MEDITERRANEAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AFRICAN INNOVATION & MULTIDSCIPLINARY RESEARCH
VOL. 18 NO. 2 (MEJAIMR) JUNE, 2022
Published by: MEDITERRANEAN PUBLICATIONS AND RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL,
Canberra ACT 0201, Australia.
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
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MIGRATION AND HUMAN CAPITAL MOBILITY IN NIGERIA: MOTIVATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
ISHOLA OREOFE; & DR. ADEWUMI EYITAYO
Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Babcock University.
Over the years, the dynamics of migration related activities in Nigeria continues to be intensified, motivated by different conditions at the fore front of which is globalization which has presented countless opportunities to the citizens, most especially on the path of the youths by bringing to their doorstep exposure to the numerous opportunities and benefits present all over the world. This Migration reality is a phenomenon that presents positive as well as negative values as this has resulted in the emigration of human capital, especially the highly skilled youth population from Nigeria to more developed nations of the world seeking out a better standard of living, thereby leaving Nigeria in a condition of brain drain induced by the effects of this human capital mobility.
KEYWORDS: Brain drain, Highly skilled professionals, Human capital, Human capital depletion, Migration.
ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT: AN ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENT FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. A STUDY OF SELECTED COMMUNITIES IN OSUN STATE
*OLUWATUSIN JAMES ADEKUNLE; & **BABATOLA FELIX AKINLADE PhD.
*JABU Consult & Development, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, Nigeria. **Department of Business Administration, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, Nigeria.
This paper investigated the role of entrepreneurship development as an essential requirement for economic growth and development in selected communities in Osun State, Nigeria. The researcher used the chi-square test and frequency tables. The primary data for the study was sourced through questionnaire administered to 300 respondents. The result revealed that entrepreneurship development has a significant development on economic growth and development as x2 was calculated as 56.86 which was greater than the tabulated table value of 7.92 at 5% degree of significant. The role of entrepreneurs in developing countries is progressively becoming significant in the sense that all available resources in any given situation in the economy must be developed for industrialization and ultimate consumption through entrepreneurial activities. This study shows the impact and potential contribution of businesses on a broad and diverse base as well as their accelerated effect in achieving macroeconomic objectives and improvement of local technology. Therefore, this study recommended that government should place importance on small, medium and large scale (SMEs) industries in particular as a means of economic development especially in a developing state like Osun State. The findings revealed that entrepreneurship development is without doubt a nexus to nation building; it also exhibits the need to sustain and encourage self independence rather than making people to be candidates in the labour market. It also revealed that entrepreneurship development has significant effect on economic growth and development of Osun State.
KEYWORDS: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Development, Economic Growth and development.
SCHOOL COMMUNICATION AND TEACHERS’ JOB PERFORMANCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NASARAWA WEST SENATORIAL ZONE OF NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA FOR ACHIEVING THE NEW SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
DR YAKUBU SANI; DR UWALEKE, GLADYS CHINELO; & DR EMAKPOR PETER CHUKS
Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Management.
The study assessed School Communication and Teachers’ Job Performance in Senior Secondary Schools in Nasarawa West Senatorial Zone of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. For achieving the new sustainable development. The study was guided by three research questions, three objectives and three hypotheses.. Cross-sectional survey research design was adopted in the study. The population of this study consisted of 2605 teachers. The sample size of this study consisted of 578 respondents. The instrument used for data collection was tagged ‘Questionnaire on the School Communication and Teacher Job Performance (QSCTJP)’. The instrument yielded the validity index of 0.82. The coefficient of internal consistency of 0.79 was obtained which means that the instrument was suitable for data collection. Descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while Pearson’s product moment correlation was employed to test the formulated null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study showed that there is a significant relationship between upward communication and teachers’ job performance in senior secondary schools in Nasarawa West Senatorial District of Nasarawa State Nigeria for achieving the new sustainable development, there is a significant relationship between downward communication and teachers’ job performance in senior secondary schools in Nasarawa West Senatorial District of Nasarawa State Nigeria for achieving the new sustainable development. and there is a significant relationship between horizontal communication and teachers’ job performance in senior secondary schools in Nasarawa West Senatorial District of Nasarawa State Nigeria for achieving the new sustainable development. One of the recommendations of the study was that Principals of senior secondary schools in Nasarawa West Senatorial Zone of Nasarawa State Nigeria should be periodically subjected to series of training through workshops, conferences and seminars to enable them acquire the useful skills and knowledge needed to promote upward communication in the school system for achieving the new sustainable development.
