TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY (TIJSRAT)
VOL. 12 (9) FEBRUARY, 2023. ISSN: 2623-7861
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
PERFORMANCE OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE AS FUEL IN A BINARY DIRECT CARBON FUEL CELL
ANTHONY RICHARD AJAW
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, PMB.65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
A variety of abundant carbonaceous fuels such as municipal solid waste (MSW) and biochar from biomass carbonization can be utilized to generate electricity in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) system.In this paper, in the characterized municipal solid waste.The proximate and ultimate analysis employed to determine the High heating value, HHV. The result shows that the HHV of municipal solid waste is 11.0 MJ/Kg. The calorific value was evaluated to be 7.9 MJ/kg. The amorphous carbon present by the XRD and SEM/EDX analysis shows the utilization of municipal solid waste(MSW) as fuel in a direct carbon fuel cell(DCFC) for power generation.
Keywords: Municipal solid waste, Characterization, Energy, Biochar, DCFC.
MODELLING AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF BIOCHEMICAL-OXYGEN DEMAND AND DISSOLVED-OXYGEN INTERACTIONS DUE TO POLLUTION IN RIVER GANGES
1R.E. AKPODEE; 2I.E. NWAFOR
1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University. 2Institutes of Geoscience and Environmental Management, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University.
In effluents discharge modelling, we have investigated the impact of temperature variation (Increasing Temperature, T=28unit) in the interaction between Biochemical-Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) on a polluted river Ganges. Here, we have derived first an analytical solution that can predict the relative abundance of both coordinates in their interaction at any time, t. Furthermore, a numerical scheme of Runge-Kutta ODE45 computational approach was used to study the qualitative characteristics of the BOD-DO interaction for the impact of temperature variation (Increasing Temperature @ T=28unit) in the interaction between BOD (IC = 8.0) and DO (IC = 7.1) at an interval of 0(0.1)60 time in hrs, when all model parameter values are fixed ranging from the time interval of 0:0.1:60 in hrs. The BOD and DO initial values here called the IC’s on the base time recorded as BOD0 = 8.0 and DO0 = 7.1 due to the pollution of the stream. Furthermore, from the base time, we observed a severe depletion of the DO downstream from a value of 7.1 units DO to a value of 4.0099 units DO for the uncontrol coordinate and 4.4353unit DO for the control (Modified) coordinate at 1.7hr of our experimental time which further recover with various DO deficit up to full saturation. The detail work and full results are presented and discussed in this study.
Keywords: Biochemical-Oxygen Demand, Dissolved Oxygen, Numerical Simulation, Biological Extinction, Model Parameters.
INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF GENDER, TRADITIONAL AND STANDARD SCIENTIFIC PRACTICAL APPROACHES ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’INTEREST AND ACHIEVEMENT IN FOOD PRESERVATION IN FCT, ABUJA NIGERIA
1SAMUEL, IWANGER RUTH, 2OKA, USMAN APAWU, AND 3NJOKU, JANE OGECHI
1&2Department of Science, Technology and Mathematics Education, Faculty of Education, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. 3Nigerian Educational Development Council (NERDC), Lokoja-Kaduna Road, Sheda, Abuja, Nigeria
This study investigated the Interactive Effects of Gender, Traditional and Standard Scientific Practical Approaches on Students’ Interest and Achievement in Food Preservation in FCT, Abuja. Quasi experimental research was used for this study. The population of this study comprises of 2,879 SS II Science students from 77 senior secondary schools in FCT, Abuja for 2021/2022 academic session. Multi stage random sampling technique was used to draw the sample of 170 (85 males and 85 females) students for the study. Two research questions guided the study and two research null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. An instrument titled; Food Preservation Achievement Test (FOPAT). Split half reliability was used to determine the internal consistency of FOPAT, r = 0.81 was obtained as coefficient. Descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses. The finding of this study revealed that; a significant interaction effect between Approaches and gender on interest (F(2,163) = 3.771; p = 0.25 < α = 0.05). No significant interaction effect between Approaches and gender on achievement (F(2,163) = 0.028; p = 0.972 > α = 0.05). Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that: Teachers should be encouraged to use Traditional and Standard Scientific Approaches in the teaching of Food Preservation.
