MEDITERRANEAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED & ADVANCED ENGINEERING RESEARCH
VOL. 18 NO. 5 (MEJAAER) JUNE, 2022
Published by: MEDITERRANEAN PUBLICATIONS AND RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL,
Canberra ACT 0201, Australia.
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
E-MAIL: email@example.com PHONE: +234-708-717-324
SIMULATION OF HYDRATE FORMATION AND PREVENTION IN SUBSEA WELLS USING UNISIM
OLUWAFEMI OLAYEBI1, HANDEL AKPERE2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, Nigeria.
The oil and gas industry has been taking stringent measures to prevent the formation of hydrates which cause severe flow assurance issues due to pipe blockage, production loss and pose safety and environmental hazards due to pipe rupture and leakages. In this work the Process Simulation and Modeling software Unit Simulation (UNISIM) was used for the simulation of hydrate formation and prevention in subsea wells. To prevent the deposition of natural gas hydrate in subsea oil and gas wells, the hydrate formation area in wellbore must be predicted. The simulation results established methanol as a thermodynamic inhibitor and agree with literature as the 0%, 30% and 70% methanol injection composition respectively causes shifting to the left of the hydrate equilibrium curve reducing the hydrate formation area thus preventing its formation.
KEYWORDS: Clathrates, Equilibrium, Hydrates, Natural Gas, Simulation,
THERMAL TREATMENT OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM AS A SET RETARDER FOR PORTLAND CEMENT PRODUCTION
AREMU OLUWATIMILEHIN G.; & DR. M. AUTA
Chemical Engineering Department Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, P. M. B. 65, Nigeria.
Phosphogypsum (PG), the by-product of phosphoric acid industry, comprises of calcium sulfate dihydrate, and other contaminants which restricts the industrial use of phosphogypsum in cement industry as a set retarder. Remedial thermal treatment of phosphogypsum as a set retarder for Portland cement production is investigated in this research work. The SEM-EDS analysis of the raw phosphogypsum sample showed the presence of agglomerates in needle, rhombic and hexagonal shape. The treated PG samples fill and intertwine with each other to form a more compact structure. The XRD pattern of the treated phosphogypsum shows new silica and alumina rich products such as amorphous calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) and calcium aluminate hydrates (C-A-H), including crystalline phases of phosphogypsum dihydrate crystals. The sulphite content of the heated phosphogypsum was 43.64%, which translates to a purity of 93.83 %. The phosphorous content reduced appreciably from 1.05 mg/L to 0.38 mg/L and also the fluoride content reduced from 2.22 mg/L to 1.25 mg/L respectively for the raw and treated PG as shown in table 3.2. The compressive strength of the Portland cement produced was also observed to be higher in the treated condition than the untreated condition, due to the removal of the binding obstruction admixtures by thermal treatment of the PG. The heat of hydration value of 294 kJ/kg obtained is in accordance with ASTM C-150 (2015) and meets the requirement for ordinary Portland cement. In conclusion, the laboratory tests performed in this study indicated that phosphogypsum could serve as a replacement of natural gypsum as a set retarder because thermal treatment of phosphogypsum significantly removed the impurities present successfully.
KEYWORDS: Phospjogypsum, Thermal Treatment, Portland Cement, Retarder, Production.
EFFECTS OF INJECTION POSITION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A FREE PISTON LINEAR GENERATOR POWERED WITH LOW-GRADE FUEL
AYANDOTUN B. WASIU1,2, A. RASHID B. A. AZIZ1, MIOR A. M. SAID1
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia. 2Federal Polytechnic Kaura, P.M.B. 1012, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria.
A free-piston linear generator (FPLG) is an energy conversion device that can generate electrical energy using different types of fuel. This paper focused on the performance and combustion characteristics of a direct injection spark ignition FPLG fuelled with a mixture of compressed natural gas and carbon dioxide (CNGCO2). An experimental test was conducted under a steady state condition on the engine prototype to study the engine performance at various injection positions (-20, -15, -10, -5, 0 mm) while the ignition velocity and lambda were fixed at 0.6 m/s and 0.6, respectively. Experimental results from the tests reveal that the engine performance and combustion are improved when the injection position is set to -10 mm. Based on this condition, the engine shows a fast combustion reaction when fuelled with the mixture and attains the peak ROHR of 164.83 kJ/s that resulted to the rapid expansion of the gas after combustion. At a high engine speed and operating frequency, the peak power output generated is 1316.1 W as the translator cut the magnetic flux.