KEYWORDS: School, Communication, Teacher, job Performance, Sustainable and Development
AN APPRAISAL OF THE DUTIES OF STAKEHOLDERS TOWARDS ATTAINING SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION
OGUNLOLU ALICE T.
Department of Quantity Surveying, Baze University, Abuja, Nigeria.
Sustainable Construction (SC) implies employing the use of renewable and recyclable materials with the aim of reducing waste as well as lowering energy consumption. The main purpose of Sustainable Construction is to reduce the adverse environmental effect of the Construction industry (CI). Various stakeholders have inputs in order to achieve SC as there are several emerging roles and duties that need to be attended to in order to ensure that the benefits of SC is delivered. To this end, this research sought to appraise the stakeholder responsible for carrying some emerging SC duties. Extensive literature was sought to identify new/emerging duties towards achieving SC. A well-structured questionnaire was then distributed to professionals in the CI. A total of 100 questionnaires were administered and 76 was retrieved and analysed using mean item score. The result shows the respondents perception of stakeholders responsible for the emerging SC duties identified. Finally, the notion that sustainable construction must be carried out collaboratively by all Stakeholders in the CI is reaffirmed.
KEYWORDS: Sustainable construction, Construction industry, Emerging roles, stakeholders
EFFECT OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES ON NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
DENNIS EFEMUAYE BROTOBOH; & AGUNUWA EKOKOTU VINCENT (Ph.D)
Department of Banking and Finance, School of Business Studies, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe, Oghara.
The focus of the study is the examination of the social and economic impact of cooperative societies in Nigeria. Also to be examined is their impact in our rural communities, especially in the grass root, urban and national development. It has been argued that commercial financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies could play greater roles in the advancement of rural development than the cooperative societies. This is so because of the enormous contribution of these financial houses to the rapid, social and economic development of the people, and urbanization. Data used in this study covered the period between 2001 and 2020. Descriptive statistical analytical methods involving frequencies and tables were used to test the hypotheses. The result shows that as many as these societies may be in form, formation and groups, they have their various challenges, targets, aims and objectives. The study recommends that government should aid and encourage these organizations to enable them stand and perform effectively since they are all contributive factors in the economic development and growth of Nigeria.
KEYWORDS: Cooperative society, Banks, Insurance, Rural Development, Descriptive statistics.
STABILIZATION POLICIES, INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND INDUSTRIALIZATION PROCESS IN NIGERIA
ALADI ACHIMUGWU; MUSA FLORENCE CHARLES; & BUSH ANTHONIA ANWULI
Productivity Capacity Building (PCB) Department, National Productivity Centre, Headquarters.
This study set out to investigate the relationship between stabilization policies, infrastructural development and industrialization process in Nigeria. The study estimated a slightly modified form of the basic St. Louis equation with data ranging from 1981 to 2015. The main finding is that increase in electricity, gas and water infrastructure would facilitate industrialization process in Nigeria. The Johansen co-integration testing approach demonstrates a significant long-run relationship between these three variables. The study found that government revenue (fiscal policy) communication infrastructure, and electricity, gas and water infrastructure have significant effect on the development of crude petroleum and natural gas. The study on solid mineral sector suggests that interest rate (monetary policy) has a significant inverse relationship with the development of solid minerals. Again, the study found that all the infrastructural variables have significant effect on solid mineral development. The result on manufacturing sector suggests that interest rate (monetary policy) has a significant inverse effect on manufacturing sector development. This implies that a decrease in interest rate would spur growth in the manufacturing sector. Also, the result found that transportation infrastructure plays a significant role in the development of the manufacturing sector. At lag 2, result shows that a change in the index of industrial production would cause a change in broad money supply and transportation infrastructure. The study concludes that, with strong determination and positive actions we will surmount our industrialization challenges.
