UNLOCKING SUB-SAHARA AFRICAN POTENTIALS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE 21st CENTURY.
DATE: JULY 10TH – 11TH, 2014.
M.L. AUDU AUDITORIUM, FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC BAUCHI, BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA.
PROCEEDINGS (Vol. 2 No. 1):
ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE NATIONAL DIPLOMA STUDENTS TO ENTER IN TO AGRIBUSINESS AS SELF EMPLOYMENT VENTURE AFTER GRADUATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
*Babuga, U.S,. *Ubayo, M.M and **Garba, A.
*Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
**Jigawa Research Institute, PMB 5015, Gandu Road Kazaure
This study examined the factors responsible for influencing the National Diploma (ND) Agricultural Technology student‘s of Federal polytechnic Bauchi to enter into Agribusiness after graduation. Data were collected from a sample of 164 students of final year ND Agricultural Technology student‘s through a multi-stage stratified sampling out of the total 234 EED students of 2011/2012 session using a structured questionnaire. The results showed that majority of the students are males (82.9%) within the ages of 18-25 years; and are willing to enter into Agribusiness as a self employed venture after graduation. Their willingness was found to be based on the perception that Agribusiness/farming has a brighter future, sustainable and dependable. Similarly, the students willingness is related to factors such as the training received in various areas of agriculture during EED training, availability of raw materials and supportive policies from the government. However, recommendations offer are Schools and department of agriculture should put more emphasis on EED practical at all level, More emphasis should be put to students projects on the following areas, processing, marketing and storage, Government should provide legal structures to facilitate enhanced participation of youths particularly women, physically challenged and marginalized youth with prioritization of these groups in land reform programme towards creating equal opportunity for all, Government should create a collateral free micro-credit environment that offer incentives tailored to the financial needs of graduates and young aspiring farmers.
Keywords: Willingness, ND Agricultural Technology, Students, Agribusiness venture
EFFECTS OF VARIETY, FERTILIZER RATE AND FERTILIZER TYPE ON THE ROOT YIELDS AND BETA-CAROTENE CONTENT OF YELLOW FLESH CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta Crantz) IN IBADAN, OYO STATE
OYEBODE, G.O.,1 2 YOMENI M.O.,1 HASSAN A.M.2 AND OGWUCHE T.O.2
1 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Cassava Breeding Program, PMB, Oyo State, Ibadan 5320
2 Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Crop Production Programme, PMB, Bauchi state, Bauchi 0248
Field and laboratory experiments were conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Ibadan during the 2012 rainy season to study the effect of variety, fertilizer levels and fertilizer type on the root yields and beta-carotene content of yellow flesh cassava. Three (3) IITA pro-vitamin A varieties (IITA TMS 01/1368, IITA TMS 01/1371 and IITA TMS01/1412) 3 fertilizer rates (0kg/ha, 400kg/ha and 600kg/ha) and two mineral fertilizers (NPK15:15:15 and Crystallizer) were tested using a split-split plot experimental design, with four replications. Data collected were subjected to analyses of variance. Beta-carotene significantly (P≤0.05) differs among the varieties studied. The variety TMS01/1371(7.25µg/g) significantly (P≤0.05) produced higher beta-carotene. The varieties, significantly (P ≤0.05) differ in root yields. TMS01/1412 (11.84 t/ha-1) significantly (P ≤0.05) produced the highest fresh yield. TMS01/1412 (3.17 t/ha-1) and TMS01/1371 (3.17 t/ha-1) were statistically the same and significantly (P <0.05) produced higher dry yield than TMS01/1368 (2.51 t/ha-1). It was concluded, that the variety TMS01/1412 produced fair beta-carotene content and higher fresh and dry root yields could be recommended for cultivation in Ibadan to enhance vitamin A content and higher root yields. A further research and study is recommended to ascertain the appropriate fertilizer type and rate of application.
Key words: Yellow flesh cassava, Beta-carotene, root yields, fertilizer, pro-vitamin A cassava
CAUSES AND IMPLICATIONS OF INDIGENOUS TREE SPECIES DECLINE IN DASS LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BAUCHI STATE.
MAZADU, A.E; MODIBBO, S AND MATO, A
Department of Forestry Technology, Bauchi State College of Agriculture, Bauchi.