KEYWORDS: free-piston engine, CNG-CO2, compressed natural gas, linear generator, engine performance.
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A WEATHER MONITORING STATION
ALIYU BUBA DAHIRU; HAYATU SAAD GIREI; & MOHAMMED HASSAN YAKUBU
Computer Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
Because of the enormous changes in climate over time, weather forecasting is quite unreliable these days. As a result, the Meteorological Reporting System is most commonly used to monitor the constantly changing climatic and weather conditions over restricted regions such as homes, industries, agriculture, and so on in real time. Thing Speak is an Internet of Things (IoT) platform that can display weather data and information from anywhere in the world. It also displays on an OLED with two-way microcontroller connection via Wi-Fi hotspots. A weather station can be defined as an instrument or technology that provides us with information on the weather in our immediate surroundings. It can, for example, provide information on the ambient temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, and so on. As a result, this instrument detects temperature, pressure, humidity, light intensity, and rain value. The prototype contains a variety of sensors that can be used to measure all of the aforementioned properties. It can be used to keep track of rooms or location’s temperature and humidity. Other data factors, such as the dew point, can be calculated using temperature and humidity. In addition to the aforementioned features, we can also monitor the location’s light intensity. We’ve also enabled the monitoring of the room’s air pressure. We may also keep track of the amount of rain. The prototype’s brain is the ESP8266-based Wi-Fi module Nodemcu (12E). Temperature and humidity sensor (DHT11), pressure sensor (BMP180), raindrop module, and light dependent resistor are all connected to the NodeMCU (LDR.).
KEYWORDS: Weather; Humidity; Light Intensity; ESP8226 Wi-fi Module; Temperature; Rain Drop
SKILL IMPROVEMENT NEEDS OF TECHNICAL TEACHER’S IN TEACHING MILLING, AND SHAPER MACHINES OPERATIONS IN TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN KADUNA STATE
DR ALI, AWALU MALIKI; DORCAS ANDOW; & J.D. UFWAI
Department of Technical Education, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Kaduna State College Education Gidan Waya, Kafanchan.
The major purpose of the study was to determine skill improvement needs of technical teachers in teaching Milling, and Shaper Machines operations in technical colleges in Kaduna State. two research questions were answered and two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population for the study consisted of 103 experienced and less experienced technical teachers, drawn from technical colleges in Kaduna State. The entire population was studied; hence no sample was taken. Survey research design was used for the study. Structured questionnaire on (SINTTMSOTC) was used to generate data for the study. This instrument was face validated by three experts from the faculty of Vocational and Technical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The questionnaire was pilot tested with a sample of 20 experienced and less experienced technical teachers’ in technical college, Kano State. Cronbach Alpha reliability test was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and this yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.84. Data analyzed using mean statistics for the research questions and t-test was used to test the null hypotheses. It was recommended that experienced and less experienced technical teachers in technical colleges should build capacity on skill improvement needs, needed by students for effective functioning in the Milling and Shaper Machines operations. This could be achieved by organizing workshops and seminars, and also to undergone re-training in their areas of specializations.
KEYWORDS: teaching, technical teachers, machines, skills, improvement needs.
DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER (DVR) FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF POWER QUALITY: A TECHNICAL REVIEW
1ABUBAKAR ALHAJI HASSAN 1AMINU HAMISU KURA AND 2MUHAMMAD MUSTAPHA SALEH,
1Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic. 2Department of Electrical Technology, School of Secondary Education Technical, Federal College of Education (Technical) Gusau, Zamfara state.