KEYWORDS: Stabilization Policy, Infrastructural Development, Industrialization, Electricity, Infrastructure, Communication and Solid Minerals
HEALTH, LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY AND INDUSTRIALIZATION IN NIGERIA
*UGWU STELLA IFEYINWA; **ELE EYILAERE A.; & ***CHINAKA OLORUNSOLA NKECHI
*Corporate Affairs and Information (CAI) Department, National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office. **Consultancy and Business Development (CBD), National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office. ***Productivity Capacity Building (PCB) Department, National Productivity Centre, Lagos State Office.
The relationship between health outcomes, labour productivity and output in general or industrial output in particular cannot be undermined as it constitutes the life wire of any economy. Its measurements and the roles they play is relevant in policy formulation of the economy, however there seldom exists empirical evidence that simultaneously examined them in Nigeria. It is on this premise that this study examined the effect of health outcome on labour productivity and the impact of labour productivity on industrial output in with the aid of a simultaneous regression model. The study employs time series data spanning 1981-2015 from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin, 2015, World Bank Development Indicator 2016 and Global Statistical Year Book, June 2016. The results show that health outcome significantly and positively impacts on labour productivity and labour productivity significantly impacts on industrial output as expected. Therefore, health outcomes must be sustained to ensure labour productivity and labour productivity must be optimized to improve industrial output in Nigeria. Nevertheless, health outcome is not significantly influence by health expenditure due to the poor funding in the sector and population growth rate significantly and negatively affects it. This implies that governments at all levels pay attention to the 15% benchmark proportion of health expenditure in their annual budgets. The study further recommends that there is need to checkmate population growth rate vis a vis resources. And more conscious efforts must be made to regulate electricity production in the country to the extent that it plays a significant role on industrial output.
KEYWORDS: Health, Labour productivity, Output, Impact, Measurement, Population, Growth rate, Productivity and Nigeria
TYPES AND EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTE GENERATED BY INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS IN CAMPS IN BORNO STATE, NIGERIA: COUNSELLING INTERVENTIONS
*NGOHI, BUKAR UMAR (Ph.D); **DR. BITRUS GLAWALA AMUDA; & ***NAOMI NUHU ADAMU (Ph.D)
*Mohammed Goni College of Legal and Islamic Studies (MOGCOLIS), P.M.B.1526, Maiduguri, Borno State. **Faculty of Education, Department of Education, Borno State University, P.M.B.1122, Maiduguri, Borno State. ***Department of Guidance and Counselling, Faculty of Education, Taraba State University, P.M.B. 1167, Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria.
The study investigated the types and effects of solid waste generated by internally displaced persons in Borno State, Nigeria: Counselling interventions. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. Target population of the study consisted of all the 14,265 IDPs in the 4 government designated camps in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State. However, a sample size of 300 IDPs using Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table for determining sample size of a givien population, was purposively used to selected from the volunteered respondents through stratified random sampling techniques. 103(34%) of the respondents were male while the remaining 197(66%) were female. The study was guided by four objectives and four research questions comprising of the respondents’ demographic characteristics, types and effects of solid waste generated by the internally displaced persons in the study area. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistical techniques of frequency counts, percentages and rank order. The result revealed that nylon of pure (seal) water, polythene bags, used wood materials, rags, cartons, sanitary pads, old/Used mattresses, charcoal/ash, used mats, used torch batteries, harvest residue and construction materials constituted the major solid wastes generated by the internally displaced persons in the study area thus, ranked from 1st to 9th and that breeding ground for mosquitoes, transmission of ailments and odour comprised the major effects of the wastes generated by the internally displaced persons in the camps in Maiduguri Metropolis. Based on these findings, it was recommended that professionally trained counsellors and public health officers should be attached to all IDP camps in Borno State with a view to providing counselling on regular intervals pertaining to keeping a clean and healthy environment.
