UNLOCKING SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN POTENTIALS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE 21st CENTURY.
DATE: JULY 10TH – 11TH, 2014.
M.L. AUDU AUDITORIUM, FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC BAUCHI, BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA.
PROCEEDINGS (Vol. 2 No. 2):
A REVIEW OF PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A DOWNLINK LTE SYSTEM USING DIFFERENT RADIO RESOURCE ALLOCATION SCHEMES (RRAS)
H. Usman, M. A. Gadam , A.A.Garba, L. Maijama’a,
Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technology Department, School of Engineering
Technology Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P. M. B. 0231 Bauchi-Nigeria.
Long Term Evolution (LTE), by third generation project partnership (3GPP) is one of the radio access technologies used for delivering broadband mobile services. It is mainly influenced by high data rates, minimum delay and the capacity due to scalable bandwidth and its flexibility. The downlink LTE employs orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) as a multiple access technique. The conventional resource allocation method in OFDMA employed different modulation and coding scheme (MCS) on allocated subcarriers to achieve good throughput. But, in the downlink LTE, all scheduling blocks at a given transmission time interval (TTI) to user must adopt same MCS and these brings about constraints in the system and as a result degrade system performance. This paper reviewed several resource allocation schemes for performance analysis in downlink direction for LTE systems. In each of the schemes considered, the suboptimal solution showed a significant performance improvement compared to the optimal solution. A quality of service (QoS) guaranteed resource block(RB) allocation achieved high throughput compared to other schemes considered in this article.
Keywords:LTE, 3GPP, OFDMA, TTI, MCS QoS, RB
AN INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECT OF RAIN ON RECEIVED SIGNAL STRENGTH OF MOBILE BROADBAND
FACHE, V. O. and H. JAMES,
Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Federal Polytechnic, Mubi
This paper investigates the effect of rain on received signal strength of mobile broadband communications in Mubi, Adamawa State. In carrying out this investigation, received signal strength measurements and rainfall data were collected concurrently for a period of seven months during the wet (rainy) season from April 2013 to October 2013. The result indicates that rainfall did not impose any meaningful additional attenuation on the signal strength received during the period.
Keywords: mobile, broadband, signal strength, communication, attenuation
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A MICROCONTROLLER BASED STERILIZER WITH A DIGITAL DISPLAY
G.N Oluwole Jola and S. Mabadeje
Department of Electrical Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria.
Proper sterilization of medical and surgical instrument is essential for ensuring safety of both patient and health care workers. Reusable medical devices, be it surgical instrument that enter normally sterile tissue or the vascular system need be sterilized before use. The method of sterilization process employed or (to be used) depends on the object or product to be sterilized. This paper presents the design details and implementation of a simple sterilizer with a seven segment digital display. The design is based around the(AT89C52) microcontroller. The steam method is what was adopted in this work, being the most widely used, economical, effective, less time consuming and reliable method of sterilization available to health care facilities. The microcontroller handles almost all the control needed such as ON and OFF timing for desired temperature, indicators for showing at the display unit; end of sterilization.
Keyword: Microcontroller, Sterilizer, Steam Method, Digital Display, Medical Equipment
DEVELOPING A WASTE-TO-ENERGY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY FOR ELECTRIFICATION OF SHIKA COMMUNITY
Ayandotun, Wasiu B. and Adamu M. Orah
Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Zamfara. Email:
Due to demands placed on natural resources globally and subsequent deterioration of the environment, there is a need to source and develop appropriate technology to satisfy this requirement. For decades mankind has largely depended on natural resources such as fossil fuels to meet the ever increasing energy demands. Realizing the finite nature of these resources, emphasis is now shifting to investigating alternate energy source governed by environmentally friendly principles. The abundance of biomass and associated favourable techno-economics has recently changed global perceptions of harnessing biomass as a valuable resource rather than a waste. This paper discusses a waste-to-energy conversion technology specifically fluidized bed biomass gasifier suitable to generate electricity for Shika community located in Zaria, Nigeria based on the availability of their large volume of agricultural waste, the benefits and limitations associated with its use.
Keywords: Rural electrification, biomass, waste-to-energy conversion technology, fluidized bed biomass gasifier, gasification.