A survey of indigenous tree species decline in Dass Local Government Area was conducted. The aims were to identify their availability, location, method and frequency of collection. Also, causes and implications of indigenous tree species decline were studied. A total of 120 questionnaires supplemented with verbal interview and observation. All data collected from the survey areas were subjected to simple descriptive statistics. A total of 47 useful indigenous tree species was recorded and having various applications in the lives of the rural dwellers. The result showed that all the respondents (100%) have indigenous tree species in their locality most of the species were found in the natural forest (42.74%) as shown in the result. Plucking (51.28%) and more than twice method of collection in a year (77.78%) were the methods and frequency of collection. The result also shows that expansion of farmland (39.32%) was the major cause of indigenous tree species decline in the study area while loss of forest products (29.91%), and climate change (23.08%). Medicine, food, fuel wood, gum, ink, craft, fodder, tanning, pole, timber etc. are the benefits derived. Government should embark in public enlightenment on the need to conserve the indigenous tree species in the area.
KEYWORDS: Cause, Forest, Implications, Indigenous, Species
INCIDENCE OF PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS IN HONEY SOLD IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS.
1HARUNA U.S AND 2TAHIR , F.
1Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P.M.B. 0235, Bauchi.
2Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi.
Pure natural honeys are very expensive and difficult to identify by consumers. These have given unscrupulous people the opportunity of counterfeiting the genuine honey. Bacterial and fungal load counts in samples were found very high. Microorganisms of faecal origin were isolated. The nature of the micro flora suggested that most of the honeys in our market are adulterated or rather artificial. These findings may have some health implication and may be of value in food protection and control. It was recommended therefore that tools for mycobacterium detection and isolation or at least microscopy need to be put in place to assess and monitor the widespread of this organism through honey in our environment and in the market places.
Key words: natural honey, adulterated honey, fungi, bacteria and food borne diseases.
ASSESSMENT OF OPERATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE OF MAJOR RED MEAT ABATTOIRS OF BAUCHI STATE NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA
- A. ZAILANI1, M. BELLO2, J. KABIR2 and M. A. RAJI3
1Department of Animal Health and Production, Bauchi State College of Agriculture, Bauchi.
2 Department of Veterinary. Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 3Department of Veterinary Microbiology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, A.B.U. Zaria, Nigeria.
A thorough assessment of six major abattoirs and a census of all registered slaughter houses and slaughter slabs of Bauchi state were carried out to determine their infrastructure, and operations process. The results as at the time of the assessment indicated that there were twenty six (26) functional abattoirs and slaughter slabs, and one meat processing plant registered and licenced with Bauchi state government. Facilities at the various abattoirs were found to be obsolete, dilapidated and in a deplorable conditions, only the meat processing plant had source of electricity. Diseases such as tuberculosis, CBPP, helminthosis, multiple liver abscesses etc. were encountered during meat inspection in some of the abattoirs during the study. The means of animal and carcass transportation to and from the abattoirs respectively were observed, and the way in which bye products and waste were utilized and or disposed off from the abattoirs. It was concluded that none of the abattoirs studied meet the minimum international standard regulations and there was public health dangers associated with production and processing of meat for human consumption at the those slaughter houses.
KEY WORDS: Abattoirs, Operations infrastructure, Facilities, Diseases, Public health.
PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON THE PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE METHANOL EXTRACT OF Kigelia africana LEAVES AND STEMS AGAINST Candida albicans AND Salmonella typhi
Pre- ND Department, Federal Polytechnic, P. M. B. 0231, Bauchi.
Kigelia africana leaf and stem samples (150g) were extracted with Methanol solvent (250cm3) at 60oC for 8 hours. The extracts were phytochemically screened for the secondary metabolites present and also subjected to antimicrobial test against Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans. The results showed that the extract of Kigelia africana leaves contains tannins, flavonoid, saponin and glycoside. Also, the extract was able to inhibit the growth of the two microorganisms with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 10mg/ml for both Candida albicans and Salmonella typhi.
IDENTIFICATION AND UTILIZATION OF FORAGE TREE SPECIES IN BAUCHI STATE
Department of Forestry Technology, School of Agricultural Technology Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
With the help of questionnaires, Forage tree species and their medicinal value in addition to their Relative abundance scale of occurrence were identified from nine randomly selected Local Government Areas of Bauchi State. The study reveals that 36 forest tree species from nineteen Botanical families are being used as forage trees, out of which seven species (Kyaya senegalensis, Terminalia laxiflora, Detarium macrocarpum, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Acacia nilotica, Prosopis africana and Bosweillia dalzielii) were found to be used by ruminant farmers to cure animals’ health related problems: Trypanosomiasis, worms, Diarrhea, Liver problem, Cough, Foot and Mouth diseases. Parts of the trees being used to prepare the animals’ herbal medicine are leaf, bark and fruit. The results also shows that out of the 36 forage trees identified, 13 are rare, 10 are occasional, 9 are frequent, and only two are abundant and very abundant respectfully in Bauchi State. Establishment of more grazing reserves and control grazing were recommended among others.