KEYWORDS: Solid Waste, Types, Effects, Internally Displaced Persons
SKILL IMPROVEMENT NEEDS OF TECHNICAL TEACHER’S IN TEACHING LATHE, AND DRILL PRESS MACHINES OPERATIONS IN TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN KADUNA STATE
DR ALI, AWALU MALIKI1; PROFESSOR ANAELE EDMOND2; DR. OGBONNA G. N.2; & DR. SAMSON IKENNA NWAODO2
1Department of Technical Education, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Kaduna state college of Education Gidan waya, Kafanchan. 2Department of Industrial and Technical Education, Faculty of Vocational and Technical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
The major purpose of the study was to determine skill improvement needs of technical teachers in teaching lathe and Drill press machines operations in technical colleges in Kaduna State. two research questions were answered and two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population for the study consisted of 103 experienced and less experienced technical teachers, drawn from technical colleges in Kaduna State. The entire population was studied; hence no sample was taken. Survey research design was used for the study. Structured questionnaire on (SINTTMSOTC) was used to generate data for the study. This instrument was face validated by three experts from the faculty of Vocational and Technical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The questionnaire was pilot tested with a sample of 20 experienced and less experienced technical teachers’ in technical college, Kano State. Cronbach Alpha reliability test was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and this yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.84. Data analyzed using mean statistics for the research questions and t-test was used to test the null hypotheses. It was recommended that experienced and less experienced technical teachers in technical colleges should build capacity on skill improvement needs, needed by students for effective functioning in the lathe and drill press machines operations. This could be achieved by organizing workshops and seminars, and also to undergone re-training in their areas of specializations.
KEYWORDS: teaching, technical teachers, machines, skills, improvement needs.
BARRIERS TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRACTICE IN NIGERIA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
TORIOLA-COKER O L1*, OMOKUNGBE O1, YEKINI A1, AYODELE-OJA S2,
1.School of Engineering, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba Lagos. 2.School of Environmental, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba Lagos.
There is a growing body of literature that recognises that adoption of sustainable construction practices but the desired traction of practicing the exercise is not gaining vital recognition. Despite its importance, the practice of sustainable construction has not received much attention in developing countries, such as Nigeria. The current research aims research aims at providing insights on the measures to improve and advocate for sustainable development in Nigeria construction sector. A quantitative approach was used for the study and a questionnaire survey was conducted among the professionals and other stakeholders. A descriptive method was used in analysing the collected data. Among the highly ranked sustainability barriers to construction practice are poor sustainability education in academic institutions, lack of incentives for designers to facilitate sustainable design, ignorance of lifecycle cost benefits, sustainable construction regarded as low priority and other issues take priority, and resistance to cultural change in the industry. Taken together, there is a need to improve the knowledge of professional on sustainable construction through training programmes in Nigeria. The research recommends that the construction industry must accurately tackle these barriers by putting in place the following: Financial barrier, Management and leadership; Cultural barriers, Technical barriers, Technological barriers, Political barriers and Awareness barriers.
KEYWORDS: barriers, construction practices, developing countries, sustainability
ENTREPRENEURSHIP APPROACHES FOR COMBATING GLOBAL TURBULENT AND COVID-19 IN SUB SAHARAN AFRICA SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
*AKANNI, LANRE FATAI; *ALUKO, KUDIRAT ATINUKE; *KAMALUDDEEN, SALMAT AYO; **ALUKO, MUHAMMED AMIN; & **WAHAB, BABATUNDE HABEEB
*Business Education Departmet, Kwara State College of Education, Ilorin. *Department of Technical Education, kwara State College of Education, Ilorin.