EFFECT OF LOCUST BEAN WASTE ASH (LBWA) ON THE GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF EXPANSIVE SOILS
ABDULMALIK MUSA MALEKA, YUSUF ABDULKARIM WAZIRI AND ABDULLAHI S. DALHAT
Department of Civil Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
Expansive soils in their natural state need some modifications to become suitable for use in civil engineering projects. Cement and lime are some of the modifiers commonly used. However, for cost and environmental concerns, waste agricultural biomass (WAB), which includes rice husks, saw dust, palm kernel shells, locust bean waste are now being considered. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the geotechnical properties of a locust bean waste ash (LBWA) stabilized black cotton soil. Samples were prepared by mixing black cotton soil with LBWA at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20% by dry weight of soil, with 0% as control. The samples were tested for Atterberg’s limits, compaction and permeability in accordance with BS 1377. The liquid limit (LL) showed a decrease from 76% for the control sample to 45% at 15% LBWA representing 40% reduction. Beyond 15% LBWA, LL increases to 54%. Similarly, plastic limit (PL) varied from 45% at 0% LBWA to 30% at 15% LBWA, representing 33% reduction while the plasticity index (PI) of specimen treated with 15% LBWA was 50% lower than that of control specimen. Increase in LBWA content reduced the linear shrinkage (LS) from 11 to 8%. The maximum dry density (MDD) ranged from 1.35g/cm3 for the control sample to 2.10g/cm3 at 15% LBWA representing 55% increment. Optimum moisture content (OMC) ranged from 16% for the control sample to 23% at 20% LBWA. The coefficient of permeability showed more than 50% reduction at 20% LBWA.
Keywords: Expansive Soil, Locust bean waste ash (LBWA), Atterberg’s limits, Compaction, Permeability
ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
Christopher Innocent, and Salihu Ibrahim Ige
Mechanical Engineering Department Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
This paper proffers solutions on how our country Nigeria can improve on our local contents using Engineering and Technology to better the lives of its citizenry. Engineering and Technology played very vital roles in the development of the universe and enhance sustainable development in the developing country like Nigeria. The need to sustain this development in Nigeria have been listed and the role that Nigeria Engineers and Technologists can play in meeting these needs have been enumerated especially applying appropriate engineering and technology to these developmental needs. There is need for the government to pay more attention to engineering and technology development by harnessing in basic infrastructures such as power, renewable energy, solid minerals, agriculture etc and providing enabling environment in terms of policy to develop such infrastructures. The educational curricula should be revised to incorporate sustainable development, subsequent appropriate engineering and technology studies should be made available, and also engineering and technology research are among the recommendations.
Keywords: engineering, technology, research, sustainable, development.
LONG- TERM LOAD FORECASTING OF NIGERIAN POWER SYSTEM USING FUZZY AND MONTE-CARLO METHODS
1J.D. Konni, Ph.D and 2R.E. Ochagwuba
1Department of Electrical Electronics Engineering, The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria
2Department of Electrical/Electronics Engineering, The Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Nigeria.
Load forecasting has many applications including energy purchasing and generation, energy planning, load switching and contract evaluation. This work presents a model for Long-Range Load forecasting, which uses hybrid Fuzzy and Monte Carlo. In this method, load data for several past years is used to obtain several best curve trends. Fuzzy logic and Monte Carlo simulations were used in the load prediction. Several scenarios were investigated which included generating actual demand, application of Fuzzy to demand growth randomly and deterministically, some elements of econometrics i.e. GDP were introduced. The forecasts obtained excluding suppressed demand (SD) in the year 2020 is 19,204MW, while the maximum is 24,234MW. The least forecast obtained including SD from different scenarios in the year 2020 is 35,550, while the maximum is 44,865MW. The suppressed demand (SD) which is equal to the demand not served to customers is up to 46% in all cases of the scenarios.
KEYWORDS: Demand forecasting, Fuzzy Logic, Long-term forecasting, Monte-Carlo, Power System.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BLACK COTTON SOIL STABILIZED WITH CEMENT
J.O Uloko and N.D. Usman
Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. Bauchi State, Nigeria.
In order to provided alternative building and construction materials that will be cheaper and affordable than concrete based materials, this paper presents the compressive strength of black cotton soils stabilized with cement as such an alternative. Preliminary engineering properties’ tests such as Atterberg limits, sieve analysis, Hydrometer analysis, specific gravity, compaction and California bearing ratio (CBR) were conducted on the soil to determine it as an occurring clay soil of black cotton soil type. The results obtained showed that the clay content is 44.4% as against 41.0% silt content and 14.6% sand. Also, the dark brown soil had liquid limit of 31%,plastic limit of 25%,plastic index of 6.0%,CBR of 9.2 and linear shrinkage of 8.9%,these properties in addition to others make the black cotton soil inadequate for both sub-base and base course material in pavement construction, hence the need for the stabilization. The soil was then stabilized with 2%,4%,6% and 8% cement and cured for 7,14 and 28 days before testing. After 28 days of curing the following compressive strengths were obtained 2.89N/mm², 3.94N/mm², 4.44N/mm² and 5.16N/mm². The results show that cements stabilized black cotton soil can be used for constructions respectively. Further investigation should be carried out on stabilization with other common stabilizers.
