TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY (TIJSRAT)
VOL. 11 (9) NOVEMBER, 2022 EDITION. ISSN: 2623-7861
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
STABILIZATION OF A MATHEMATIC MODEL OF PEST POPULATIONS USING THE TECHNIQUE OF OPTIMAL CONTROL
NAFO NGIA MATTHEW
Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
This paper examines the stabilization of nonlinear differential systems which can be used to model pest interaction. We proceed to apply methods from optimal control theory and design the feedback control by using the Riccati equation to stabilize this system of proposed model equations. Our numerical method will be to test two interesting examples which come from entomological applications. The results show that as the pest population density varies monotonically, calculated steady-states are stabilized using appropriate optimal control techniques.
Keywords: Stabilization, Interaction, Optimal Control, Numerical Method, Riccati equations, steady-state, entomological applications.
OPTIMAL 5G RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR ULTRA-RELIABLE LOW LATENCY COMMUNICATION (URLLC) AND ENHANCED MOBILE BROADBAND (eMBB) USE CASES
ABDULHAKEEM-ALUGO, A. A1, MOHAMMED, A. S1, & DAUDA, U. S2
1Telecommunication Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65 Minna Niger State, Nigeria. 2Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65 Minna Niger State, Nigeria.
Due to the development of wireless networks for communication, a new issue has emerged. Users have become more organized (especially in 5G) by applications to ensure relatively easy spectrum access. The coexistence of eMBB and URLLC traffic has given rise to puncturing issues. The burstiness of URLLC traffic, which affects eMBB traffic by forcing its packets to wait until the spectrum is briefly free of URLLC traffic, is the main cause of this puncturing. In addition to Q-learning, a joint power and resource block allocation was done in order to get around this issue. The scheduling of resources was done using Q-learning in order to get the best multiplexing possible without puncturing eMBB resources. As a result, a scheduling pattern was created that enhanced reliability by increasing throughput and reducing latency. The suggested algorithm was implemented using MATLAB 5G and Deep Learning toolboxes. The algorithm (OLRT-Q) was compared to three other algorithms and there were some favourable conclusions. According to analysis, a 16% throughput boost over LRT-Q and a 47.7% increase over LR-Q at 2 Mbps (the case with the highest load) were recorded. At 1.5 Mbps, we noticed an increase of 12.2% and 33.16% in performance over LRT-Q and LR-Q, respectively. It outperformed LRT-Q and LR-Q in the case of a 1 Mbps load scenario by 9.44% and 19.09%, respectively. There is an improvement in throughput by 13.36% compared to LR-Q and a 9.58% increase compared to LRT-Q under the lowest load scenario permitted by the standard (0.5 Mbps).
Keywords: eMBB, Latency, OLRT-Q, Reliability, Throughput, URLLC.
MOCK SCORES AS PREDICTOR OF STUDENTS PERFORMANCES IN NECO MATHEMATICS IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY ABUJA, NIGERIA
DR SALIHU ABDULLAHI GALLE1; OFOMATA SCHOLASTICA EZINWANNE2; & EZEOFOR CHIGOZILI ADAMMA3
1Educational Research, Measurement & Evaluation Unit, Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria
This study investigated mock scores as predictor of students’ performances in NECO mathematics in federal capital territory Abuja, Nigeria. Two research questions and its corresponding hypotheses were utilized and descriptive survey of the ex-post facto research design type was adopted, in which there was no treatment and manipulation of independent variable. The population of the study consisted of all comprises of all the 24, 643 mathematics students in senior secondary schools who sat for FCT Education Resource Centre Mock Examination and National Examination Council (NECO) from 2019 to 2021 academic session years and 1,188 mathematics where used as a sample of the study. A Profoma was used as instrument for Collection, and it was validated which yielded 0.77 validity index and 0.79 reliability index. The data collected was analyses using regression analysis to answered research questions and ANOVA was used be test the hypotheses at the 0.05 level of Significance. Findings revealed that students. The results revealed that students’ mock scores in Mathematics significantly predict their performance at NECO and male and female students’ mock scores in Mathematics to some extend significantly predict their performance at NECO. Based on the findings, it was recommended that mathematics teachers should consider students mock scores performance before writing their senior school certificate examination and proper attention by the teachers should be given to both male and female students during the mock examination and encourage them to read well toward their senior school certificate examination such NECO in FCT Abuja, Nigeria.