The issue of power quality is one of the most priority concerns in power system operation, in order to have an optimum utilization of the resources. Most of the power quality problems are encountered due to non-linear loads within the utilities and consumers jurisdictions. Power quality problems exist such as swells, sags, harmonic distortions, frequency variations etc. Among of these problems, the most frequent or predominantly and severe impact on electrical equipment and devices are sags and swells. To mitigate these power quality problems, customs devices are normally used such as Unified Power- Quality Conditioner (UPQC), distribution STATCOM (DSTATCOM) devices, and dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). In this work, DVR is considered to be the device used to mitigate voltage sags and swells with advantage of active/reactive power control. In this paper, also a comprehensive literature review on different configurations and control strategies of DVR are presented. This review paper, gives better control strategy and optimization in selecting DVR among custom devices for enhancing good simulation model.
KEYWORDS: Power Quality, mitigation, Sags, Swells and Literature review.
PHYTOCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERISATION AND SIZE OPTIMISATION OF COPPER NANO PARTICLES FOR METAL CUTTING COOLANT APPLICATIONS
T S ABDULRAHMAN; M. DAUDA; M. SUMAILA; & L.S. KUBURI
Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna.
Copper nano particles have been successfully synthesised through phytochemical synthesis in this study. The average particle size has been measured and optimized utilizing the Response surface methods (RSM). The particles size distribution results revealed a range of values between 70.11nm and 100.77nm based on the particles percentage intensity and the UV-VIS spectroscopy confirmed the formation of copper nano particles at a surface plasmon of 520nnm. The optimum particle size has been determined to be 81.45nm within the range of values considered in this study.
KEYWORDS: Copper, Metal, Synthesis, Coolant, Particles.
THE USE OF EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE IN RIGID PAVEMENT
TORIOLA-COKER LUQMAN OLALEKAN1, *, OBISANYA ADEKUNLE ADEDAPO1 ADENIRAN-BAKARE, SILIFAT M1
1School of Engineering, Yaba College of Technology, Lagos, Nigeria.
The application of Expanded polystyrene (EPS) in civil engineering has offered solutions to several problems associated with pavement construction such as in building pavement over underground service, in low bearing capacity subgrade soils and in countries with extreme winters. EPS has been effectively used in several construction projects including subgrade for roads and highways, backfill for retaining walls and bridge abutments worldwide Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) was used to replace 33% of concrete as Base course in the layer of a rigid pavement on 19.4 m walkway of the School of Engineering, Yaba college of Technology, Lagos. In order to avoid the inefficient, and even the incorrect use of EPS, more has to be done to develop and proliferate technical knowledge. Compressive strength test conducted for the cast specimen after 7days, 14days and 28days indicated EPS as base course can only be used as low axle load pavement such as walkway. There is also room for research in the development of new and innovative applications for the use of EPS, and for the development of updated standards and test procedures.
KEYWORDS: Expanded polystyrene, Concrete, Civil Engineering, Highway Engineering, Pavement, Yaba College of Technology
EFFECT OF LOAD RATIO AND YIELD STRENGTH ON REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS SUBJECTED TO CORROSION
*OTARU, K.U; **KAURA, J.M; & *OCHOLA, B.A
*Department of Civil Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Kaduna State. **Detartment of Civil Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State.
Corrosion problem is a topic of special interest because it is critical for reinforced concrete column based on the fact that this type of member can fail in a brittle way and without warning. Column is the most vital structural element; its failure has adverse effect on overall safety of a structural system. Corrosion depends on many variables which may have some degree of uncertainty due to slenderness ratio, radius of gyration, etc. With this in view, reliability analysis was performed by applying various variables, comparison and useful conclusions were drawn. The entire process was implemented through a developed program using MATLAB. The reliability index, ß, was computed for various points on the interaction curve using First Order Reliability Method (FORM). The variations of the safety index with respect to the basic variables (load ratio and yield strength) were examined to analyze the behavior of column with the reinforcement subjected to corrosion, given the values of the design parameters. Curves were developed for each failure mode of the column as well as for the system. The results indicated that the safety index of the reinforced concrete column decreases as the load ratio of the column is increasing while an increase in yield strength leads to corresponding increase in the safety indices. Therefore, understanding the time-variance risks associated with the corrosion of reinforced concrete columns is very vital.