Keywords: Forage – Trees – Grazing – Rare species – Abundant species
EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIALS OF SOME SOILS FOR AGRICULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY IN BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA.
1Haruna, Y. 1Ubayo, M.M, and 1Gambo, M.
1Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
2Department of Agricultural and Bio-environmental Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi,
Bauchi State Nigeria.
A study was conducted on soils formed on three lithological origins namely Basement Complex Rocks (BCR) in Gubi, Sedimentary Rock (SR) in Alkaleri and older granite(OG) in Birshi in Bauchi State, Nigeria to evaluate their potentials for agricultural sustainability. Results revealed that sand fractions dominated the soil separates in all the profiles with mean values of 51.06%, 71.19% and 66.53% in soils of Gubi, Alkaleri and Birshi respectively and clay fractions increased with depth with mean values of 34.80%, 18.53% and 18.43% in the same order. Organic carbon, to be Nitrogen and available phosphorous contents were generally low in all the soils. Exchangeable cations (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) contents were medium. Cation Exchange Capacity (C.E.C) content was low especially in the surface horizons. The mean values for the soils were 6.80, 6.53 and 5.96 for the soils of Gubi, Alkaleri and Birshi. Base saturation percentages were also low in the surface horizons. For sustainable crop production, the integrated organic matter incorporation with the adequate addition of inorganic fertilizer to avert the sandy texture, low nutrient contents of these soils coupled with the discouragement of unnecessary felling of trees in quest for cooking energy is hereby advocated in this write-up.
Key words: Evaluation, Potentials, Soils, Agricultural, Sustainability.
THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON TEACHING AND LEARNING IN GOMBE STATE TECHNICAL COLLEGES.
JOSEPHINE MUSA DAWHA, ABDULGAFAR AHMED And KAMAR T. SALIHU
Federal College of Education (Technical) Gombe
ICT plays complementary roles in teaching learning situation, the application of ICT has the advantages of heightening the motivation, helping recall previous learning, providing new instructional stimuli activating the learners. This paper therefore sought to examine the impact of ICT in teaching and learning in technical colleges in Gombe state. ICT enhances response providing systematic and steady feedback, facilitating appropriate practice, sequencing learning information for enhanced learning teacher who are trained with the system of instructional strategy would be able to kindle in the heart of the learners a desirable attitude towards information technology tools in their entire ways of life. The paper also addresses the mission of teacher’s education Nigeria among other things the production of professional who can combine the use of conventional teaching strategies and the unfolding information and communication technology (ICT) in the generation and imparting the knowledge, attitude and skills. The paper highlights the prospect found in the use of ICT for teaching and learning process in VTE programme, problems of utilization of ICT in teaching and learning and the need for VTE teachers to fully equip themselves with the required knowledge of ICT. The paper stressed the importance of computer that offers the teachers improvement in techniques of research, to cumbersome exercise of searching by though library’s card catalogue or periodical indexes can be made easier by typing few key words in to a computer.
PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS FED TWO TYPES EACH OF MAIZE, MILLET AND SORGHUM AS ENERGY SOURCES
*SA’IDU, I.1, MBAP, S.T.2, EGBO, M.L.,2 DOMA, U.D.2., AND GARBA, A2.
- Bauchi State College of Agriculture, Bauchi Department of Animal Production Technology
- Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, School of Agriculture, Anim. Production programme
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of broilers fed different energy source based diets. One hundred and eighty Anak 2000 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments. Labeled as diet 1,2,3,4,5 and 6 with yellow maize white maize, dauro millet, pearl millet white sorghum and red sorghum. Thirty broilers were allotted to each treatment with ten birds per replicate. At starter phase, feed in-take (48.95 – 56.08g), Daily weight gain (22.60 – 27.88g) and feed conversion ratio (1.96 – 2.37) between diets were statistically similar. The corresponding values of 121.10 – 134.88g, 28.21 – 35.39g and 3.28 – 4.47 at the finisher phase were also similar (P<0.05). The results generally indicate that there was no difference between maize, millet and sorghum in terms of the parameters considered. Since maize is the major source of conventional energy used and competition exists between man and poultry for maize, the use of millet and sorghum could be advocated to replace maize. They are less expensive and less demanded as compared to maize. This will alleviate the problem of scarcity and reduce the high competition for maize between man and poultry.