Keywords: Mock scores, predictor, Students performances, NECO Mathematics,
BIG DATA IN TODAY’S INFORMATION SOCIETY
*UDO, CLEMENT UDO; **AFAHA, IFIOK JAMES; & *OBOH, ANDREW EJE
*Federal University of Health Sciences, Otukpo, Benue State. **Department of Library and Information Science, University of Uyo, Uyo.
Understanding what big data is and how it is used has become more critical as the gathering and usage of big data have grown. Big data is a collection of data that is enormous in volume and is rising exponentially over time. Because of its vastness and complexity, no conventional data management solution can store or process it effectively. Big data is just data, except much larger. Therefore, the focus of this study is on the idea of big data, its attributes, historical growth, advantages, and methods for managing and troubleshooting it.
Keywords: Big data, big data management, information society, usage of big data, attributes of big data
INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER EFFICACY, AND STUDENTS’ GEOMETRY SELF-EFFICACY AND PERFORMANCE IN YOBE STATE, NIGERIA
*1SULE, SAMUEL SARDAUNA (Ph.D) ; & 2PHILIP AKU EGGON (Ph.D)
1Department of Education, Faculty of Arts and Education, Yobe State University, Damaturu, Nigeria. 2Department of Science, Technology and Mathematics Education, Faculty of Education, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria
This study investigated the relationship between teacher efficacy, and students’ Geometry self-efficacy and performance in Yobe State, Nigeria. The study adopted a correlation survey research design. Sample of 370 students and 12 teachers were drawn from a population of 10,231 senior secondary two (SSII) students and 507 Mathematics teachers in 42 public secondary schools in 2021/2022 academic session using multi-stage sampling technique. Four research questions guided the study and four null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Four instruments were used for data collection viz.; Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES), Self-Efficacy Beliefs toward Teaching Mathematics Scale (SEBTMTS), Students’ Geometry Self-Efficacy Scale (SGSES) and Students’ Geometry Performance Test (SGPT). The TSES and SEMBTMTS were adapted, SGSES and SGPT were constructed by the researchers duly validated and the reliability coefficients of TSES, SEMBTMTS, SGSES and SGPT yielded 0.82, 0.93, 0.89 and 0.95 using Cronbach’s alpha and Kuder- Richardson (KR-20) formula methods. Research questions were answered using means and standard deviations while Pearson (R) and z-test were used to test the hypotheses The findings revealed among others that no significant relationship between general teaching efficacy or Mathematics teaching efficacy and student-related variables(P<0.05). Based on the findings therein, the study provided possible recommendations.