KEYWORDS: Columns, Corrosion, reliability, FORM, MATLAB.
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF AN EVAPORATIVE COOLER AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR STORING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
*ADEYOLANU, A.S.1, MUIDEEN, R.A.1 AND OLANITE, W.A.2, ASHIRU, A.R.2 AND ARIWOOLA, L.A.2
1Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Department, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki. 2Mechanical Engineering Department, The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki.
Fresh fruits and vegetables deteriorate easily when stored under ambient condition, mainly due to physiological and microbial activities, which are accelerated at high temperature and low relative humidity of the storage environment. This work designed, constructed and tested an evaporative cooling system using solar battery for storage of fruits and vegetables. The design of the evaporative system was based on the principle of evaporation being always accompanied by a cooling effect to its surrounding reducing the temperature of ambient air hence the shelf life of the tomatoes was improved. Locally-sourced materials that won’t contaminate the produce were used and powered by solar energy. The evaporative cooling system was able to lower the temperatures of the interior by a noticeable amount of celcius degree (about 70C) and cooling efficiency as high as necessary to temporarily preserve the common fruits and vegetables in Nigeria especially under the harsh climatic conditions of derived savanna region of Oke-Ogun in Oyo State hence reducing post-harvest loses of fruits and vegetables thus increasing fruits and vegetables supply on the market. Although the performance of the evaporative cooling facility fell slightly short of expectations, it can however be used to prolong the storage life of fruits and vegetables better than keeping them under ambient conditions. Produce quality shows a delay in firmness and colour change when compared with produce kept at ambient conditions. The evaporative cooler can be used as a temporary means of storage for fruits and vegetables thereby reducing postharvest losses.
KEYWORDS: Design, Fabrication, Tomatoes, Evaporative cooler, Performance evaluation.
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION BASED HOME AUTOMATION
JIMOH, A. A.1*; IMURAN ABDULMAJEED SAKELE2; SALAWU GANIYAT ABIODUN3; GBENGA ABIODUN ODESANMI4, KOMOLAFE TEMIDAYO. F. 5, OLAHAN ABDULMAJEED. B.6, ORILONISE ABDULAZEEZ7
1Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Nigeria. 2,3,4,7Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Nigeria. 5,6Department of Civil Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Nigeria
Modern life system has been dominated with technology for our day to day activities particularly with the involvement of electrical gadgets and communication devices. The role of this communication devices, electrical equipment among others in present day human life cannot be over-emphasized. However, the means of ease of remote control of these devices amidst the tremendous advancement in technology has been a great concern of interest of most researchers. Thus, this research work focuses on development and implementation of global system communication based home automation using Arduino. Integrated Development Environment (IDE) software was used to write program for the Arduino Uno and stored in ATmega328p microcontroller via USB. The system uses short message service (sms) to remotely turn off or On electrical devices. Hardware components used consists of Subscriber identity module (SIM) card, relay, Arduino, mobile phone, power supply module and load. The test results obtained shows a high level of reliability and accuracy in remotely controlling home electrical appliances.
KEYWORDS: Arduino Uno, ATmega 328p microcontroller, Integrated Development environment, Relay, SIM card module.
CONSTRUCTION OF ONE TIME PASSWORD (OTP) ACCESS CONTROL USING MICRO-CONTROLLER
ADEBAYO ABDULLAHI1, AGABI PETER IKANI2, AUGUSTINE IDIEGE O3, D. M. NAZIF4, YUNUSA M.A5 ALIYU ABDULRAHMAN6
1&6Dept. of Computer Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria 2,3,4&5Dept. of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria
As a security enhancement technique for building, this project was proposed as a way of paving way for integration of one-time password (OTP) technology using microcontroller for security systems. In addition, the proposed project will be a supplement to the challenges of other security authentication methods centered on Bluetooth, radio frequency identification (RFID), biometrics and voice recognition techniques. In other to reduce complexity in design, a microcontroller was introduced to hub the coordination of the system. The two-way verification system which can be coupled with aforementioned security systems, boast of instability to store numeric identity of each user to a building in the electrical erasable programmable read only memory (EEPROM) of the microcontroller. The system prompts a user wanting to gain access to the building through the door to input designated numeric identity (password) stored in its database. Once the inputted designated numeric identity entered matches an identity in the database, then, for the second verification process, a randomly generated OTP which has a programmed validity of three minutes is sent to the user phone via a GSM (global system for mobile communication) module. If either the password or OTP entered doesn’t match, then access is denied and the user will only be relegated to two successful trials with time duration as programmed for retrial, before the system reset for the next user. Electric power to the project was driven from an ac/dc main which was then rectified to power all the dc dependent components used. The low construction cost, user friendliness, flexibility, insured security when compared to other security systems, makes the innovation unique.