Keyword: Achievement, Food Preservation, Gender, Interest, Traditional and Standard Scientific Approaches
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CASHEW TREE GUM EXUDATES AND STANDARD (IMPORTED) INDUSTRIAL NATURAL GUM (XANTHAN GUM) FOR PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS
M C. OKONKWO; HABIBU UTHMAN; & O. S. AZEEZ
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
Gums are carbohydrate bio-molecules that have the potential to bind water and form gels. They are regularly linked with proteins and minerals in their construction and they have several forms. In many pharmaceutical formulations, plant-based gums are the key ingredients due to their widespread accessibility, non-toxicity, and reasonable prices. These compete with many polymeric materials for use in pharmaceuticals and have created a significant achievement from being an excipients to innovative drug carriers. Scientists and pharmaceutical industries have been drawn to uncover the secret potentials of plant-based gums through a deeper understanding of their physicochemical characteristics and the development of safety profile information. The innovative unique class of drug products, useful in drug delivery applications, gene therapy and biosynthesis, has been developed by modification of plant-based gums. In this comparative study, (FTIR), (XRD) and (XRF) were carried out to investigate the functional groups as well as the molecular structures, the changes in their chemical structures and observed characteristic IR wave number, characterizing crystalline materials and the active oxides present. It was observed that the raw gum possesses most of the features of the imported industrial gum and therefore can be adopted in the pharmaceutical industries.
Keyword: Cashew tree gum, FTIR, Natural gum, polymeric materials, XRD, XRF.
SECURITY AND PRIVACY MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN THE IOTS
BELLO, ABDULAZEEZ OMEIZA; & AMANNAH, CONSTANCE IZUCHUKWU
Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, P.M.B. 5047, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
The Internet of Things is an evolving technology for physical objects. Privacy concerns any individual’s right of control. On the other hand, security refers to the way personal data from somebody is safeguarded. Despite the importance of security and privacy management in the IoTs, there are still rising issues confronting the IoTs thus the need to device stronger techniques in addressing these issues. The aim of this paper is to review the security and privacy threats in the IoTs and the prevention techniques. The objectives is to compare the reviewed techniques and recommend a more viable techniques for managing privacy and security in the IoTs. SLR methodology is used to review the techniques based on their ideas, merits, demerits and prospect. Intelligence gathering techniques opined that intelligence should be adopted by companies to boost their security domestically but however there was difficulties in gathering information for big data using the existing mining algorithm. Social-media techniques is capable of using user’s twitters account profile to protect user’s data but it was only limited to information gathering. Soft-biometric techniques is a strong techniques for measuring objects performance and authentication but the error rate of the techniques is high. BITAG Guideline’s security and privacy techniques employed high level policies/guidelines in checkmating security and privacy issues but however detailed list of the guidelines are not specified and threats are left untouched. The authors thus recommended that fuzzy-based security and privacy techniques and new hybrid algorithm techniques should be hybridized for a viable security and privacy in the IoTs.
Keywords: Internet of Things (IoTs), Security, Privacy, Intelligence gathering.
INSITU TRANSESTERIFICATION OF ALLAMANDA SEED OIL FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL USING ACID ACTIVATED EGG SHELL
I A. ONIMISI; & F. ABERUAGBA
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
Bio-diesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible option to tackle the depleting fossil fuels and its negative environmental impact. Bio-diesel is a renewable energy source, unlike other petroleum products that will vanish in years to come. Since it is made from animal and vegetable fat, it can be produced on demand and also causes less pollution than petroleum diesel. In this research work, acid activated catalyst was produced from egg shells using the Transesterification process. Heterogenous catalysts are mostly preferred during biodiesel production because of their numerous advantages over homogenous catalyst which are recoverability, reusability, ease of separation, wide range of operating conditions. The Biodiesel is produced using Response Surface Methodology as optimizing tool taking factors such as reaction time, reaction temperature and catalyst concentration. The chemical composition of the catalyst was analysed using an X–ray fluorescence spectrometer with an inbuilt XRD. The surface morphology of the catalyst derived from egg shells was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The functional groups present in the catalyst were analysed using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer. From the various factors used to optimize production process, waste egg shell could serves as a suitable heterogenous catalyst when allamanda oil is used as a feed stock and can serve as a good substitute for edible oil in the production of biodiesel.
Keywords: Biodiesel, Allamanda seed, Egg shell catalyst, Transesterification.
ANALYSIS OF CONTACTLESS PAYMENT SYSTEM AS A FINANCIAL RESPONSE TO CORONAVIRUS CONTAINMENT MEASURE IN NIGERIA
*A. A. ABDULRAZAQ; & **A. A. ISMAIL
*Department of Computer Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. **Department of Economies, Federal Polytechnic
The world welcomed year 2020 with pandemic disease caused by Coronavirus-2, a strain of virus causing Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (SARSCoV-2) named COVID-19. The shock of SARSCoV-2 led to thousands of deaths from millions of infected people. Strategies, measures and interventions were sought for curtailing the ugly trend. Some measures enacted in terms of protocols worsened the situations as they led to serious change in human relationship and result to adverse effect on socio-economic activities. Using Nigeria as a case study, contactless payment system is a worthy intervention against spreading of SARSCoV-2 with respect people attitudes, mode of payment systems widely enjoyed by masses and the protocol set by Nigeria Centre for Disease and Control (NCDC) against the spreading of COVID-19. This paper presents facts and figures canvassing for contactless payment system as one of interventions require by governments as well as all stakeholders for financial transactions as a measure for prevention SARS-related virus spread.