KEYWORDS: broiler; maize; millet; sorghum; energy
MASS MEDIA AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: AN EXAMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL CAMPAIGN ON COMMUNITY – BASED RADIO STATIONS IN BAUCHI STATE.
ABUBAKAR BABA GARBA,
Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
The belief that farmers can use improved information to advance their productivity and profitability is widely held. Since agricultural campaign conveys information capable of facilitating access to, and transfer of agricultural innovation, to rural farmers, an appropriate channel is therefore needed to undertake such task. Radio in particular has the capacity of reaching large number of geographically dispersed, remote and often not highly literate people, and can thus be used to mobilize farmers to adopt improved farming techniques. Community-based radio stations were established in different localities across Bauchi state and they are well engaged in transmitting Agricultural programs like ‘A koma gona’ and ‘Noma tushen arziki’, using the local languages of the host communities. The Bauchi State Agricultural Development Programme (BSADP) is the State’s main implementation agency for all Agricultural policies concerning extension and information dissemination in the state. This paper will seek to assess the patronage of these stations by the Bauchi state farmers in relation to how well they transmits agricultural information as well as their potentials in creating greater agricultural awareness to the farmers. Methods adopted for the study were survey and content analysis. The result shows the high level of patronage for these stations as well as the acquaintance of Agricultural programmes transmitted on the stations by the Farmers in the state.
STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOIL SCIENCE IN SCHOOLS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
*UBAYO, M.M. *BABUGA, U.S. AND **GARBA, A
*Agricultural Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
**Jigawa Research Institute, PMB 5015, Gandu Road, Kazaure
Effective teachers of Soil Science must therefore be familiar with the unique qualities of soil as well as the practice of Soil Science through personal experience. Furthermore they must be able to relate these unique qualities and experience to other disciplines and in other contexts. It could be argued that a unique set of teaching principles and strategies applies to Soil Science that is to say it is not different from those of other disciplines. This paper tries to identify some approach and strategies to employ for effective teaching and learning of soil science in schools. However, result of students rating of methods used were, field work 43%, laboratories 36%, Tutorials/ group Discussions 11%, Lectures 8% Presentations 7% and Writing reports 5%. Therefore soil science teachers needs to employ more strategies and techniques for effective teaching and learning to take place.
Key words: strategies, teaching, learning, soil and science
AN ENHANCED CONNECTIVITY AWARE ROUTING PROTOCOL WITH VARYING VELOCITY FOR VANET
AHMADU MAIDORAWA1* AND ZAKARI IDRIS MATINJA2
1,2 Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, P. M. B 0231, Bauchi, Bauchi State,
This paper proposed an Enhanced Connectivity Aware Routing (ECAR) protocol with varying velocity for Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET). The protocol uses a control broadcast to reduce the number of overhead packets needed in a route discovery process. It is also equipped with an alternative backup route that is used whenever a primary path to destination failed, which highly reduces the frequent launching and re-launching of the route discovery process that waste useful bandwidth and unnecessarily prolonging the average packet delay. NS2 simulation results show that the performance of ECAR protocol outperformed the original connectivity aware routing (CAR) protocol by reducing the average packet delay by 24%, control overheads by 13.4% and increased the packet delivery ratio by 10.4%.
Keywords: alternative path, primary path, protocol, routing, VANET.
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA ON MILLET AND SORGHUM
1KUTAMA*, A.S., 2UMAR, S. 3RABI, R. A. AND 4HASSAN, K.Y.
1Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University, Dutse
2Department of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Kano
3Pre-ND Dept., COFOSEE, Hussain Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Jigawa State
4Department of Biological Sciences, Sa ‘adatu Rimi College of Education, Kano
Phytochemical screening and allelopathic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Calotropis procera on radicle and plumule length of millet and sorghum were investigated. The result obtained showed that Calotropis procera contain tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids, saponins and cardiac glycosides which are important allelopathic sources. While alkaloids and anthraquinones were absent. The extracts brought about considerable inhibition in growth parameters of the seeds examined. The result obtained showed that the degree of retardation in radicle and plumule length of millet and sorghum increased with increase in the concentration of the extracts, which showed that the inhibition was concentration dependent. Statistical analysis (p< 0.05) revealed that there were significant differences in radicle and plumule length in millet and sorghum when compared with the control experiment. The control experiment had higher radicle and plumule length. The 20% concentration had the highest inhibition of radicle and plumule length when compared with the control. Therefore the study revealed that allelochemicals released from Calotropis procera extract had inhibitory effect on radicle and plumule length of millet and sorghum and would have inhibitory effect when grown alongside with the test crop.