KEYWORDS: One Time Password, Construction, Micro-controler, Access, Control
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATIONS FOR AFRICAN SUSTEAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE FACE OF GLOBAL TURBALENCE OCASSIONED BY DREADED COVID-19 PANDEMIC
OKOTIE LUCKY EDAFE; & STEVE O. IKHELOA
Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, National Institute of Construction Technology and Management (NICTM), Uromi, Edo State.
The global turbulence caused by covid-19 pandemic impact adversely on public health across the globe leading to extensive lockdown and this resulted in a global economic meltdown with untold hardship. This paper presents an overview of the effects of Covid-19 pandemic on the global economy and particularly that of developing African countries using Nigeria as a case study. This paper also presents Engineering Technology and Innovations applications solutions to cushion the effects of Covid – 19 on global socioeconomic life in Nigeria and enumerated prospects in the Engineering technology and innovation sectors that are viable source of hope to improve the resilient spirit of Nigerians to continue to live their lives while hoping for a permanent cure for the coronavirus. Finally in this paper, measures and necessary steps to be taken were proposed as way forward in the area of engineering technology and innovations to ensure continued growth and development of the Nigerian economy in a sustainable manner with the result that the impacts of the covid-19 pandemic on the economy is minimal during the ensuring era of post-pandemic.
KEYWORDS: Clathrates, Equilibrium, Hydrates, Natural Gas, Simulation,
FABRICATION AND TESTING OF AN ELECTRIC OVEN
1SUNDAY AYIGUN., 2WANTE P.H., and 3LATEEF LUKUMAN AKINTUNJI
1Department of Applied Physics, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physics Unit), Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State.
This research was carried out with the aim to fabricate and test an electric oven from locally available materials, with the objectives to fabricate electric oven for baking and cooking, electric oven that will be affordable compare to the ones obtainable in the market and to discourage deforestation in our communities. The materials used were metal plate 6.543mm, iron rod 12mm, welding electrodes, electric heat filament, mesh wires , connecting wires 4mm, temperature controlling device (analogue). The iron rods were used to construct electric oven frame in the form of a box with the provisions of inner walls where lagging materials was installed and finally electric welding was used to join the metal plates and the frame. The fabricated electric oven was tested and it was observed that it works with effectiveness and high performance from the result obtained.
KEYWORDS: Electric oven, electric welding, Inner wall, Frame, electric heat filament
MODIFICATION AND FABRICATION OF A MOTORIZED PORTABLEMULTIPURPOSE OIL EXTRACTOR
OLOGUNYE O. B1.; ADEDEJI M. A2.; ABDUMUMINI B1.; OKPARA I.N1.; AND AKINJOGBIN O1
1Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural & Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria.
Modification and fabrication of a multipurpose but portable oil extractor for local farmers in the rural areas is the main focus of this study. Most rural farmers are still using manual methods of extracting oil with low efficiency and productivity apart from hygienic factor. The machine was modified and constructed in the Department of mechanical Engineering Technology Federal Polytechnic, Ede, using locally standard available durable materials to remove oil from oil-bearing agricultural nuts such as groundnuts, soya beans, melon, and neem kernels, among others. Fabrication processes entails, marking, slicing, welding, fastening, and fitting of selected standard accessible materials in accordance with international specifications. Functional components of the machine are; the frame, screw shaft with a barrel, the hopper, the crushing unit with two crushers, the prime mover (15 hp 3-phase electric motor), bearings, pulleys, and the extraction unit. Extractor was modified, fabricated and evaluated. Assessments were carried out using fairly roasted groundnut kernels standard. The efficiency and throughput of the extractor were, 79.1% and 63.00 g/min, respectively. The machine has adjustable clearance in order to use it for different oil bearing seeds. The extractor cost about One hundred eighty seven thousand and seven hundred Naira (₦187,700.00).