Sustainable development is an organizing principle for meeting human development goals while also sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services on which the economy and society depend, and that the desired result is a state of society where living conditions and resources are used to continue to meet human needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural system. Africa in the past have known to have achieved to some extent the sustainable development until when the global turbulent and covid-19 set in, and continue to pose negative impact on the human, social and economic growth of Africa nation and the world at large. The paper examined the entrepreneurship approaches for combating global turbulent and covid-19 for sustainable development in Africa. Based on the literature review it was discovered that global turbulent and covid-19 have hindered achievement of sustainable development in Africa. The crisis has touched all segments of the population, all sectors of the economy, and all areas of the world. The economic downturn and social disruption caused by the pandemic is Wreaking havoc on lives and devastating livelihoods, sustainable development indices like poverty, economic growth, energy, hunger, health, education, and living slandered have been negatively affected. 2020 Africa Sustainable Development Report revealed that COVID-19 pushed between 26 and 40 million in Africa (excluding Northern Africa) into extreme poverty and that Africa score 52.9 percent with a gap of 47.1 percent on the achievement of sustainable development goal as at year 2020. The finding further revealed that with entrepreneurship training problems like poverty, unemployment, economic growth etc will reduce if not eliminated as well as the tragic of any pandemic in future. Based on the findings it is therefore, recommended among that Government of every Nation in Africa should invest in capacity building for entrepreneurial activities to ensure that their knowledge and skills are updated based on industry practice and to have skill to shift from face to face to remote instruction during future crises, Government of Africa nation should provide all the school with the necessary material, tools and machine needed for entrepreneurship education training.
KEYWORDS: Turbulent Environment, Sustainable Development, Entrepreneurship, Covid-19
AVOIDING CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION LEAKAGE IN ORGANIZATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
OGHOMWEN, JOHN N. SMITH; KOLO JOSHUA; MOHAMMED SAIDU KPAKI; & SALAKO MORENIKEJI MEDINAT
Department of Office Technology and Management, the Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 55, Bida- Niger State.
This study examined ways of avoiding confidential information leakage in organizations for sustainable development in Abuja metropolis. The study adopted the survey research design. The population of the study consisted of fifty (50) IT staff in the organizations purposively selected for the study. The whole population of fifty was used as sample for the study. The instrument for data collection was a 24-items questionnaire. The analysis of data was done using mean and standard deviation. The findings revealed amongst others that human and technology related leakages could be avoided by the selected organizations by paying ICT Staff and other staff associated with information sharing enhanced salaries and peculiar allowances, provide ICT staff security training regularly, using paper shredders, limit employees access to confidential information, holding ICT staff accountable, encrypting files and data base, use of password and locking down networks. It was therefore recommended amongst others that business organizations should implement security measures such as the use of password, paper shredders, provide security training for ICT staff, limit employees access to confidential information and holding ICT staff accountable for breaches of confidential information in the organizations to ensure sustainability of business.
KEYWORDS: confidential information, information leakage, intentional leakage, unintentional leakage, sustainable development.
EVALUATING THE CAUSES OF UNETHICAL PRACTICES OF PROFESSIONALS IN NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
MOHAMMED ISAH LEJE*1, AMEENAH HAJA ABDULLAH2, ABUBAKAR MUHAMMAD-JAMIL3, AND ISAH YAHAYA4
1,2Department of Quantity Surveying, The Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State. 3Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University Birnin-Kebbi, Kebbi State. 4Department of Building Technology, Niger State College of Education, Minna.