Keyword: Teacher Efficacy, Students, Geometry, Self-Efficacy, Performance
EFFECTS OF THERMAL VARIANCE ON THE BOND STRENGTH OF SLAG CEMENT CONCRETE
SESUGH TERLUMUN1, VICTORIA HASSANA JIYA1 OKAH MICHAEL CHUKWU1 IBRAHIM BADAMASI BILAL1 ASHIRU MUHAMMED ASHIRU2
1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna, Nigeria. 2Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nigeria
This work examine the effects of thermal variance on the bond strength of slag cement concrete. In this research, slag cement was prepared by blending 50% Portland cement with Ground Granular Blast Furnace Slag and used as the binder. Concrete cubes of 100mmx100mm were prepared using slag cement, the samples were cured for 28 days to achieve strenght. Therafter, some samples were selected and tested to determine the bond strength using pull out test while some were subjected to varying thermal conditions of 150, 200, 250 and 300C at time intervals of 30, 45 and 60 minutes after which pull out test was conducted on the heated samples to determine effects of varying temperature conditions. At the end of the research, it was observed that concrete has good thermal performance compare to ordinary Portland cement
EFFECTS OF EXTRUSION PROCESSING ON THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED SNACKS FROM COCOYAM AND BAMBARA GROUND NUT FLOURS
1BULUS DANIEL SADIQ AND 2ZOKTI JAMES ALKALI
The effects of extrusion variables on the proximate properties of snack produced from blends of cocoyam and Bambara ground nut was determined using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The moisture content ranged between 2.6 to 4.02%, protein content ranged between 3.40 to 7.01%. The formulation with 23.18% feed composition (cocoyam), 1200C barrel temperature and 16% feed moisture composition has an optimum protein improvement. Lipid (fat content) ranged between 0.95 to 1.03%, fibre composition ranged between 0.18 to 1.94%. Ash ranged from 1.33 to 2.33%. The high ash content is observed on run 2 with extrusion variables of 50% bambara ground nut, 1000C barrel temperature, and a moisture content of 8%. The constant for coefficient of determination for linear, quadratic and interaction are all positive. X1 has a synsgistic relationship with all the responses, X2 has an antagonistic relationship with all the responses. At quadratic level, (X12X22, X22) there was a positive relationship with all the variables with the exception of moisture. At interactive X1X2, X1X3, X2X3 all the responses tend to be antagonistic with all the extrusion variables. There was improvement on most of the responses at different formulation levels as stated above.
Key words: Extrusion, Snacks, Proximate, Variables, Responses
THE RESPONSE OF NPK15:15:15 ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF TOMATO IN BALI TARABA STATE
Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bali, Taraba State
Field experiment was conducted in Federal polytechnic Bali research farm during the 2022 raining season to determine the Response of NPK 15:15:15 on growth and yields of Tomato. The treatments consist of three level of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (50kg 100kg and 150kg). The trial was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Observations were made on plant height, number of leaves, Individual fruit weight, and fruit weight per plot and yield tons per hectare. All data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results revealed that 150kg/ha of NPK fertilizer had the highest mean values in all growth and yield parameters. Based on the results obtained from this research it could be concluded that 150kg/ha has appeared to be best dose of NPK fertilizer to be used on tomato production in the study area. Therefore, farmers at Bali could use 150kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer of tomato in order to produce maximum yield of tomato.
Keywords: Growth, Yield, NPK fertilizer, Tomato
THE SHORTEST VECTOR PROBLEM: LATTICE BASED APPROACH
ALIYU DANLADI HINA; MOHAMMED AUWAL ABDULLAHI; USMAN HASSAN
Department of Mathematics & Statistics, The Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
Abstract: In the field of cryptography, more especially quantum cryptography, lattices have become an indispensable tool. They are widely used as countermeasures during quantum attacks in lattice based cryptography. One of the significant problem in quantum cryptography is the shortest vector problem (SVP). This is the problem of finding the shortest vector in a lattice, which is NP-hard under randomized reductions as proven by Ajtai. With the assumption of the hardness of SVP, many cryptosystems are presumed secure. A new algorithm is proposed in this paper to solve the SVP in polynomial time. We show that the Hemite factor of the proposed algorithm is polynomially baunded.
Keywords: Cryptography, lattices, lattice based cryptography, randomized reductions, quantum cryptography
INVESTIGATING THE OPTIMALITY CRITERIA FOR A PARTIALLY BALANCED LATTICE DESIGN WITH TWO ASSOCIATE CLASSES
*NENLAT R. R.; **NWAOSU S. C.; ***ABDULKADIR A.; & ****PAM D. D.
*Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. **Department of Mathematics/Statistics, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Bunue State, Nigeria. ***Department of Mathematical Sciences, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. ****Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Kaduna Polytechnic Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria
Lattice designs is a class of incomplete block designs most commonly used in agricultural research. There is sufficient flexibility in the design to make its application simpler than most other incomplete block designs. The aim of this study is to investigate the design based optimality criteria of a two associate classes of a Partial Balance Lattice Design. The D, A, and E optimality criteria were studied. These approaches were demonstrated in our study involving nine treatments. We investigated the robustness properties of each of these optimal designs using their relative efficiencies. The results show that D-optimal has the highest values of 27 and 729 respectively for one replicate, and two replicates designs, while A has 9, and 18, E has 3, 3, althrough the designs. Considering the efficiency of the designs, in maximizing the information matrix, the results show that D, has 3.57 while A has 40 and E have 50. In minimized the dispersion matrix, the results show that D has 96.498 while A has 40 and E have 50. The results above showed that partial lattice design with one and two possess D optimality criteria which maximize the information matrix. It is therefore recommended that an experimenter that chooses a Lattice design can do with a one or two replicated design without any loss of information.
Keywords: Lattice Square design, Associate classes, Optimality criteria, and Efficiency.
SIMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A LOW-COST CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTOR
ROMANUS I.O1; SUNDAY AYIGUN1; & MARIA DINGARI2
1Department of Applied Physics, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State. 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State.
In this research, simulation and implementation of a low-cost Carbon monoxide detector was carried out to provide an efficient, straight forward and robust solution to monitor the air quality continuously and in real-time. It is a portable system that integrates single sensor MQ9 sensor as single unit and can be place anywhere. The result for simulation are 00ppm at 00seconds, 128ppm at 1.8secs, 100ppm at 2.00secs and 50ppm at 2.80secs and in testing the implemented detector, the obtained result in room was 20ppm at 0.00secs, 120ppm at 5secs and 60ppm at 30secs while in outdoor environment at 0.00secs, CO level was 10ppm at 5secs the CO level was 300ppm and at 30secs the ppm level was 40 respectively. The system uses 9V as it DC power supply. The research recommends that the device be modified using GSM module.
Keywords: Sensor, Carbon monoxide, Module, Gas, Pollution and detector.
GENERAL-PURPOSE IMAGE TAMPERING DETECTION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW OF RECENT ADVANCES
ABDULKADIR MAIGARI TURAKI; FATIMA AHMED ABUBAKAR; AHMAD ATIKA JIBRIN; SUBERU YUSUF; & SUNUSI ABDULHAMID DANTATA
Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.
Image tampering is the action of adding or removing important features from an image to change its semantic meaning for illegal or malicious purposes. The development of sophisticated computers and image editing software has made the tampering of digital images easy and undetectable by the human visual system. As a result, the tampering of images for malicious purposes is now rampant in our society leading to many ethical and moral consequences, such as the spread of fake news, wrong verdicts, and damage of reputation among others. For these reasons, it is important to have tools that can help us determine the authenticity of digital media. The earliest methods for detecting image tampering focused on detecting specific image tampering, they could not be used for detecting multiple image tampering. However, practical image tampering often involves multiple tampering operations. To address this problem, recent studies in image tampering detection have focused on designing general purpose or universal approaches capable of detecting more than one image tampering type. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of the recent development in general-purpose or universal image tampering detection techniques. The paper discusses and summaries recent general-purpose image tampering detection approaches, along with a detailed discussion on the datasets and evaluation metrics used. Comparative analysis of the performance of the reviewed methods, some discussion on the challenges faced by the current methods, and scopes for future directions are also presented in this review. The main goal of this paper is to help fellow and prospective researchers in digital image forensic by collecting the current trends, challenges, and some future direction in the development of general-purpose image tampering detection methods.
Keywords: image tampering; general purpose; tampering detection; image forensics; review
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFECTS OF AGE AT HARVEST ON THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION CELOSIA ARGENTA AND AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS
*LAWAL I.A; *AZEEZ G.O; *IMRAN M.O; & **BOLANLE E.O
*Science Laboratory Technology Department, the Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyos State, Nigeria. **Science Laboratory Technology Department, Adeseun Ogundoyin Polytechnic, Eruwa.