Keywords: COVID-19, Transmission mode, NFC, Contactless payment, Security protocol
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF FILLING STATIONS ON WATER QUALITY IN URBAN MINNA, NIGER STATE NIGERIA
MAMMMAN IBRAHIM; & SULEIMAN Y. MOHAMMED
Dept. of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
This study is aim at assessing the impact of Filling stations on water quality in urban Minna. The study Map out the Petrol Filling Stations in Minna Township.In other to examined the distributional pattern of the petrol Filling stations with the aid of GIS and to know their conformity with planning standards; even though most petrol filling station do not comply with the standard of 50-meter distance from water sources. coordinate of the stations were obtained using Garmin™ Etrex handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver of 4.5 m accuracy; ArcMap 10.1 was used to develop the map of the study area that made it easy to identify the water sources in the study area. Buffer width of 250meters recommended by Palfrey and Bradley (2002) was used to provide a buffer zone, results were presented on imageries and Maps. The research throws light on to the physio-chemical analysis of Well water sources in Minna metropolis. Ten different Hand- dug well water samples were collected and compared for physiochemical analysis. The selections of parameters and the determination of Maximum allowable limit were conducted by taking in to consideration the WHO and Nigeria Standards for drinking water quality: The parameters such as water temperature, Total dissolved solid (TDS), pH, Electrical conductivity (EC) and Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) were analysed. In this study, Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration affects different aspects of the water quality and it can be concluded that eight (8) underground water sources out of the ten (10) shows the presence of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH). Only one well (Well 5) with 4.8 TPH concentrations was within the permissible limit of 5.0 mg/l. The study recommends Hand dug-wells that are to be used for domestic purposes should be cited far away from Petroleum Filling stations so as to reduce the number of Hydrocarbons that may get into the underground water sources.
Keywords: Keywords: Filling stations; water quality, Physicochemical Parameters, spatial distribution, Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH).
ENHANCED DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL DRIVE BASED ON TWELVE SECTOR SWITCHING TABLE FOR INDUCTION MOTOR
*UMAR ZANGINA; & **I. G. SAIDU
*Sokoto Energy Research Centre, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria. **Dept. of Physics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria
Direct torque control (DTC) is a control strategy used in a.c drive systems to obtain high performance torque and speed control. Although the strategy possesses some inherent drawbacks like the variable switching frequency, high torque and flux ripples produced at low speeds, it is still applicable due to its good dynamic performance and robustness. In this paper, the design of a conventional DTC based strategy of speed control of an induction motor has been considered, so as to minimize the problem of high torque and flux ripples which are produced. To achieve this, the stator flux locus was divided into twelve sectors instead of six and also changing the zones so that all the six active states can be utilized in each sector. Finally, the performance of the control strategy was demonstrated by simulations performed using the versatile simulation software package MATLAB/SIMULINK. All evaluations are based, on the drives performance which includes dynamic torque and flux responses of the system, then introduction of uncertainties to ascertain the robustness of the drive system.
Keywords: Induction motor, Voltage Source Inverter, Torque ripple, Robustness and Switching Table.
INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT) BASED ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM
(L)USIADE, REX EHIEDUM AND (LL)UDEFI, MODESTER AMARACHI
(l)Department of Computer Engineering, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria (ll)Department of Computer Engineering, Grundtvig Polytechnic, Oba, Anambra State, Nigeria
In recent time, there have been tremendous increase of human activities resulting from population growth and technological advancement. The operational activities resulting from usage of automobiles, industrialization and urbanization have been attributed to detrimental effect which is affecting the human health and other living beings. Industrialization operations and waste especially in urban and metropolitan cities have also been a major factor responsible for release of pollutants in our environment today. In this regard, there is need to develop a system for monitoring the high level of industrial pollution. This paper is therefore put together from a robust research that developed a system to not only monitor industrial pollution but in addition minimizes human intervention in monitoring industrial pollution and maintain a healthy environment. This system is designed to continuously access industrial pollution via the following devices; Microcontroller ATmega328, ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module and sensors like MQ-2 gas sensor, sound, temperature, turbidity, conductivity sensors and other associated devices. The system monitors the level of pollutants in the environment, cuts off the main power line to the polluting industries whenever the level of acknowledged pollutants goes high. This can be useful for government departments like the federal and state Ministry of Environment, National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) for monitoring the industries and take necessary actions.
