technology to develop and optimize the value chain and to make it more attractive for the younger generation to come in as this would help in discouraging deforestation.

Keyword: Southern Nigeria, socio-economic characteristics, processing, G. kola, sold




Evaluation of Risk Attitude among Small Scale Soybean Farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria


Abdulrazaq S. A.1; Augustine D. B.2; & Yoroki J.T.2

1Department of Agricultural Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. 2Department of Co-operative Economics and Management, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.



This research investigated the analysis of risk attitude among small scale soybean farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria, with the aim of classify risk attitude and generating reliable information on the determinants of risk attitude of the decision-making behaviour of soybean farmers. Multi-stage sampling techniques were employed in selection of 210 soybean farmers. Safety first model of risk aversion and Tobit regression model were used to analysis risk attitude and factors influencing risk attitude of soybean farmers respectively. Some of the important findings from research are: the results showed that risk aversion centred on (1.33). This implies that soybean farmers in Kaduna State were risk preferring (that is high risk). Also, results obtained show that 1.43%, 20.95% and 77.62% of soybean farmers were low, medium and high risk attitude, respectively. The results of determinants of risk attitude revealed that among soybean farmers in Kaduna State, the variables that were significant include year of experience in soybean production at p<0.01, major occupation at p<0.1, cooperative society at p<0.05, off-farm activities at p<0.1 and technical efficiency at p<0.05. The implication of these findings revealed that these major determinants had great impact on the risk attitude among soybean farmers in the study area. Also, technical efficiency is one of determinants of risk attitude in the study area.  The study concluded that the majority of soybean farmers are risk preferring and soybean is an important cash crop in the study area. The study recommended among others that soybean farmers in the study area should create better marketing information systems for efficient input procurement and output disposal.

Keyword: Risk attitude, soybean farmers, Safety first model of risk aversion, Tobit regression.




Production and Economic Benefits of Mini-Livestock in Adamawa State, Nigeria


1Adamu S. M.; & 2Kubkomawa, H. I.

1Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, The Federal Polytechnic, P. M. B. 35, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 2Department of Fisheries Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 35, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.



Over the years, many large-scale/intensive government and donor-sponsored animal production projects in the tropics have proved to be unsustainable. Because of that, there is shortage of animal protein in Africa and Nigeria in particular. The broad objective of the study is to survey production and economic benefits of mini-livestock production in Adamawa state, Nigeria. The study used questionnaires, oral interviews and discussions to collect data. Data generated from the study was subjected to descriptive statistics such as tables, frequency distribution and percentages. Majority of the youths are the most engaged in the production of mini-livestock in the study area ages 10 to 40 years old with the highest recorded in Hong LGA (81%) while the least was from Mubi South LGA. Males are the predominant producers with Mubi South LGA recording the highest and lowest of 85% and 15% respectively. Rabbits, pigeons, grasshoppers and honey bees are the most popular in the study area. Mubi North and Ganye had the highest number of mini-livestock species with 8 each, followed by Mubi South (7) while Michika and Maiha had 6 each. There about 7 major economic benefits driven from the production of mini-livestock across the study area. The benefits include food, manure, income, research, raw materials, foreign exchange and medicine. This study will help in creating awareness on the economic importance and food provision value of mini-livestock, which was neglected for centuries. This will also be beneficial to the government in policy making on livestock and agricultural products for sustainable development in Nigeria and Africa at large.

Keyword: Production, Mini-Livestock, Sustainable Development, Adamawa State, Nigeria




A Review of Seed Certification Procedures, Prospect and Policies in Nigeria


*Chimdi G. O.; & **Jibrin, M.S.

*Department of Agricultural Technology Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria. **Department of Horticulture and Landscape Technology, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



Seed certification is to maintain and make available to the public, through certification, high quality seeds and propagating materials of notified kind and varieties so grown and distributed as to ensure genetic identity and genetic purity. This paper reviewed the seed certification procedures, prospect and policies in Nigeria. Certified seed is the starting point to a successful crop as well as an important risk management tool. Clean seed, Varietal purity, guaranteed quality assurance, access to new opportunities, new genetics, improved traits like better yield, better deal on crop insurance, maximum use of other inputs, access to premium markets and trace ability are the importance of seed certification.




