TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY (TIJSRAT)
VOL. 9 (9) MAY, 2022 EDITIONS. ISSN: 2623-7861
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies,
Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS FOR BREAST CANCER DETECTION
ILIYAS IBRAHIM ILIYAS; ALI BABA DAUDA; ABDULLAHI ISA; & ANDRA UMORU
Department of Mathematical Science, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
Breast cancer is rising at an alarming rate by being the number two among the fatal disease in work in women. A woman can get a better chance of complete regaining from cancer if diagnosed at a prior stage, thus firing the need to develop efficient diagnosis model. A system that can operate without any medical equipment and medical staff may lead to an appropriate solution. From the art of Machine learning (ML) algorithms have portrayed that purpose to resolve various health and scientific problem. An establishment of several studies shows that ML technique already have obtained dramatically excessive accuracies in disease-based medical issues. For instance, data mining approaches can be applied to medical science topics, rise rapidly due to their high performance in predicting outcomes, reducing medicine costs, promoting patients’ health, improving healthcare value and quality, and making real-time decisions to save people’s lives. This study compares five machine learning technique namely, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Naïve Bayes (NB), Logistic Regression (LR), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) in the prediction of Breast Cancer. The dataset used in this study was obtained from the Wisconsin Breast Cancer Dataset. Comparing the accuracy of these five techniques, the results showed CNN: 98%, KNN: 93%, NB:94%, LR: 92%, and SVM: 96%. We found that CNN is not just for image classification, but with 1 Dimension, predicting patient records with great accuracy is possible.
Keywords: Convolutional Neural Network, Breast Cancer, Dataset, Machine Learning, imputation.
EFFECT OF GUIDED-DISCOVERY ON ERRORS REMEDIATION IN ALGEBRAIC PERFORMANCE AMONG JSSII STUDENTS IN ZARIA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
ADENIRAN BABATUNDE JOSEPH; & LAMBAYA IBRAHIM DANIEL
Department of Science Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
This study investigated the effect of guided-discovery on errors remediation among JSSII Students in Zaria metropolis, Kaduna State. A quasi-experiment with pretest-posttest control group design was adopted. The study used JSS II students in Zaria metropolis with the population of 4,540 students. In order to ensure that each school had an equal chance of being chosen, from the population a…
THE PERFORMANCE ATTRIBUTES OF A DIRECT INJECTION (DI) GAS ENGINE FUELLED WITH MIXTURES OF HIGH CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) CONTENT-NATURAL GAS
AYANDOTUN B. WASIU1,2, A. RASHID B. A. AZIZ1, RASHEED ADEWALE OPATOLA3
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Perak, Malaysia. 2Mechanical Engineering Dept., The Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria. 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna, Nigeria.
At times, the raw natural gas from gas reserves is not directly harvestable due to the high CO2 content. Experience has proven that capturing CO2 is often capital intensive and commercially unprofitable. This paper researches the effect of high CO2 content-natural gas, as automotive fuel, on engine performance in an internal combustion engine at 180OCA and 300OCA BTDC injection timings. For this research, the natural gas fields were simulated by the addition of CO2 at 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% to pure natural gas, and tested in a single-cylinder sparkignition direct injection (DI) compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. Generally, the outcomes of the research indicate that the engine performance was affected as the CO2 proportions in the mixture were increased at all the injection timings. The brake torque (BT) decreased with the increase in the CO2 proportions in the mixture. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) decreased and increased correspondingly with the increase in CO2 proportion. Furthermore, it was observed that the 1800CA BTDC injection timing yielded better performance than the 3000CA BTDC injection timing for engine speeds up to 3000rpm due to better volumetric efficiency. Conversely, for engine speeds above 3000rpm, 3000CA BTDC injection timing offered better performance than 1800CA BTDC injection timing due to better fuel-air mixing, which is indicative of the complete combustion process.