Keywords: Industrialization, Pollution, Sensors, Monitoring and Environment
AN EXPERT SYSTEM FOR COMPUTER NETWORK TROUBLESHOOTING
USMAN A. ISMAIL, NURA A. ANKA & ABUBAKAR A. FARU & SHAMSUDDEEN S. MUHAMMED
Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria
This paper presents an expert system for troubleshooting computer network problems. With the innumerable advances in information technologies, computerising computer network problems troubleshooting, and identifying problems is becoming increasingly important. Furthermore, detecting computer network problems is a complex process that requires expertise. The objective is therefore, to create an expert system for troubleshooting computer network problems. The expert system comprises a user interface, a rule-base, an inference engine, and a knowledge editor interface. The system is intended to computerise the maintenance and repair of computer networks, as well as to provide time-based assistance to computer network users who require immediate assistance when maintenance experts are unavailable and to ease the work of computer network experts. The knowledge acquisition method of fact-finding was used, which is a knowledge-based approach to extracting facts. The waterfall model of the software development life cycle is used in the methodology. Visual Basic 10 programming language platform was used to implement this system.
Keywords: Computer network, Expert system, Network expert, Network user, Troubleshooting
A BUSINESS CARD READER FOR ANDROID SMARTPHONES USING OCR TECHNOLOGY
*ZAKKA, BENISEMENI E.; **JOLA, GLORIA NGOZI; *SUBERU, YUSUF; & *MUHAMMAD, ABUBAKAR
*Computer Science Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State. **Electrical Engineering, Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State
Business cards are widely used daily by professionals, in professional meetings/gatherings, business cards are exchanged as formal greetings and as a way of building networking. This makes the number of business cards grow excessively, which makes managing an issue. The best way to manage and ensure communication is by digitizing it. Numerous researchers proposed and built systems using flatbed card scanners to manage and digitalize business cards, a downside to this approach is the lack of portability of flatbed scanners. The accessibility of high-resolution cameras, low price, and better computation speed in smartphones no longer pose concerns and with the significant growth in the usage of mobile phones, it has become more convenient to use smartphones for business card digitalization. Thus, there is a need to develop a standalone business card reader for Android smartphones. This research work proposed an image processing technique to preprocess the card’s image, the text in the preprocessed image is then extracted using optical character recognition (OCR) and parsed to isolate the name, phone number, and email address of the contact to be automatically imported in the user’s phone address book. The proposed system was developed and tested as expected and the result shows that the developed system performs as required.
Keywords: OCR; Business card; Android; Mobile phones; Data.
PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF CAMEL MILK SOURCED FROM TARMASUWA, BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA
1M.S NADRO, 1A.U WUROCHEKKE, 2M.S HAUWA’U
1Department of Biochemistry Modibbo Adama University, Yola Adamawa State 2Department of Chemical Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi Adamawa State
The aim of this is to determine the proximate and elemental analysis of camel milk sourced from Tarmasuwa, Bauchi State. Both Proximate and elemental analysis were determined according to the standard method described by AOAC, 1990. The proximate analysis revealed the presence of moisture (90%), lipid (3.75%), protein (3.15%), carbohydrate (2.6%) and ash (0.5%). Fiber was not detected. Elemental analysis showed high concentration of magnesium (155.9 mg/L) potassium (920 mg/L), calcium (950 mg/L), chromium (820 mg/L), sodium (550 mg/L), iron (5.8 mg/L), zinc (12.1 mg/L). manganese (0.5 mg/L), copper (0.9 mg/L) and vanadium (0.5 mg/L). Looking at the result obtained, camel milk contains all the necessary nutrients for good health.
Keywords: Proximate Analysis, Elemental Analysis, Camel Milk, Tarmasuwa
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION POTENTIAL OF PHYTO-SYNTHESIZED NANOPARTICLES
¹OKUNOLA, A.A (MRS); ²ADEFILA, O.O (PhD); AND ³BALOGUN, O.D (MRS)
12Department of Biological Science, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State. ³Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State
The present study evaluates the use of Jatropha curcas aqueous leaf extract for the green production of silver nanoparticles and determining the potential suitability in the purification of contaminated water evaluating its potency in the removal and/or reduction of toxic materials. The biologically reduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The purification experiment was dose dependent using nanoparticle concentrations/water sample 25ml/l, 50ml/l, 75ml/l and 100ml/l in comparison with the control (zero treatment).The physicochemical results reveals that nitrate and sulphate levels deceased by 50% and 40% respectively but heavy metals showed insignificant changes even at higher concentrations however prior studies have advocated that removal of heavy metals by nanoparticles can be increased with the use of ligands to decrease surface resonance between the nanoparticles and the heavy metals in water to be treated .C.O.D and B.O.D levels depicted a reduction. Increase is observed in the concentration of turbidity and dissolved solids as treatment concentration increased so it is prescribed that after treatment using silver nanoparticles further filtration and flocculation techniques should be applied to remove sediments/ de-colorization. Conductivity increased with treatment due to the high conductance of the nanospheres.