Leafy vegetables are regular ingredient in the diet of the average Nigerians. Maturity at harvest can significantly impact product composition and the nutritive value of the crop. The physiology of growth, development, maturation, ripening and senescence results in pronounced chemical as well as physical changes in the edible plant part.The research that investigated the effects of age at harvest on the proximate, mineral, vitamin and phytochemical compositions of Celosus argenta and Amaranthus cruentus was conducted at the Oke Ogun Polytechnic Saki. A garden was made for the planting of the selected leafy vegetables. The samples were harvested at three harvesting ages; 5, 7 and 9 Weeks After Sowing (WAS). Laboratory analysis was done on the air dried edible portions. The results shown that age at harvest significantly affected the proximate (CHO (60.80 – 43.41)), minerals (K (300 -238.15mg/g)), antioxidant (flavanoid (0.96 – 0.25mg/g) and vitamins (1.46-0.83mg/g) concentrations while the effect was not significant on that of antinutrients ( phytate (2.07-0.34)). It was therefore concluded that the optimum time of harvesting Amaranth is between 6 to 8 weeks after sowing, while that of celosia is anytime from the 7th WAS.
Keywords: Maturation, Phytochemical, Proximate, Composition, Antioxidant
ANALYSIS OF DIMENSIONAL AND DERIVED PROPERTIES OF SISAL LEAVES FIBER (agave sisalana) FOR COMPOSITES APPLICATION IN AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING
*HUSSAINI, M. S.; **GABI, M. N.; & ***ABDULHAMID, Y.
*Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 35 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. **Department of Plant Resources, Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria, Mabushi, Abuja. ***Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Potiskum, Yobe State, Nigeria.
The fiber extracted from sisal (agave sisalana) leaves was studied for its dimensional and derived properties which aimed at evaluating the characteristic of fiber quality in relation to its application in automobile engineering. The dimensional properties evaluated were fiber diameter, which was found to range between (1.933um to 2.50um). Lumen width ranged between (1.00um to 1.50um), from wall thickness of (0.50um). Derived properties computed includes runkle ratio, which was found to be within (0.867 to 1.784), slenderness ratio (106.3 to 128.3), and coefficient of flexibility of (56.01 to 74.55). Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis and graphs were plotted using Matlab R2007b. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was used to determine the significant different means, and the (ANOVA) tables were constructed from which observations and conclusions were made. The result shows that the fiber possess the high quality characteristic of tensile strength, density as well as moisture absorbency when compared with other leaves fiber of its category. Therefore, it is recommended for different applications in automobile industry such as car interior, bumpers, brake parts and others lining materials.
Keywords; Analysis, Dimensional and derived properties, Sisal leaves fiber, Composites application, Automobile engineering.
SIMULATION APPROACH OF DETECTING OBJECT IN SMART ENVIRONMENTS USING 5G MOBILE NETWORK
ADATI ELKANAH CHAHARI1 MUHAMMED ZAHARADEEN AHMED2 YUSUF MUSA MALGWI3 MUHAMMAD MURTALA3 KINDNESS BULUS GAGO4.
1Department General Studies, Federal Collage of Education Yola, Adamawa State 2Department of Computer Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Borno State 3Department of Computer Science, Modibbo Adama University Yola, Adamawa State 3Department of Computer Science, Modibbo Adama University Yola, Adamawa State 4GK-Kumanetics Services Ltd. Jalingo, Taraba State
Object detection process in smart cities is a trending research domain especially using 5G mobile network. This paper analyzed objects in smart environment using efficient software and dataset. The objects investigated in such scenarios are cars, bikers, buses, vans, lorries and traffic lights. The concept of deep learning is used in the analysis. Objects are being trained before detection process using algorithm. Performance evaluation is also conducted for some selected parameters and metric to determine precise detection techniques. The software used is the YOLOv5 and Mean Average Precision (mAP) is analysed to determine speed and accuracy of detection within the 5G network range. Performance results presents the precision of YOLOv5 during object detection.