Professional ethics are based on a core set of values that enable optimal sustainable development. Despite, professionals in Nigerian construction industry are frequently involved in unethical practices that result in poor project delivery. As a result, studies connected to causes of unethical practices of professionals in Nigerian construction industry were examined. Though, most recent studies have continued to relate unethical practices in the construction industry to Quantity Surveyors. Unfortunately, all-encompassing unethical practices in the construction industry remain an issue for worry among professionals. It is in this light that this study proposed to evaluate the causes of unethical practices of professionals in Nigerian construction industry, with emphasis to determine whether the causes of unethical practices of professionals contributed to the effect on project delivery. Accordingly, a purposive sample of 80 experienced construction professionals involved in selected projects within F.C.T, Abuja was selected, comprising 40 each of Quantity Surveyors, Structural Engineers, Architects and Builders. Data analysis include Mean Item Score (MIS) for ranking the variables and multiple regression to determine whether the causes of unethical practices of professionals contributed to the effect on project delivery. The results of MIS revealed that the top seven causes of unethical practices of construction professionals are professional indiscipline, love for money (greed), favoritism, weak level of supervision, economic downturn, political influence and poor financial control. The results of multiple regression revealed that the causes of unethical practices make a significant contribution (p<0.05) to the prediction of the effects on project delivery. The overall findings revealed that the most significant unethical practices were common among issues of personal behavior, professional indiscipline, profit maximization and economic downturn. It was thus recommended that construction professional/regulatory bodies should ensure effective punishment for unethical activities at different stages of project delivery.
KEYWORDS: Construction professionals, Mean item score, Multiple regression, Professional ethics, Project delivery, Sustainable development, Unethical practices,
IMPACT OF AUDIT COMMITTEE EFFECTIVENESS ON CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY: A CASE OF SATYAM COMPUTERS
ABDULLAHI ADAMU DODO CCA
Department of Accountancy, School of Business and Management Technology, the Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria.
This paper examined the roles and the effectiveness of Audit Committees as provided by corporate governance codes, in relation to corporate sustainability, whether corporate sustainability is as a result of the effectiveness of the ACs.The AC is perceived to be a means of strengthening the external financial reporting process, and also facilitating the detection and prevention of corporate misconduct and scandals. This paper study the case of SATYAM computers and the role played by it AC in the governance process. The study used Secondary sourced data to investigate the roles of AC in the cases study company, a qualitative case study method was employed to investigate the corporate governance and the AC activities. One of the main findings of the study is that many corporate failures are associated with the ineffectiveness of ACs, and that ACs could have prevented the occurrence of several corporate failures if they were efficient. However, the ACs cannot be 100% blamed for the failures, This is because their effectiveness is a subject to so many factors (independence, industry expertise, information flow, inbuilt willingness to serve, and organizational factors), which are always lacking, and lack of any one factor always renders the AC ineffective. It was also found that ACs can ensure corporate sustainability and tackle the occurrence of corporate failure when the right people are nominated into the committee, and they are independent of any managerial influence.
KEYWORDS: Corporate governance, corporate failures, corporate sustainability, and Audit committee
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF RECYCLING PURE CANS AND SACHETS IN ABA, ABIA STATE
CHIDI M. AYOZIE
Department of Management, Faculty of Management Sciences, Imo State University Owerri, Imo State
This study focused on solid waste management and the socio-economic development in Nigeria using recycling pure cans and sachets in Aba, Abia State as the focal point. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentage. It was discovered that there is significant impact of solid waste management on the environmental clearness in Aba, Abia State; there is significant impact of solid waste management on the health of the people in Aba, Abia State; and there is significant impact of solid waste management on business investment in Aba, Abia State. Based on findings, the researcher recommends that solid waste management should be provided in the yearly budget with a separate head for the purpose of adequate revenue allocation, implementation and monitoring; and there is need to enhance environmental education programmes and public participation as it affects solid waste management not only through the radio, television and print media but also through grassroots enlightenment campaigns via the chiefs, community leaders.
KEYWORDS: solid waste, management, socio-economic development, recycling pure cans, environmental clearness, health, and business investment