KEYWORDS: Nanoparticles, metals, purification, spectroscopy,physico-chemical, treatments
SUSTAINABLE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT MECHANISM FOR WEALTH CREATION A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, YOLA
MAHMOUD LIMAN BELLO *, DR OKUBANJO O.** AND ZUBAINATU ABBA ***
* & ** College Academic Planning, Research and Statistics Unit and *** Department of Biology, Federal College of Education, Yola
Waste Management is one among the most pressing issues in environmental management, considering the fact that rate of waste collection and disposal lag behind the rate of generation resulting in waste accumulation. This study examines the existing solid waste management in Federal College of Education, Yola, with a view to an innovative technique and culture of sustainable waste management. The College has students’ population of above seven thousand (7,000) with seven (7) hostels each for male and female. Administrative block, lecture venues, Students Park, shopping centers and sports arenas served as the sampling points for the study. The type of waste generated in the College environment comprised of degradable and non-degradable materials which included household wastes, plastics, Polythenes bags, various metals, glass, cans, used plastic water bottles and various packaging items. An individual in the College produced an average of 0.269kg ± .038kg of solid waste per day and as living standard rises; people consume more and generate more waste. The research project developed a baseline data on the types of waste, quantity generated and sorting strategy at each sampling point. Some of the waste materials were converted to useful product as paper briquettes for use as alternative energy and compost for vegetables production, thus contributing to economic and wealth creation.
Keywords: Degradable, Environment, Solid waste, Wealth creation.
2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID (2,4-D) HERBICIDE EFFECT ON GROWTH, YIELD AND CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT OF MAIZE (Zea Mays) IN JOS PLATEAU
1OBIDOLA, S.M.*, 1HENRY, U.I., 2BULUS, J.K., 2HENRY, M.U., 3OLOYEDE, E.O. AND 4LAWAL, A.A.
1Crop Production Technology Departments, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State. 2Science Laboratory Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State. 3Agricultural Technology Department, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State. 4Biotechnology Centre, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Oyo State
A field experiment on the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide on the growth, yield and carbohydrate content of maize (Zea mays) was carried out at Federal College of Forestry, Jos. The experiment consisted of five treatments, in which the control plot was weeded using hoe. Other treatments are T1 (4 ml/L), T2 (8 ml/L), T3 (16 ml/L) and T4 (32 ml/L) of 2,4-D herbicide respectively applied to 4m2 experimental plot for weed control. The experimental design consisted of Randomized Complete Block Design and data was taken on the germination number, leaf count, plant height, number of tassels, yield and starch concentration of maize grains. Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 23 was used to carry out data analysis and Tukey’s test was used to separate the means where significant differences occurred. The results showed that significant differences occurred (p ≤ 0.05) on the germination number, leaf count, plant height, number of tassels, yield and the carbohydrate content of the maize. Treatment T0 gave a mean value of 39 as against T4 with a mean value of 31 on germination percentage at day 4. The leaf count result showed that T0 gave the highest mean value of 13.88 against 9.7 in T4. The result of the number of tassels showed a significant difference with T0 having 28.75 and T4 having 12.75 on day 8. The result of the yield/plot showed a significant difference with the highest mean value occurring in T0 (0.51 Kg) against the lowest mean value of 0.14 Kg as observed in T4. The result of the carbohydrate concentration showed similar trend of significance, in which the highest mean value occurred in T4 (57.63 mg/mL) and T4 produced the lowest mean value (52.69 mg/mL) Conclusively, application of 2,4-D should be done at doses not above 8 ml/L for the control of weeds in maize farms in order to avert reduced growth parameters and toxicity effects on the resulting yield.
Keywords: Maize, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), growth, yield, starch concentration.
PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF SALMONELLA AND SHIGELLA SPECIES AMONG CHILDREN AGED 0-5YEARS WITH DIARRHEA ATTENDING GENERAL HOSPITAL MINNA, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
ABUBAKAR FATIMA SADDIQ; NASIRU. U. ADABARA; AND ENEJIYON SHERIFAT OZAVIZE
Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
Acute diarrhea remains one of the most prevalent diseases affecting young children in developing countries such as Nigeria. The findings of this study revealed that Salmonella and Shigella sp are among some of the major agents associated with acute diarrhea in children with a combined prevalence of 9.0% (Salmonella had a prevalence rate of 7.1% of the cases whereas Shigella accounted for a prevalence of 1.9%). Sensitivity test of the selected Shigella and Salmonella species against some antibiotics showed 100% sensitivity to Azithromycin while also being sensitive to Ceftriaxone, Ciprofloxacin, Cefuroxime, Augmentin and Gentamicin. 100% resistance was observed to Tetracycline and Ampicillin while also being resistant to Metronidazole and Trimethoprim-sulfamethozaxole. Proper environmental cleanliness, good personal hygiene and proper balance diet is recommended for children as well as antibiotics such as Azithromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone should be used in treatment of acute diarrhea caused by Salmonella and Shigella sp.