KEYWORDS: Groundnut, Extractor, Machine, Efficiency, Oil, Fabrication,
OPTIMIZATION OF POWER CONSUMPTION FOR ENERGY AUDITING APPLICATION IN HOUSE HOLD APLLIANCES
YUNUSA M. A1; H. A. MAHDI1; IDIEGE AUGUSTINE OKO.1; U. AMINU2; ALIYU MUHAMMAD. BELLO3; & IBRAHIM SALIM YALWA3
1Department of Electrical Electronics Engineering Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. 2Department of Mechatronics Engineering Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. 1Department of Electrical Electronics Engineering Federal Polytechnic Kaltungo, Gombe
This study adopts the use of domestic power consumption measurement and its appliances. A sample on house electric power consumption measurements would be carried out in domestic buildings, the work will also investigates the electricity consumption as a result of different standard of living, climate, types of residence and also access the usage of appliances in each household. The work will contributes to increases in consumption from continuous, standby and active appliances. This work is limited to the domestic power consumption measurement and its appliances that demonstrated the role of monitoring in understanding the trends in electricity consumption in household.
KEYWORDS: Groundnut, Extractor, Machine, Efficiency, Oil, Fabrication,
CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF A LOCALLY MADE EGG INCUBATOR
OLAWEPO BABATUNDE BAMIDELE1, OSHAWO EUGENE IGBADUMHE1 AND AJAYI ASISHANA STANLEY2
1Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology. Auchi Polytechnic Auchi, Edo State. 2Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology. Auchi Polytechnic Auchi, Edo State.
An electrically powered egg incubator suitable for hatching fowl (chicken) eggs has been designed and fabricated using the available local materials to achieve efficient performance. The need to embark on this project arose as an effort to contribute in the production of more chicks for poultry farm. The incubator has the hatching capacity of 60 eggs (two crates of eggs). Factors affecting egg incubation include temperature, humidity, ventilation, heat and egg turning rate. These factors are necessary for efficient performance of the incubator. Temperature range of 35.0 – 40.0 oC is suitable, but controlled at 37.5oC by a thermostat. This temperature is close to the bird’s own temperature of 37.0 oC. Humidity was controlled in stages. It was maintained at 60% for the first 18days and raised to 70% for the remaining 3 days. Adequate ventilation is provided when the door of the incubator is opened daily, which also serves as the gateway for the escape of excess carbon (iv) oxide. Filament bulb was used as a source of heat to the incubation chamber.
KEYWORDS: Testing, Incubator, Construction, Egg Incubator, Electrical Power, Technology
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A HORIZONTAL WATER TUBE BOILER
SMART BELLO1, OLAWEPO B. B.1 AND AJAYI R. POLAM2
1Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology. Auchi Polytechnic Auchi, Edo State. 2Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology. Auchi Polytechnic Auchi, Edo State.
Introducing modern boiler concepts in the design of thermal power stations is nowadays becoming mandatory, not only from an economic point of view of new investments, but also as a significant and pro-active step towards the reduction of greenhouse gases & dust emissions by the enhancement of efficiency. The increase in the cycle efficiency in modern power station is mainly achieved by increasing the steam parameters. In addition to elevated steam parameters, other measures such as double reheat design and increased boiler efficiency are the key factors to achieve the desired maximization in heat rates. The aim of this project was to design and fabricate a water-tube boiler using a diesel fired burner (C13H25)9 to generate 80kg of steam per hour. The boiler tank is made of pure mild steel. Mild steel is used to fabricate the water tubes and other parts such as the furnace, smokestack and return chamber that make up the boiler. The heating surface area was increased for sake of efficiency and fast steam generation by reversing the direction of the gas through a second and third parallel tube (three pass). The boiler (which is fired by a diesel burner) generates dry saturated steam at a pressure of 1 bar and temperature of 111.4oC. It can be used for domestic and industrial purposes.