Comparison Analysis on the Superiority of Yellow-Flesh over White – Flesh Cassava Tuber


Adegbite, B. A.

Dept. of Agricultural Education, Osun State College of Education Ilesa, Nigeria.



Awareness of fortified yellow cassava is to appreciate the crop more for cultivation and consumption of its products in Nigeria. The study compared superiority of yellow and white tuber cassavas for product acceptability. It makes systematic information available on the nutritional value of the crop with significant improvement in the health of consumers, by alleviating vitamin A deficiency. Proximate analysis was carried out in the laboratory to ensure potential of nutrients, minerals and vitamin A of food samples prepared from yellow and white gari by official standard method. The findings shown that yellow food sample has 0.35±0.02, 0.43±0.02, 2.09±0.04, 0.52±0.03 and 18.75±1.08 of ash, fibre, crude protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively which are better than white food sample. Also revealed that calcium, potassium, phosphorous and sodium (22.8±0.46, 301.02±1.46, 12.70±0.35, and 283.49±2.81) mg/100g respectively were more appreciable values in yellow eba but deficient in iron (7.77±0.57) mg/100g. It implies that fortified yellow cassava is good source of nutrients. Sampled food of yellow tuber cassava contains significant value of beta-carotene (131.25±0.79 µg/g) and vitamin A (21.88±0.13 µg/g) which justified it superiority over the white tuber. Adoption of Yellow cassava cultivar for cultivation will give us meals that are highly nutritious to alleviate vitamin A deficiency, particularly among school age children, pregnant and lactating mothers.




Geospatial Assessment of Spatio-temporal changes in Carbon (CO2) emission and absorption in Akure Airport and Environs


1Ogunlade Simeon .O., Ajayi Vincent .A., Olubode-Ogunlusi Morenike .A.

Remote Sensing and GIS Division, Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State Nigeria.



The scope of the research was the geospatial assessment of spatio-temporal changes in  carbon (co2) emission and absorption in akure airport and environs in Akure North Local Government Area, Ondo state, using remote sensing method. Data-sets acquired were Akure Airport acquisition boundary and  Landsat imageries of different epochs (2020, 2014, 2000, and 1990). Development around aviation land use was mapped over different epochs using maximum likelihood algorithm of pixel based supervised classification. The level of Carbon (CO2) emission in the area was mapped over the study years, in order to determine if these emissions have been increasing over the years, and at what extent it has affected the health of inhabitants. The future extent of non-aviation land use was carried out using linear trend method in order to determine the probable future development and also the Carbon (CO2) emission. The result showed that land use and land cover controls carbon emission and absorption, as the higher the urban area, the higher the carbon emission while the higher the vegetation, the higher the carbon absorption and vice versa. The results showed that the built environment is the major source of carbon in the study area due to several human activities and the net carbon for the year 2030 will be a carbon emission, as the amount of estimated carbon emission of 3400.09 tonnes will be more than the amount to carbon absorption in the study area.

Keyword: Assessment, Aviation, Carbon Emission, Geospatial, Land Use




Economic Analysis of Marketing Red Skinned Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batatas) in Selected Markets of Kano State, Nigeria


1Balarabe, Z.A.; 2Yakubu, S.A.; 2Safiyanu, S.A.; 2Yaro, A.M.; 2Shu’aib, A.U.; & 2Aliyu S. A.

1Science and Technical School Management Board, Kano State. 2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Kano State, Nigeria.



The study focused on the analysis of marketing Red Skinned Sweet Potato in selected markets of Kano State. Multistage sampling techniques was used for the study and data was collected using a structured questionnaire supplemented with key informant interview. A total of one hundred and seventeen 117 red sweet potato marketers were sampled. The analytical tool employed included simple descriptive statistics, net marketing margin, Gini Coefficient, marketing efficiency and multiple regression of the respondents in the study area. The result of the socio economic characteristics showed that 33% of the red sweet potato marketers were adult belonging to the age group of 30-39 years, 60% of marketers had household size of 1-10 members, 41% had 1-10 years of marketing experience, 91% were married with 91% males, the result of educational background study area shows that 46.8% had informal education. The result of the profitability analysis revealed that red sweet potato marketing was profitable with ₦574.52 and the total revenue realized for the marketing were ₦3250. The result further revealed Gross Margin (GR) of 0.85 traded in the study area while return per naira invested was found to be 1.18 accrued from every 1.00 invested. The result also revealed that marketing of red sweet potato was efficient with 305.56%. The study further revealed variables such as: marketing experience, labour costs, transportation costs, loading and off-loading were found to be statistically significant. Results also indicate that the major determinant of net marketing income in the study area included labour cost, experience and transportation cost. The study recommended that since white sweet potato marketing determined to be a profitable enterprise more should and enhance income generations in the study area.