Keywords: diarrhea, Salmonella, Shigella, antibiotics, and resistance
EFFECT OF MISTLETOE LEAF EXTRACT ON ALLOXAN INDUCED ALBINO WISTER RAT
MUHAMMAD ALIYU DIKKO1. *NURA TASI’U2, HADIZA JIBRIN ABDULLAHI2. IMRANA BELLO.3, GARBA, U3 MUHAMMAD YUSUF1. FADIPE L.A4. AUGUSTINE SHEBA3
1Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry Federal Polytechnic, Nassarawa. 2Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education Technical Bichi, Kano. 3 Department of Chemistry, Shehu Shagari University of Education, Sokoto. 4Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna
Mistletoe is a broad term for woody branch parasites in many plant groups, especially Loranthaceae and Viscaceae, and the majority of genera of African mistletoes are members of the family Loranthaceae. It is claimed that the mistletoe leaf extract has anti-diabetic, immunomodulatory, bacteriostatic, and therapeutic benefits for a variety of other illnesse. This study aim to investigate effect of mistletoe leaf extract on alloxan induced Albino Wister Rat. The study reveal that the rate of heartbeat in the normotensive rats was lowered dose-dependently by the crude extract (5-160mg/kg). The heart rate (HR) was decreased by between 3.23% and 7.26% at the low levels tested. The extract’s duration of action (depression of blood pressure) is also dose-dependent. The crude extract from Mistletoe (V. album) leaves had a greater effect on the highest recipients of the extract, according to the lethality studies. After a few minutes of showing off the enlarged hind limb, death ensued. The usual HBR was 80 bpm in the propanolol-induced hypertension group. The BP levels were dose-dependently lower after receiving the crude extract (2–5 mg/kg). Low dose extracts reduced blood pressure by 4.8% and 12.2%, respectively, but high dose extracts led to depression by 31.3% and 43.9%, respectively. Conclusively, mistletoe extract lowers the heart rate of both normotensive and hypertensive rats, according to studies. This is in line with recent reports about the extract’s ability to lower blood pressure. It is quite improbable that the extract uses the autonomic pathways (adrenergic and cholinergic) to reduce heart rate.
Keywords: mistletoe, heart rate, Albino wister Rat, crude extract.
METHANOL EXTRACT OF LAGENARIA BREVIFLORA (BENTH.) FRUITS AMELIORATES HYPERGLYCEMIA USING NORMAL AND ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
1OBIDOLA, S. MAYOWA*., 2SIKIRU GBENGA K., 1HENRY, I. UBONG, 3NWADIKE, CHRISTOPHER., 4HENRY, M. UBONG, 3MMADU, D. UCHENNA.
1Department of Crop Production Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State. 2Department of Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State. 3Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State. 4Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State
The fruit of Lagenaria breviflora had been reported through folklore medicine for its anti-diabetic activity and other medicinal uses in South Western part of Nigeria. The present study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical and anti-diabetic activity of the methanol extract of Lagenaria brevilora fruit. Twenty adult experimental rats (Rattus norvegicus) were used for this study. The animals were grouped as Group I (normal control which received 1 ml distilled water), Group II (diabetic control received 1 ml distilled water), Group III(diabetic and treated group that received 1 ml of 400 mg/Kg body weight of methanol extract of L. breviflora fruit), Group IV (normal treated group and received 1 ml of 400 mg/Kg body weight of methanol extract of L. breviflora fruit). The rats were fasted for 12 hours followed by induction of diabetes with alloxan through intraperitoneal route. The initial weight of the animals was taken, while subsequent weight was recorded on the 14th and 28th day of the experiment. The administration of the extract was performed for 28 days, then the animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses such as blood glucose, total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and triacylglyceride. The result of phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, coumarin and anthraquinones. The methanol extract of L. breviflora fruit showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in the level of serum glucose level, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol, while the levels of total protein, albumin, high density lipoprotein and body weight were significantly elevated compared to the diabetic untreated rats. The findings from the present research suggests that the methanol extract of L. breviflora fruit alleviated diabetes and related complications.