Keywords: Black cotton soil, stabilized with cement, compressive strength, density properties, NBRRI, ASTM and BS (Standards)
MOBILE BROADBAND SIGNAL STRENGTH ANALYSIS IN MUBI, ADAMAWA STATE
FACHE, V. O. and H. JAMES
Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi
Mobile broadband uses the signal received by the mobile from the cellular network to provide access to the net. Depending on various factors such as topology of the environment, proximity to a base station, obstructions such as buildings or trees etc. the signal strength may vary. In this study, signal strength measurements from a broadband network were carried out in twelve different locations across Mubi Township from 4/5/2014 – 10/5/2014. The data obtained was collated and depicted using frequency distribution tables and charts. The analysis of the results showed that the mobile broadband signal coverage from the service provider was good and fairly distributed for the period considered.
Keywords: Mobile broadband, signal strength, cellular, network, base station.
REVIEW OF MECHANICAL WORKSHOP SAFETY MEASURES.
IGE, S.I.1; OLORUNISHOLA, A.A.G2 AND CHRISTOPHER, I1
- Department Of Mechanical Engineering Technology,Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria
Safety and avoidance of accidents in a mechanical workshop anywhere in the world is sacrosanct. Impact of accidents of whatever kind transcends the victims to include other workers in a workplace, hence the compelling need to put in place preventive measures aimed at reducing to the barest minimum, the frequencies of accidents in a workplace. This piece beamed its searchlight on sources and various causes of accidents in the machine tool workshop as well as provision of valid suggestions towards minimizing accidents so as to guarantee workers safety in the mechanical workshop.
KEY WORDS: Safety, Accidents, Hazard, Workplace (Mechanical Workshop).
ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS IN GOMBE
M. AHMAD AND A. D. SALISU
Department of Civil Engineering Technology, School of Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
The RTA analysis of some roads in Gombe state where conducted to determine the risk on motorist. The risks involved were represented in the form of rate of occurrences. It was found that among the four (Gombe-Kaltingo, Gombe-Bajoga, Gombe-Dukku and Jekadafari) routes observed, the Jekadafari way has recently (2011) the highest volume of traffic (2409 per day) but the Gombe-Kaltingo route has a higher rate (2.24 a/d) of accident involving at least an injury. It was also observed that the highest number of accidents occur within the festive months of January, February and December across all routes. It was also found that the vehicles most prone to accidents where the commercial vehicles (Taxi) with about 40% accident occurrence while the private vehicles have about 26%.
Key words: Injury, Death, Rate, Road Traffic accident, Vehicle
SPOT SPEED STUDIES (A CASE STUDY OF BAUCHI – JOS ROAD)
1A. D. Salisu, 2A. M. Ahmad, 3U.M.Ahmad
1, 2 Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
3Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria
Highways are built by the society for the use of society. Although they do not provide transport, they are immovable good that provide services to the vehicles which do provide transport (Winch, 1963). It is obvious that speed is an important transportation consideration because it relates to safety, time, comfort, convenience, and economics. Spot speed study records speed characteristics under prevailing traffic condition at specific locations along the roadway. The method of data collection adopted in this exercise is the stopwatch method, which proved to be more flexible and less expensive when compared with other possible methods such as the pneumatic road tube and radar meter methods. These enable us in plotting the frequency distribution table and cumulative frequency curves from the cumulative distributions, from which 85th and 15th percentiles speeds read up and used. Although the work suggests the use of statistical (normal distribution) method of analysis in characterizing speed distribution that incorporates evaluating the mean, standard deviation and the standard mean error.
Keywords: Spot speed, roadway, traffic, percentile and stop-watch.
STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF CEMENT STABILIZED BLACK COTTON SOIL USING METAKAOLIN (MK) AS AN ADMIXTURE
Ibrahim Aliyu Adamu, Abdulrahman Garba and Abdulmalik Musa Maleka
Civil Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
The paper presents the results of a study conducted on the effect of metakaolin on Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) stabilized soil. Chemical analysis on metakaolin revealed that it contains cementitious compounds similar to those found in OPC.
Preliminary investigation shows that the soil belongs to the A-7-6(23) sub-group of the AASHTO (1986) classification system and CL of the Unified Soil Classification System. The peak 7 days Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) value of 1490KN/m2 obtained shows that the amount of cement required to achieve the 1720KN/m2 UCS specified by TRRL (1977) would be uneconomical. Similarly, peak California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test result of 112% fell short of the Nigerian General Specification for Bridges and Road works (1997), which stipulated 180% CBR criterion for economic range of cement content. In view of the results obtained the stabilized soil in the construction of sub-base and base course for lightly to moderately trafficked roads.
