TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY (TIJERAT)
VOL. 11 (5) NOVEMBER, 2022 EDITION. ISSN: 2707-5654
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
ANDROID BASE IMPROVED AUTOMATION APP (ABIAA)
*S. O. ADETONA; *K. U UDEZE; **S. K. OGUAGBAKA
*Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. **ICT-Information and Communication Technology Unit, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Oko, Anambra State.
Home automation systems are required for energy savings, safety, protection and convenience use of appliances in any developing economy. This system invented to keep home appliances safe against current fluctuations on the load, reduce energy wastage and protections of life and properties of the owner or user. In this current work, we proposed suitable technique known as Android Base Improved Automation App (ABiAA) for design and application of GSM-based home-automations system using Android Application that consumed very low power. This system comprises of wireless home-network that contains GSM modem along with magnet followed by relay that act as “load protective device”. The system can response faster when power is restored and GSM module would alert home owner via SMS with recorded voice that Electricity is restored for the owner to POWER (ON) the loads. This Home/Office automation system use in alerting house/offices owner wherever he is; at any given time so that he can power ON the required loads that are necessary supposed to be ON as required. The default mode is such that once the Electricity is interrupted, the loads are switched OFF thereby providing energy savings to the owner and safeguarded the connected appliances as well as safety of life and properties that would have resulted from fire outbreak. In this arrangement, a magnet and relay positioned at point of entry produce signal via telecom network and relay message that gives information concerning update at home or pre-defined and detailed messages that are stored in micro-controller. Suspected set of activities are moved to local-user via SMS. This design reduces the energy wastage and inefficiencies. The different results obtained show that the project worked based on specification of the design. But every system has its pros and cons. Our proposed system is easy to implement and understand.
Keywords: GSM, SMS, ABiAA, WIFI, REFID, RAM, ROM, MTN, AIRTEL, PSC, LED
CONCEALED BEAM IN REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES: A PERFORMANCE-BASED ANALYSIS
MAHMUD ABUBAKAR*1, HASHIM ABDULLAHI2, AND MAIKUDI YABAGI SANI3
1Civil Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna. 2Quantity Surveying Department, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru. 3Nigeria Customs Service
The use of hidden beam in reinforced concrete construction is seen as an effective method in reducing excessive deflection in large spans. However, despite its presumed advantages and growing usage, no mention of it in standard civil engineering literature, codes and standards. In this paper, performance-based analysis is carried out on three different cases of slab arrangement involving hidden beams using SAP2000. The process is performed under dead and live load combination and based on the design guidelines in BS8110. The result of the performance-based analysis shows a 4%, 2% and 11% decrease in deflection, stress distribution and area of bending steel reinforcement required for the case with hidden beam in comparison with the case without beam. This indicates that the presence of hidden beam in slab is significant. Thus, it is recommended that for reducing excessive deflection in large spans, hidden beams can be introduced. However, further studies should be conducted to determine the optimum width of the hidden beam for most effective utilization.
REVIEW OF 5G ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES AND BACKHAULING STRATEGIES
USMAN, L. A.; MOHAMMED, A. S.; & ALENOGHENA, C. O.
Telecommunication Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65 Minna Niger State, Nigeria
The exponential growth in the demand for data has given birth to the fifth generation (5G) of cellular network. 5G promises massive network capacity, greater bandwidth and negligible latency, which make it very much suitable for 5G requirements like Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication (uRLLC) and Massive Machine-Type Communication (mMTC). An enabling technique for the realization of 5G network is densification, which sees a lot of small cells deployed in its area of coverage. One way of linking or backhauling these small cells with the core network is through the millimeter-wave spectrum. This is the leading wireless technology for forwarding 5G traffic and especially in urban areas owing to its enormous spectrum availability. Research shows that small cells can be connected in either star or mesh topology for millimeter-wave backhauling, however, this research work will not only review the 5G enabling technologies and compare these topologies, but also propose a topology that prioritizes energy efficiency.