Keywords: Alloxan, Biochemical indices, Blood glucose, Diabetes, Lipid Profile and L. breviflora Fruit.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF DIGITAL CODE LOCK FOR A CAR IGNITION SYSTEM (WITH WRONG INPUT ALARM)
IDIEGE AUGUSTINE OKO; BALA ADAMU MALAMI; C.S ONATE
This project “design and construction of digital code lock for car ignition system (with wrong input alarm) is centered on the use of an integrated circuit CD4013. The high-power transistor used in this project is 2v 3904 with the incorporation of a transistor logic integrated circuit 74LS08 containing four district AND gates. The output of the AND gates go high only when all inputs are high. The integrated circuits (40131Cs), two dual flip flop packages were connected in series in such a way that the input of the first flip flop is armed once the circuit is on and would be loaded as soon as the first switch is momentarily pressed, while the AND gate which is the final output of the entire logic system, biases the transistor. Hence, the principal aim of this project is to design and construct an efficient, functional, usable, practicable and application digital code case security system capable of overcoming loss of vital information to wrong hands, financial crimes and other deadly misuse of stored data by hawkers.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF GSM BASED AUTOMATIC CHANGEOVER SWITCH
AGABI PETER IKANI
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
This project “Design and Construction of a GSM based automatic change over switch” provides a means of switching source of power supply between the national grid and generator automatically. With advancement in technology, things are becoming simpler and easier, hence automatic changeover systems are being preferred over manual systems. The purpose of this project is to design and construct a GSM based automatic changeover switch, using GSM modules. The GSM module is a transceiver which gives the system access to the GSM service providers, it is controlled by the interference of the module which sends an SMS to the user to turn ON the generator automatically when there is power outage from the main source of power supply and the user will also send feedback to either start or not and also, sends SMS to the user again to turn off the generator automatically when power from the main source is been restored. This system reduces the running cost of fuel in the generators, time and also the stress of human interference going to either ON or OFF the generator. The other advantage of this design is that the system is not network dependent since it will run automatically without the user feedback when there is network problem it also runs automatically when there is a delay imposed from the user.
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK AND FUZZY TIME SERIES IN FORECASTING DAILY PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) AIR QUALITY INDEX IN KADUNA
*ADENIKE FOLAPONMILE; **SAMUEL. F. KOLAWOLE; & **SAMUEL N. JOHN
*Computer Engineering Department, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria. **Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria.
Particulate matter is a prominent indicator of air pollution in any particular place. More people are impacted by it than by any other pollutant. PM2.5 offers the greatest health concerns, hence the need to accurately estimate future values and give early warning. In this study, air pollution data was acquired from an Internet of Things-based air pollution monitor. The data was used to train the artificial neural network and fuzzy time series models for PM2.5 pollutant. The results of the models were evaluated and compared using error performance evaluation metrics of Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). The best-performing model was used to forecast PM2.5 for five days and validated with the results from an online air quality app termed airvisual. The average AQI for the five days is 69.2 for the actual AQI, 66.6 for airvisual AQI, and 73.6 for the forecasted AQI. All of these values fall into the moderate AQI category. The comparative results of the validation indicated that the values correlate.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Forecasting, Fuzzy Time Series, Particulate Matter 2.5, Air Quality Index, and Kaduna
MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR THE PREDICTION OF RAINFALL IN MINNA, NIGER STATE NIGERIA USING ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS IN MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES
*JIYA, SAMUEL BABANMA; *YISA, DORCAS N.; & **IORNONGO TERSEER
*Department of Geography, Niger State College of Education, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. **Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
Rainfall prediction remains a serious concern and has attracted governments, industries, risk management entities, and the scientific communities. This study is to develop a model for the prediction of rainfall in Minna, Niger State Nigeria. Four-year atmospheric data consisting of rainfall, minimum temperature, maximum temperature and relative humidity spanning from 2018 to 2021 was acquired from the Department of Geography, Niger State College of Education Minna, Niger State. Three machine learning models were used for the rainfall prediction. There are linear regression, decision tree and random forest. The idea is to experiment with the three models and select the best prediction model for the data. The data was split into two, the training set and the testing set at a ratio of 80:20. The results show that the random forest model out-performed the other models with a Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 1.60 mm and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 4.05 mm. This is followed by the decision tree model with MAE of 2.48 mm and RMSE of 6.04 mm and the worst performing model is the linear regression with a MAE of 4.24mm and a RMSE of 6.90 mm. Hence random Forest was selected and used to formulate a computer-based rainfall prediction Application (App) using python tool. The App’s user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) provides easy access to rainfall prediction especially for less technical users. It is recommended that accurate data be incorporated for a better rainfall prediction.
Keywords: Prediction, Machine language, model development, weather parameters
CYBER SECURITY CONCERNS AND THE IMPACT OF BREXIT ON THE SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
*RUMANA KABIR AMINU; **MUHAMMAD ALIYU; & **ZAINAB ALIYU MUSA
*Department of Computer Science, FCT College of Education, Zuba, Abuja, Nigeria. **Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
Cybersecurity, which refers to the methods, procedures, and safeguards that support the defense of computer networks, devices, and data against tampering, theft, and damage, has not been a key focus of BREXIT discussions, either diplomatically or publicly. In fact, it feels fairly underappreciated considering its critical role in promoting economic growth and political stability. criminal cyber actors take advantage of the borderless nature of the internet coupled with the confusion that comes with brexit. While other articles focus on trade and development. economic, geopolitical, social implications of BREXIT, this paper focuses on the implications of brexit on Cybersecurity, we presented the implications of brexit on uk cyber security policy, the African Cyber Security Land Scape and the Possible cyber security implications of brexit on sub-Saharan Africa. We concluded by providing recommendations on how to strengthen the subsaharan Africa cyber security.