Keyword: Red sweet potato, marketing.




An Assessment of the Impact of Deforestation on Climate Change: Case Study of Ilorin, Nigeria


1Daramola, J.;   1Mustapha, S.; & 2Aro, J. K.

1Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 55, Bida. Niger State. Nigeria. 2Observatory Earth Analytics Consults, 1a Raji Oladimeji Crescent, CMD Road, Magodo.



Deforestation is the permanent destruction of forests in order to make the land available for other uses. An estimated 18 million acres (7.3 million hectares) of forest are lost each year and about half of the world’s tropical forests have been cleared according to the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization (2013). Forests currently cover about 30 percent of the world`s land mass (National Geographic). Forest loss contributes between 12 percent and 17 percent of annual global greenhouse gas emissions (World Resources Institute 2011). Deforestation is considered one of the contributing factors to global climate change, Trees absorb greenhouse gases and carbon emissions. They produce oxygen and perpetuate the water cycle by releasing water vapor into the atmosphere. Without trees, forest lands can quickly become barren land. Deforestation has become a major environmental issue in the world today especially in sub Saharan Africa where forest wood is worth more to people when it is dead than when it is alive. Thus, the forest estate is constantly depleted for use as fuel wood, paper wood and for the charcoal industry and clear for urbanization. Nigeria has the world’s highest deforestation rate of primary forests according to revised deforestation figures from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Between 2000 and 2005 the country lost 55.7 percent of its primary forests as a result of logging, subsistence agriculture, and the collection of fuel wood (FAO, 2008). That our Climate is changing is no longer NEWS, that greenhouse gases and Co2 are responsible is also not NEWS. However, rather than explaining greenhouse gases and Co2 to our farmers and local population, this research intends to educate them on how their local actions such as deforestation and bush burning are modifying the climate. Changes in forest cover extent will be studied for 35 years with a 10year time step using satellite images obtained from United States Geological Survey archive and ArcGIS 10.2 image analyst software, while climatic parameters for the study area (Rainfall and temperature) will also be analyzed using trendline equation for the same period. The results of the forest cover change will be regressed to determine the relationship between forest cover change and climatic parameters.

Keyword: Assessment, Impact, Deforestation, Climate change and Greenhouse gases




Skill Improvement Needs of Technical Teacher’s in Teaching Lathe, and Planer Machines Operations in Technical Colleges in Kaduna State


*Dr. Ali, Awalu Maliki; & **Joyce Ezekiel

*Department of Technical Education, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Kaduna State College Education Gidan Waya, Kafanchan. **Department of Agricultural Education, School of Vocational and Technical Education Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya, Kafanchan



The major purpose of the study was to determine skill improvement needs of technical teachers in teaching lathe, and planer machines operations in technical colleges in Kaduna State.  two research questions were answered and two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.  The population for the study consisted of 103 experienced and less experienced technical teachers, drawn from technical colleges in Kaduna State.  The entire population was studied; hence no sample was taken.  Survey research design was used for the study.  Structured questionnaire on (SINTTMSOTC) was used to generate data for the study.  This instrument was face validated by three experts from the faculty of Vocational and Technical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.  The questionnaire was pilot tested with a sample of 20 experienced and less experienced technical teachers’ in technical college, Kano State.  Cronbach Alpha reliability test was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and this yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.84.  Data analyzed using mean statistics for the research questions and t-test was used to test the null hypotheses.  It was recommended that experienced and less experienced technical teachers in technical colleges should build capacity on skill improvement needs, needed by students for effective functioning in the lathe and drill press machines operations.  This could be achieved by organizing workshops and seminars, and also to undergone re-training in their areas of specializations.

Keyword: Okra, teaching, technical teachers, machines, skills, improvement needs.



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