Keywords: Gas engine, injection timing, CNG-CO2, compressed natural gas, engine performance.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROCESSOR DESIGN; A REVIEW
*AGBAJE, M.O.; **JOHNSON, O.A.; & ***KAREEM, A.E
*Department of Computer Science, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria. **Department of Computer Science, Tai Solarin College of Education, Omu-Ijebu, Ogun State, Nigeria. ***Department of Computer Science, Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
Intellectual Property (IP) is a dangerously overloaded term. A design or verification unit that is pre-packaged and available for licensing is referred to as Intellectual Property (IP). In the most general sense, it means any knowledge that is owned by someone. Verification IP (VIP) is a pre-packaged set of code used for verification. It may be a set of assertions for verifying a bus protocol, or it could be a module intended to be used within a defined verification methodology. Semiconductor IP (SIP) and Design IP (DIP) is generally the same thing and often just referred to as IP, IP blocks or IP cores. It is a piece of the design, such as a processor, that has been pre-verified and can be included in someone else’s design. This paper focuses on the reviews and most common types of IP for processors, peripherals, interconnect and memories and how they can be delivered as either soft IP blocks, which means that the models are technology independent and can be synthesized to target any implementation library or fabrication process, or hard IP.
Keywords: Blocks, Chips, Cores, Design, Innovation, Intellectual, Processor, Property.
EVALUATION OF INTENTIONS OF SUBSCRIBERS TO ACCESS MOBILE NUMBER PORTABILITY FOR QUALITY SERVICE DELIVERY IN NIGERIA
*AFOLABI OLAKUNLE SUNDAY; **AJUWON AYOBAMI ADENIRAN; & **AND DR. ADELEKE ISRAEL ADEWALE
* Department of Computer Science, University of Abuja ** Department of Computer Science, EACOED, Oyo.
Mobile Number Portability (MNP) is a phenomenon that had been implemented in several countries. Even though the Nigerian Communication Commission (NCC) have set out a framework for its implementation in Nigeria, the Nigeria mobile telephone subscribers and the existing service providers in Nigeria had not keyed into the system. This paper seeks to access the intentions of Subscribers on Mobile Number Portability for Quality Service Delivery in Nigeria. A total of 240 subscribers were randomly selected from four major service providers (MTN, Globacom, Airtel and Etisalat) in Nigeria. It is of necessity accessing their level of satisfaction with the services provided by these service providers and their intention to port their mobile numbers to other service providers while maintaining their mobile numbers. Descriptive statistics which include frequency counts and simple percentile were used. The results show that 81.20% of respondents are not satisfied with the services of the mobile phone service providers and 95.73%of them intended to change to any other service providers while maintaining their mobile numbers.
Keywords: Mobile Number, Portability, Quality, Service Delivery, Providers and Phenomenon
QUANTIFYING THE EFFECT OF INTEREST RATE ON THE SENSITIVITY VALUES OF TWO INTERACTING POPULATIONS OF INVESTORS IN A STOCK MARKET
NAFO, N. M
Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu- Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
In this paper, a computational approach is used to study the effect of interest rate on the sensitivity of the growth rate of two interacting populations of investors in a stock market over a trading period in days. This work clearly shows that the growth rate of the first population of investors is a highly sensitive parameter. The details of the numerical simulation analysis are presented and discussed quantitatively.
Keywords: Sensitivity, growth rate, stock market, interest rate, trading period, simulation analysis
IMPACT OF VIRTUAL LEARNING ON STUDENTS OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS DURING COVID19 PANDEMIC IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN KATSINA STATE)
MUHAMMED IBRAHIM; Z.A. PINDAR; HASHIR ALIYU MOHAMMED; & ABDULHAKIM IBRAHIM
Faculty of Computing, Nigerian Army University Biu, Borno State Nigeria
The Covid19 pandemic has created the largest negative impact in education sector and other social and economic activities in the world history. This study examined the impact of virtual learning on students of tertiary institutions during covid19 pandemic in Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The research was guided by three research questions. Seven hundred (700) students were targeted online. Questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection. Mean and Standard deviation were used for data analysis. The study revealed that virtual learning is widely accepted in Nigeria due to the emergence of Covid19 pandemic lock down also the findings indicate the challenges militating against the use of virtual learning in tertiary institutions. Based on the findings the study recommend among others that government should ensure a maximum standard set for institutions to get computer and internet facilities to enhance effective virtual learning in tertiary institutions.