Keywords: 5G, Backhaul, Millimetre-wave, Small Cells, Topology.
DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENHANCED LIFTING WAVELET TRANSFORM (LWT) FOR VIDEO FRAME COMPRESSION USING BRIGHTNESS IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUE
H A ABDULKAREEM, M. D. ALMUSTAPHA, H. ADAMU, U. F. ABDU-AGUYE, H. BELLO AND I. K. MUSA
Department of Electronics & Telecommunications Engineering; 3Centre for Energy Research & Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Information dissemination in both mobile networks and television today makes compression a very important business in multimedia communications. In this paper we introduced an enhanced lifting wavelet transform using luminance improvement method. A total of six (four acquired and two benchmark) sample video data were used to implement the developed technique. Frames were extracted from the video data and stored in the form of images in a buffer. The input image sample from the processed sample video (frame) was split into even and odd sets of samples for the efficient lifting filter to ensure appropriate approximation and detail extraction. This is to determine the efficiency of the developed technique. Simulation results showed that, the developed method was efficient with an improved compression ratio and peak to signal Noise ratio. Simulation results showed that, the proposed method was efficient for the respective individual sample video frames of NAERLS1.avi, NAERLS2.avi, NTA1.avi, and NTA2.avi and the bench mark, video frames with the following PSNR percentage improvement over the ordinary LWT compression method by 6.30%, 5.16%, 3.38%, 3.91%, 4.00%, and 6.71%.
Index Terms: Video Frames, Luminance Pixel Enhancement, LWT Compression
ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ADVANTAGES OF SLAG CEMENT CONCRETE: THE NEED FOR SLAG CEMENT IN NIGERIA
S TERLUMUN1, ALABI JO2, SANNI JACOB ENEWO2, MJ YUSUF2 AS OGBIYE1 MS AWOPETU1
1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna, Nigeria. 2Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nigeria
This study review relevant literatures concerning the engineering and Environmental advantages of Slag Cement Concrete over Portland Cement Concrete in the construction industry. Several works were reviewed on the subject matter to ascertain the appropriate mix ratios, assess the setting time, compressive strength, flexural strength, permeability and it resistance to sulpates and chloride attacks. The review shows that concrete performs better at replacement ratios of 25 to 50%. It also reveals that Slag Cement Concrete has lower setting time than Portland cement. Concrete made with Slag Cement has considerably higher compressive and flexural strength than Portland cement concrete, permeability was observed to be less in Slag Cement than Portland cement, Slag Cement also offers better resistance to chemical attacks than Portland Cement. It was also observed that Slag Cement is more environmental friendly than Portland cement. Hence, Slag Cement should be given more consideration in the construction industry.
EVALUATION OF THE APPROPRIATENESS OF SUGERCANE BAGASSE ASH (SCBA) AS FILLER IN ASPHALT PAVEMENT RECYCLING TECHNIQUE
ABAH JOHNSON CANDY; OJO ITODO DANIEL; & DR SANI MAGAJI
Department of Civil Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State
The continuous industrial and agro-based activities world wild have lead to daily generation of wastes with impeding disposal issues raising much concern. Safe disposal of large quantities of daily generated Agro- based wastes in Nigeria has been a night mere. Most of the final wastes from the agro-byproducts only find their ways as landfills, which not only degrade the valuable land area but also a hazard such as pollution of the environment. Construction experts in the industry have developed techniques of utilizing these materials for stabilization or modification of construction materials such as soil among others for road based construction, recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and its modification to meet design `specifications, etc. This has lead to the quest for a laboratory based investigations on the suitability of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash as filler in Hot-mix asphalt recycling of RAP. Preliminary tests are conducted on RAP and the results are compared with the specification requirements for pavement mix design of road works. Marshall Stability Hot-mix asphalt design method was employed to test the performance indices of the blended materials for their known engineering properties. The oxide composition test and sieve analysis on sugarcane bagasse Ash showed that, the material can be used as filler, and was adjudged to be pozzolanic since over 80% of SCBA passes No. 200 sieve which satisfied the fineness requirement of filler with at least 65% pass No. 200 sieve, having combined weight of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 being 76.7 % by weight which is higher than minimum requirement of 70% for a pozzolanic material. At 70% RAP, 30% fresh aggregate and the addition of SCBA at 3% of the total combined weight of aggregate (RAP + fresh aggregate), a good design mix was obtained, and also considered as the most cost effective combination.