Keywords: Object, Detection, Smart Cities,5G, and Dataset
NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT OF ELERLY PEOPLE IN DOKODZA WARD, BIDA, NIGER STATE
ABIODUN, A.M & RUTH ADEBAYO, O
Department of Human Nutrition And Dietetics, School of Applied and Natural Sciences, Federal Polytechnics Bida, Niger State.
The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional assessment of elderly people in Dokodza ward, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. The study involved one hundred and thirteen (53 males and 60 females) elderly respondents randomly selected from their residences. A valid pre-tested well structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on the socio-economic characteristics, feeding pattern of the respondents and also the nutritional status of the respondents. The nutritional status of the respondents was assessed using Mini Nutritional Assessment- Short Form. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics. The age of the respondents ranged from 65years and above. A high percentage (73.5%) had no formal education and 77% were farmers or traders, 45.1% earned less than N10,000 per month. About 56.7% of the respondents were fully dependent financially and 69% had their household size to be above four. 17.7% and 67.3% had severe decrease and moderate decrease in food intake over the past three months respectively. More than half per cent (55.8%) of the respondents had suffered psychological stress or acute disease in the past three months, 36.3% and 45.1% had severe dementia or depression and mild dementia respectively while 65.5% had BMI less than 19. The MNA-SF score of the respondents indicates that 13.3%, 52.2% and 34.5% of the respondents were well nourished, at risk of malnutrition and malnourished respectively. A significant proportion of elderly people are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Therefore, it is crucial to support a diet containing food and liquid with adequate and appropriate nutrition to prevent and treat malnutrition, address nutrition policies, those malnourished or at risk of malnutrition should be monitored periodically and also social support should be made available so as to reduce loneliness and depression.
Keywords: Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form, Nutritional Status, Feeding Pattern.
LOCAL STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF COVID-19 DISEASE TRANSMISSION DYNAMICS INCORPORATING NATURAL IMMUNITY
IBRAHIM, A.; JIBRIN, K. T.; & MOHAMMED, N. M.
Department of Mathematics Federal Polytechnic, Bida.
In this study, we present a compartmental model for the spread of coronavirus in a human population. The Disease Free Equilibrium (DFE), Endemic equilibrium and the basic reproduction number of the model were obtained. The Jacobian matrix stability technique was used to analyzed the local stability of the disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium, in terms of the basic reproduction number. The investigation shows that the disease free equilibrium exist and is locally asymptotically stable () and also the endemic equilibrium exist and is locally asymptotically stable ().
Keywords: coronavirus, Equilibrium, Basic Reproduction Number, Endemic Equilibrium, Local Stability analysis.
INDEX NUMBER ANALYSIS ON THE CHANGE OF PRICES IN PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
IBRAHIM ABDULHAKEEM1 AND DR BELLO ABDULKADIR RASHEED2
Mathematics and Statistics Dept., Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
The value of money does not remain constant over time. It rises or falls and is inversely related to the changes in the price level. The fluctuation of Prices of Petroleum Products (PPP) in Nigeria has been a major concern for some time now. This research seeks to establish change in Prices of Petroleum Products over the years which can be achieved by determining the change in price of Petrol, Gas and Kerosene and also pattern of the aggregate Prices of Petroleum Products over the years between 2014 and 2021 using Statistical Tool called Index Numbers with help of Excel Package. Year 2014 was selected as the base year period in which prices of every commodity was believed to be relatively stable globally with absence of major war around the world unlike what is currently going on between Ukraine and Russia, the major export of Wheat and Petroleum Products. It was revealed generally that Prices of Petroleum Products (PPP) increased by an average of 73.5% over the period under review in relation to 2014, the base year. It was also discovered that there was an average increase of 44.1%, 54.5% and 183.7% in prices of Petrol, Gas and Kerosene respectively as compared to 2014, the base year. Bar charts and line charts are used to display and compare trends in Prices of Petroleum Products (PPP) over the period under review. Finding reveals that kerosene recorded the highest percentage increase of 183.7%, followed by Gas with 54.5% and Petrol recording 44.1%, increase in price as compared to the base year.