KEYWORDS: California Bearing Ratio, Metakaolin, Ordinary Portland Cement, Resistance to Loss in Strength, Unconfined Compressive Strength
SUSTAINING RURAL ELECTRIFICATION THROUGH THE EFFECTIVE APPLICATION OF FLUIDIZED BED POWER PLANTS
ADAMU, M. ORAH and 2ABDULWASIU B. AYANDOTUN
Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology,
Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State.
Access to a cheap, uninterruptible, and sustainable electricity supply is a precursor for attaining and sustaining socio economic development. In fact it is a fundamental requirement for poverty reduction. People without access to electricity are constrained to a life of poverty. Nigerians especially the rural dwellers suffer some of the worst forms of electricity poverty in the world. Presently, an average of 48% of Nigerian households (15.3 million) lack access to grid electricity and for those connected to the national grid, supply is epileptic to say the least. Electricity demand has been on the increase geometrically while installed electricity capacity has remained relatively stable over the last decade at 5,900 MW while annual electricity generation stands at between 2,000 MW to 3,000MW. This is not enough to meet the current electricity demand forecasted at 10,000MW by 2015. Nigerian rural areas suffer the most electricity deprivation. This paper discusses the potentials of the Fluidized Bed Power Plants (FBPP) for rural electrification in Nigeria outlining the fluidized bed conversion technologies by which this can be achieved.
Key Words: Fluidized bed Power Plant, Rural, Electrification, Biomass, Municipal Solid Waste
THE EULER PHI-FUNCTION BASE ON PRIME FACTORAZATION
ABDULLAHI M. AUWAL
Dept. Of Pre Nd Federal Polytechnic Bauchi;
The Euler phi function has the property that its value at an integer is the product of the value of the Euler phi -function at the prime power that occurs in the factorization of. Functions with this property are called multiplicative; from this fact we derived a formula for its value base on prime factorization. This paper describes the implementation of a working software unit that efficiently and accurately calculates Euler phi- function.
Key words: Euler phi-function, Multiplicative, Prime power, Relative prime, Residues modulo
THE MOST RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY IN THE WORLD
H.A MAHDI, A.YUSUF, KELVIN E. E, M.A YUNUSA, A. ABDULKADIR
Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technology Department, School of Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P. M. B. 0231 Bauchi-Nigeria./ N
A nuclear power plant can help meet the rising electricity demand as our population and economy expand. Unlike other power generating plants, It is with no reasonable doubt the only energy source that can generate a reliable, efficient, 24/7 electricity with no greenhouse gas emission. The plants use heat produced from nuclear fission reaction to power a turbine that is coupled to a generator. Nuclear energy facilities are the lowest-cost producer of base load electricity in the U.S and it will so be in Nigeria if fully adopted. The average production cost of 2.40 cents per kilowatt-hour (in u. s) includes the costs of operating and maintaining the plant, purchasing fuel and paying for the management of used fuel. Presently, nuclear energy provides for approximately 16% of the world’s electricity. This paper explains the principle of generating electricity using nuclear energy, it also aimed at clearing some the discrepancies that people thought about nuclear energy.
Keywords: Nuclear, Fission, Heat, Generator, and Electricity.
USING ICT FOR INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY IN EARLY CHILD EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
1U.M.AHMAD, 2A. D. SALISU
1Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State
2Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
As the world moves closer and closer to complete proliferation of computer technology to relay information into every aspect of human life, communication also tends to mimic this new aspect. This research paper views the concept of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) through different experts’ words and interpretations The paper shows how ICT has crept into everyday life routines of people in developing and developed nations. Then it goes further to compare the objectives and quality of early childhood education in Nigeria to other nations. Following the technological trend of the world, this paper also stresses to support the need to implement ICT to the early childhood education system, so as to give children the opportunity to learn through meaningful use of ICT Recommendations are also provided on how to properly use the ICT system in early childhood education, so as to find the balance between the basics that children should learn at that age, and what would be too complex for them to handle
Key words: ICT, childhood, learning, development, communication.
UTILIZATION OF WASTE BURNT BRICKS AS COARSE AGGREGATE IN
Abdulrahman Garba, Abdulmalik Musa Maleka, Ibrahim Aliyu Adamu
Department of civil engineering, Federal polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria.
Recently, it has been taken into consideration the use of the recycle aggregate from old concrete, clay brick and waste materials, the recycle concrete is considered as one of the most important materials in the special concrete groups. It has extensive applications in the architect and insulation work. Many research studied the effect of this recycle aggregates on the properties of concrete. This research however is carried out to assess the properties such as density, compressive strength and water absorption of concrete made using crushed burnt bricks as 100% replacement of coarse aggregate. The result indicates a decrease in density and compressive strength values representing 9% and 27% with an increase in water absorption of about 6.55% when compared to the conventional concrete.
Keywords: crushed burnt bricks, compressive strength, density, water absorption, coarse aggregate.