Keywords: RAP, Sugarcane, bagasse ash, recycling, filler, hot-mix asphalt, Pavement
DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE USING DIFFERENT BRANDS OF CEMENT IN MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE
AHMED TIJANI GUBIO1, ALHAJI BUKAR AJI2, ZARA KYARI KOLO1 AND GAMBO ZUBAIRU1
1Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri. Borno State. 2Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu. Yobe State
This project is aimed at determining the compressive strength of concrete using different brands of cement purchased in the open market in Maiduguri. The brands of cement used were Bua, Dangote Block Master, Dangote 3×, Dangote Falcon, Ashaka Elephant Supaset, Ashaka (Ordinary). A mix ratio of 1:2:4 was used and concrete cubes cast were cured and crushed at 7, 14 and 28 days interval respectively. The result obtained after crushing the concrete cubes was used to calculate the average compressive strength of concrete for each ordinary Portland cement. The results of compressive strength of concrete for various brands of cement using different brands were compared. The result shows that Bua Portland cement has the highest value of compressive strength value, followed by Dangote Block Master, Ashaka Elephant Supaset, Dangote 3×, Ashaka (ordinary) and finally Dangote Falcon with the least. Although the cost of each brand of cement varies, selecting to optimize cost should
Keywords: Compressive Strength, Portland Cement, Concrete Cube, Mix Ratio, Crushing.
FEASIBILITY DESIGN OF A MOBILE PHONE FOR A FUTURE LOCAL PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA
OLUWATOBILOBA AYOFE1*, TAOFEEK ABDUL-HAMEED2, LUKMAN SAKA3, ONYEKACHI AJAH4, OLUMIDE ORIMOGUNJE5
1,4,5Department of Computer Engineering Technology, the Federal Polytechnic, Ede, 222001, NIGERIA. 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technology, the Federal Polytechnic, Ede, 222001, NIGERIA 3Centre for Research and Innovation, the Federal Polytechnic, Ede, 222001, NIGERIA
The mobile phone system is one of the instrumental devices that has helped shaped our socio-economic ecosystem in many ways, and it has been an integral part of many societies all over the world due to its versatility. Nigeria currently is facing a great deal of economic hardship owing to successive political failures to balance the import-to-export ratio over the years thus affecting the nation’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Gross National Income (GNI). Domestic production of mobile phones has been identified as one of the structures if put in place that can help in a national economic revival in terms of a technological revolution that would contribute to the GDP, GNI, and general economic effect. In this paper, we examined the feasibility of the local production of the mobile device by embarking of a design prototype using a number of tools ranging from schematic CAD software, Human Machine Interface, and a number of electronic components coupled with a microcontroller board. Having the prototype tested to be working, the feasibility of embarking on domestic production shows a green light.
Keywords: Mobile phone, GSM, production, manufacturing.