Keywords: Index Number, Petroleum, Petrol, Gas, Kerosine, Price
EFFECT OF MISCONCEPTIONS IN LEARNING SCHOOL GEOMETRY ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN GEOMETRY: FOCUS ON MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT LINES AND ANGLES
MUSA MOHAMMED BALASA
Department Of Mathematics, College Of Education, P.M.B 1021 Zing, Taraba State.
Geometrical knowledge is essential for mathematical mastery of secondary school students. In fact, evidence from literature revealed that geometrical ability of student is determined by their level of conceptions and misconceptions about geometry. In order to ascertain the effect of misconceptions in learning geometry among secondary school students, this study examined the effect of misconceptions about lines and angles in geometry class on students’ achievement in geometry. It was a quasi-experimental research design guided with five (5) research questions and research hypotheses. Simple random sampling technique was used to select two hundred and ten (210) participants from three (3) senatorial zones in the study area. The participants were divided into two (2) groups- control (104) and experimental (106). The study used Geometry Concept Test (GCT- measure of how much conception and misconception) and Geometry Performance Test (GPT measure of the level at which geometry is learnt generally) as instruments for data collection. The instruments yielded reliability coefficient of 0.85 and 0.81 for GCT and GPT respectively after using Pearson’s Product Moments Correlation Coefficient technique (PPMC). Frequency and percentage was used for answering research questions while t-test analysis was used to test hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that greater number of students in the control than treatment group developed incorrect concepts of geometry; small number of control group developed correct concepts of geometry; majority of treatment group developed correct concepts of geometry; very few number of control group had correct concepts of geometry; development of correct or incorrect concepts by participants was attributable to the kind of teaching practice in use; and that achievement of treatment group was better than control group. The study further indicated significant effect of misconceptions of diagonals linked to students’ achievement in geometry; misconceptions about parallel and perpendicular lines had significant effect on students’ achievement in geometry; and students’ achievement in geometry was significantly affected by misconceptions about the general angle; as well as significant effect of students’ misconceptions about the sum of angles in a triangle on students’ achievement in geometry. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that geometry teachers should de-emphasize classroom instructions which make students passive and emphasize instructions which adopt practical approaches to teaching and use relevant instructional materials; and that geometry teachers are expected to patronize workshops, conferences and seminars, and other relevant means for further self-development on the job.
Keywords: Geometry, misconception, secondary students, parallel, triangle.
SCIENCE PRATICAL SKILLS AND OPTION FOR NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS: TEACHERS’ PERSPECTIVES
1DARE S. GRACE, 2ABORITOLI, SUNDAY, 3OKPE, YENUSAH YAKUBU AND 4MATHEW, B.A
1 Physics Department, Kogi State College of Education Technical Kabba. 2&4 Integrated Science Department, Kogi State College of Education, Ankpa. 3Geography Department, Kogi State College of Education, Ankpa.
The teaching of science in Nigerian secondary schools has always assumed an important position in the scheme of facilitating technological and sustainable development. Practical work in science has and continues to be given much emphasis as it is felt that science teaching should utilize a pedagogic approach which integrates theory and experiments. Science instruction involves interplay of experiments, observations and theoretical inferences. For experiments to be used there should be a standard laboratory with basic facilities. The paucity of these equipment and consumables in most schools coupled with a shortage of qualified and experienced teachers has made it difficult to access science practical work and hence its formative functions, of assisting in understanding science and how scientific ideas are developed, has not been achieved . Despite this, experiments would still need to be conducted and assessment of practical carried out as an important component of grades in certification examination in delivery of theory lessons and conduct of practical exercises. The question which then to be answered is what assessment practices are used in preparation of students for the certification examination. It was recommended that teachers should focus on teaching approach prescribed by the syllabus. In addition, material resources should be provided for teachers use in teaching practical lessons.