Keywords: phytochemical screening, allelopathy, aqueous extract, Calotropis procera, millet and sorghum
MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF THE TRANSPORTATION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS FROM SOURCE TO DESTINATION
EMEKA MICHAEL OKOYE 1, MADU IFY 2, SANI USMAN 3
1 ICT Dept, Wellspring University Benin City Edo State
2, 3 Computer Science Dept, Fed. Poly Bauchi
The proposed Mathematical model of transporting petroleum products from the source to various destinations is considered in this research. The data gathered were modeled using the modified distribution method and the North West Corner Rule, representing the transportation problem as a tableau and solving it with the computer software solver to generate a minimized transportation cost by finding the shortest distance. This Mathematical model will be useful for making strategic decisions by the logistics managers of Pipeline and Products Marketing Companies, it will also be useful in making optimum allocation of the production from the source to several destinations at a minimum transportation cost.
DESIGNING JAVA COM FOR IMPLEMENTING MATRIX CLASS AND MATRIX-BASED OPERATIONS
ABUBAKAR MUHAMMAD 1, ZAINAB ALIYU MUSA 2
Computer Science Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi (Nigeria)
COM, an acronym for Component Object Model is an object-oriented technology jointly developed by Microsoft and Digital Equipment Corporation that allows developers create distributed and reusable objects. An object model is a programming architecture in which developers define not only the type of data structure, but also the types of operations that can be applied on the data structure. This research looks into the common matrix operations which include multiplication, division, addition, subtraction, finding inverse, transpose and determinant of matrix. These operations are inbuilt into a component object model that can be reused in different environments to carry out these operations on any arbitrary given matrices. Main focus of the component object model is to provide reusable object for Java developers and programmers that they can use to carry out the defined matrix operation without the need of writing lengthy codes to do that. The component object model is designed using Java Netbeans and Matlab. Software reuse improves programmers’ efficiency, quality of software and reduces the time taken for software development project to complete. It is the main objective of the component object model that this research intends to design, to achieve improvement of programmers’ efficiency, quality of software and reduction of project completion time in Java programming involving matrix operations. Finally, this research attempts to reuse the component object model in Java to perform common matrix operations in order to justify the reusability of the component object model in Java programming.
Keywords: COM, matrix, determinant, transpose, inverse of Matrix
PROXIMATE AND MICRONUTRIENT COMPOSITIONS OF TWO LOCAL SEASONINGS-FERMENTED SOYA BEAN AND SORREL SEEDS
CHADI, M. AND ABDULLAHI, A.
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
The proximate and micronutrient compositions of two local seasonings, namely fermented soya bean and sorrel seeds were determined by various analytical methods which include titrimetric method, standard fluorimetry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The results showed that fermented soya bean and fermented sorrel seed respectively have the following proximate compositions in percentages: Moisture 9.2+1.2 and 10.3+0.5; ash 3.2+1.5 and 5.2+0.7 and crude fat 22.1+1.1 and 26.2+1.0; crude fibre 1.3+0.5 and 4.5+ 1.0; crude protein 37.6+1.3 and 31.5+1.2 carbohydrate 26.7+ 1.0 and 22.4+1.0. The micronutrient contents were retinol 0.64 and 0.24 1µ/g; thiamine 2.00 and 1.36 g/100g; riboflavin 1175.20 and 561.56 mg/100g; ascorbic acid 0.06 and 0.06 mg/100g calcium 155.50 and 97.30 mg/100g; potassium 30.21 and 24.60 mg/100g; magnesium 266.3 and 77.11 mg/100g;copper 1.34 and 1.05 mg/100g; manganese 1.17 and 0.92 mg/100g; iron 21.00 and 18.10 mg/100g; phosphorus 49.59 and 37.89 mg/100g and sodium 59.00 and 54.40 mg/100g. These condiments are rich source of proteins, lipids as well as vitamins and minerals.
KEYWORDS : – proximate; micronutrient; seasonings; condiments and minerals.