EFFECTS OF THERMAL VARIANCE ON THE BOND STRENGTH OF SLAG CEMENT CONCRETE
SESUGH TERLUMUN1; VICTORIA HASSAN JIYA1; OKAH MICHAEL CHUKWU1; IBRAHIM BADAMASI BILAL1; & ASHIRU MUHAMMED ASHIRU2
1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria. 2Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
This work examine the effects of thermal variance on the bond strength of slag cement concrete. In this research, slag cement was prepared by blending 50% Portland cement with Ground Granular Blast Furnace Slag and used as the binder. Concrete cubes of 100mmx100mm were prepared using slag cement, the samples were cured for 28 days to achieve strenght. Therafter, some samples were selected and tested to determine the bond strength using pull out test while some were subjected to varying thermal conditions of 150, 200, 250 and 300C at time intervals of 30, 45 and 60 minutes after which pull out test was conducted on the heated samples to determine effects of varying temperature conditions. At the end of the research, it was observed that concrete has good thermal performance compare to ordinary Portland cement.
STUDY OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROXYAPATITE/TITANIUM DIOXIDE FOCUS: IN BANDGAP ENERGY DETERMINATION USING THREE DIFFERENT MODELS
*T. YUNANA; **H. ALI; & **M. ONIMISI
*Department of Physics, Kaduna state College of Education, Gidan Waya, Kaduna State, Nigeria. **Department of Physics, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
In the recent past, improvement of optical and band gap energy properties of photocatalytic materials via the amalgamation of synthetic titanium dioxide with natural mineral modifier became a new strategy to achieve novel photovoltaic optical devices. Inspired by this idea, we prepared a natural minerals called hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH) 2) with TiO2 stochiometrically by standard sol – gel method and characterized. The role of varying percentage weight of HAp on optical and bandgap energy proposed was fully examined. UV –visible spectroscopy was used to measure the absorbance data, were optical constants such as absorption coefficient, extension coefficient, refractive index, transmittance and absorbance were evaluated. From the optical analysis it was found that, the absorption response in UV-region is at 200nm – 400nm with an absorption edge around (650 – 950) nm was achieved, and its transmittance is at (400 – 800) nm in the visible region. The value of absorption coefficient (α) and extension coefficient (k) of HAP/TiO2 increased with increasing the wt% of HA. likewise, the band gap energy decreases as the percentage weight of HAP increases in all the three models, Notwithstanding, the optical band gap in DASF (derivation of absorption spectrum fitting) method was obtained by taking the whole derivative of the spectrum instead of extrapolating certain range as in Tauc and ASF (absorption spectrum fitting) method. As a result, this makes DASF method exceptional, more efficient and accurate model for band gap energy determination.
Keywords: Hydroxyapatite, titanium dioxide, optical band gap, spectrum fitting, nanoparticles.
A REVIEW PAPER ON ALKALI SILICA REACTIONS IN CONCRETE
*SALISU ABDULLAHI DALHAT; **ABUBAKAR MAGAJI; & **IBRAHIM A. SUKAMARI
*Civil Engineering Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. **Civil Engineering Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria
Alkali–Silica Reactions (ASR) occurs over a long period of time. Reactions take place in concrete when the hydration product known to be highly alkaline cement paste and reactive non-crystalline silica which is found in many common aggregates, in the presence of moisture reacts. This results in the deterioration of concrete structures and can prove to be effective over time. The problem with this process is that it may not be noticeable during early stages with naked eyes but in the event of occurrence, it leads to considerable to severe damage of concrete structures. In areas with significant moisture during construction, Alkali Silica reactions are likely to be a problem in the long run.
Keywords: Alkali-Silica Reaction, Crystalline, Hydration, Moisture
CASE STUDY ON RENEWABLE ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY
BOYA S. N.; YUNUSA M. A.; C. S. ONATE; & ABDULKADIR A.
Department of Electrical Electronics, Department Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
Energy storage will be a critical aspect in the future of renewable energy (RE) systems, according to a widely acknowledged concern. The most recent research on the utilization of energy storage for high RE penetration has gotten a lot of press. We shall look at several energy storage methods, types, categorizations, and comparisons in this paper. Electrochemical and battery energy, thermal, thermochemical, flywheel, compressed air, pumped energy storage, magnetic, and chemical and hydrogen energy are some of the options. There is also research on new types of energy storage and key technological advancements in energy storage.