GRAPHENE SYNTHESIS AND MICROWAVE ABSORBING APPLICATIONS – A REVIEW
GARBA D. SANI; ALIYU SAIDU; RILWANU AATI; & SULEIMAN SAHABI
Department of Sciences, School of Applied Sciences, Kebbi State Polytechnic Dakingari, Kebbi State, Nigeria.
Devices called “microwave absorbers” are useful for many applications such as electromagnetic shielding in electronic circuits, computer systems, space crafts and other communication systems to limit or completely avoid electromagnetic interference (EMI). EMI not only affects the functioning of these electronic equipment but also affects human health. Magnetic materials of different ferrites have been applied in this regard for their merits of high-saturation magnetization and high coercivity, which contribute to magnetic energy loss and hence microwave absorption. However, their absorbing requirements in the gigahertz frequency range is hardly achievable. But combining these ferrites with dielectric loss materials made the dream the reality. Since graphene manipulation has become possible, researchers are applying graphene in many composites matrices. In this paper, the possible applications of graphene based composites in microwave absorbers has been intensively reviewed.
Keywords: Graphene, Nanocomposites, Synthesis, Microwave absorbers, Reflection loss
INTELLIGENT MOTION PLANNING FOR FLEXIBLE ROBOT DUAL ARM IN 2D & 3D SMART ENVIRONMENT USING DEEP LEARNING
*ADATI ELKANAH CHAHARI; **KINDNESS BULUS GAGO; ***ILIYAS IBRAHIM ILIYAS; ****ZAINAB AHMED TIJJANI; ****WITO JOHNSON MALGWA; & *****IBRAHIM MUSA HASSAN
*Department General Studies, Federal Collage of Education Yola, Adamawa State. **GK-Kumanetics Services Ltd. Jalingo, Taraba State. ***Department of Mathematics Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State. ****Department of Computer Science, Federal Collage of Education Yola, Adamawa State. *****Department General Studies, Federal Collage of Education Yola, Adamawa State.
This paper presents a real-time path planning and control technique that ensures flexible robot. This technique ensures a collision-free path planning for the robot arm and can store the training learned based on the algorithm developed under the Cartesian constraint. For the robot workspace, a proxy camera is used to detect any obstacle for the robot arm due to human or object collision. During the robot training to ensure flexible arm, distant images are applied in the simulation environment to generate point cloud of objects for the workspace. A concept used in benchmarked research is adopted using algorithm of Kalman filter etc. This is used in for obstacle position estimation and its related velocity in 3D environment. Finally, to ensure the robot arm is well planned and controlled, the collision avoidance is ensured due to its attractive and repulsive capability driven from the robot end effactor.
Keywords: Path Planning, Algorithm, Robot, and Effactor.
INDUSTRIAL GAS TURBINE MEASUREMENT PARAMETERS FROM DESIGN POINT: THEIR EFFECTS ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
SAMAILA YERIMA SULE
Department Mechanical Engineering Technology, Adamawa State, Polytechnic, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
The gas turbine engine is a complex form of engine because of its application in the industry. The components of an engine needs to be designed in a way that should have a greater performance parameters and also safe to withstand the harsh conditions of environment. The engine behavior at off-design (OD) and transient condition from Design Point (DP) when subjected to different environmental conditions can never be oversized. This paper looked into the extend at which deviation from Design Point of the engine parameters occurred in the gas turbine when subjected to increase in Intake pressure recovery, Relative Humidity, Ambient Temperature and Ambient Pressure. The analysis shows the influence of the aforementioned parameters/environmental conditions on the engine parameters such as turbine exit temperature (T6), Fuel Flow, Efficiency, Rotational speed and mass flow. The software used was PYTHIA, an in-house software of Cranfield University, England with the aid of GELM2500+ engine model. From the analysis, the results shows that both the ambient temperature and Pressure has a significant effect on the engine performance as the deviation of the engine parameters from the design point is much while Relative Humidity (RH) and the intake Pressure recovery has little effect on the engine performance as the deviation of the engine parameters from Design Point is small. The power was the handle for the entire simulation. The engine at Design Point has ambient temperature deviation of -2.932, Pressure deviation of -0.032, Relative humidity of 68% and Pressure recovery of 0.9949.
Keywords: Design Point, Performance, Gas, Turbine, Environment.