KEYWORDS: Tube Boiler, Fabrication, Water Tube Boiler, Construction, Horizontal.
MODELING AND DESIGN OF QUASI-Z-SOURCE INVERTER (QZSI) FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) SYSTEM
MOSHOOD YUSUF AND A.B. YUSUF
Electrical & Electronics Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna State, Nigeria
Solar energy is abundant in a lot of places and can be tapped to satisfy energy needs. The Photovoltaic(PV) arrays can be connected to an inverter to convert DC output of PV cells to AC supply for the grid. A type of inverter that we can use for this application is Quasi-Z-Source Inverter(qZSI). qZSI topology is able to remove multiple stages and achieve voltage boost and DC-AC power conversion in a single stage. This paper presents modeling, design and operation of a qZSI. To verify the performance of the inverter a Matlab/Simulink model of the inverter was built. Simulation results have been presented for the proof of the operation of the proposed inverter.
KEYWORDS: Z-source-inverters, photovoltaic (PV) power generation; quasi-Zsource inverter (qZSI), dc–ac conversion, voltage-source inverter, Solar energy, inverter. Matlab/Simulink.
MODELING AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF THE PRECISE VALUE OF THE INHIBITING FACTOR OF AN INCUBATING TEMPERATURE DATA SET
*1F AMADI; 2O.E. ISAAC; 3B. NKOI; 4R.E. AKPODEE
1,2,3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rivers State University. 4Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt Nigeria.
In carrying out the parameter estimation on the experimental temperature data obtained from field, the method of ODE45 numerical simulation was deployed to obtain the detailed value of the intra-competition coefficient of the investigational data set of an incubating system using the P-vector norm selection method. The impact of the P-vector norm on the intra-competition on numerous values of the carrying capacity hereby called the saturated values was documented as there was a abrupt change from a monotone decreasing sequence to an increasing monotonic sequence of the p-norms values, as here we observed that were this sudden change occur has a unique value in which all the p-vector norms are least in values. The exact value of the intra-competition parameter value gotten from this study is given as β= . The full new results that we have obtained have not been seen somewhere else: these have been presented and discussed in this study.
KEYWORDS: first order logistic ordinary differential equation, intra-competition coefficient, intrinsic growth rate, parameter estimation, p-vector norms, saturated value
MATERIALS COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED HOLLOW SANCRETE BLOCKS IN MINNA, NIGER STATE
1T.Y. AKANBI; 2M. ABDULLAHI; & 2A.R. ADESIJI
1*Dept. of Civil Engineering and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Ground Communication Engineering, Airforce Institute of Technology (AFIT), Kaduna State, Nigeria 2*Dept. of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger state, Nigeria.
Assessment of selected hollow sandcrete block in Minna, Niger state, as a function of the properties and materials compositions. A total of twenty (20) block producers were visited and aggregates used in the production of sandcrete block collected, a total of 20 blocks per producer was collected and transported to the laboratory of Federal University of Technology Minna where it was cured for 14 days, making it a total of 400 sandcrete blocks. The test carried out on the aggregates used for the production of sandcrete blocks includes: sieve analysis, specific gravity and bulk density. And the test conducted on the sandcrete blocks includes Absorption, Density, Dimension and compressive strength test. The mix composition of each of the block producer was also determined. The test result obtained from the physical properties of sand from the various block producers revealed that sand used by the selected block producers in Niger state do comply with the specified standard of grading of aggregates, the mix proportion used by the selected block producers is generally between one part of cement to fourteen or twenty parts of sand by volume (1:14 or 20), In terms of dimension, most of the blocks did not meet up the required dimension, as the density of the blocks were within the range of 1427 kg/mm3 to 2050 kg/mm3, the average compressive strength of the blocks ranged from 0.20 N/mm2 to 0.48 N/mm2. The study confirmed that mix ratio, quality, and mixing of the constituent materials affected the quality of sandcrete blocks.
KEYWORDS: sand, Sandcrete Blocks, Compressive Strength, Material Composition, Curing