Keywords: Virtual Learning, Pandemic, Tertiary Institutions, Covid19, Students
EFFECT OF METACOGNITIVE INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY ON UPPER BASIC STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN KINETIC ENERGY IN NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA
*DR PHILIP AKU EGGON; **ADAMU EZEKIEL; & **JUSTINA T. DIBILANG
*Department of Science Technology and Mathematics Education Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria **Department of Biology Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Gombe State, Nigeria
This study investigated the Effect of Metacognitive Instructional Strategy on Upper Basic Students’ Achievement in Kinetic Energy in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.Tworesearch questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a quasi-experimental research of pre-test, post-test, post-post-test, non-equivalent, non-randomized control group design. 2450(1260 male and 1190female) students were used as the population of the study. The sample comprised twointact classes. The experimental group is the metacognitive group which had 65 students of 35 males and 30 females while the control group is the conventional group which had 62 students of 33 males and 29 female students using multistage random sampling technique. The instrument used for data collection was Kinetic Energy Achievement Test (KEAT) and was validated by experts. Descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while inferential statistics of ANCOVA was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significant. The finding among others reveal that: there was a significant difference between the Achievement of Upper Basic eight students’ taught Kinetic Energy using Metacognitive instructional strategy and those taught using Lecture method in favor of the Upper Basic eight students taught using Metacognitive Instructional Strategy. Also, there was no significant difference between the interest level of male and female Basic eight students taught Kinetic Energy using Metacognitive instructional strategy. It was therefore recommended among others that Metacognitive instructional strategy should be used to teach students irrespective of gender.
Keywords: Kinetic Energy, Metacognitive, Achievement, Strategy.
EFFECT OF ROASTING PERIODS ON THE NUTRITIONAL AND ANTI-NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF WATERMELON SEEDS
EBU BRIDGET; OGBEBA JERIMIAH; AND OBASI BLESSING
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
Malnutrition is a major problem in developing countries especially Nigeria. Loss of nutrients in food processing has been a concern for nutritionist as well as food technologists. This work aimed at assessing the effect of roasting on the nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of watermelon seeds. The seeds were washed, air dried and divided into four (4) portions of 100g each. One portion was unroasted and other portions were roasted for 10 minutes, 20 minutes and 30 minutes respectively. The samples were separately grinded using electric grinder and analyzed. The results of the analysis showed that moisture content ranged from 1.24% – 1.15% , Ash content ranged from 0.14% – 0.035%, crude fiber ranged from 0.16% – 0.14%, fat content ranged from 0.84% – 0.72%, crude protein ranged 0.4% – 0.256%, carbohydrate ranged from 0.142% – 0.120%, calcium ranged from 0.13% – 0.34% and -phosphorus 4.21% – 3.27%. While the anti- nutrient showed constant decrease. Oxalate ranged from 0.29% – 0.23%, phytate 0.46% – 0.38%, tannin 3.9% – 3.7%, alkaloid 0.24% – 0.21%, phenol 2.04% – 2.09% and saponin 2.05% – 2.03%. It was found that roasting periods increased calcium content, decrease moisture content and protein content. The anti- nutrient decrease with increase in roasting periods which suggest the anti- nutrient can be reduced by roasting the seeds. Roasting method adopted in this study has been proven to have effect on the nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of watermelon seeds. Therefore, roasting watermelon seed for the period of 30 minutes retains nutritional composition and reduction of the anti-nutrients of the seeds.
Keyword: Roasting periods, nutritional, anti-nutritionl, watermelon seed
MINERAL AND ANTI-NUTRIENT CONTENT OF “AKARA–AKPU” FORTIFIED WITH WATER MELON SEED FLOUR
EJIM, M.N1.; OMACHI, B.A1; & EJIM, K.O2
1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B, 55, Bida, Niger State. 2Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B, 55, Bida, Niger State.
“Akara-akpu” is a deep fat fried ball, it’s origin is from the Eastern region of Nigeria. The Cassava was peeled, washed grated and fried in palm oil to produce “akara – akpu” which was formulated in ratios of 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 Cassava – watermelon seed blends while 100% cassava served as the control. The mineral and anti-nutrient contents were analyzed using standard laboratory procedures, Result for mineral compositions showed that calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium and sodium values increased significantly (p < 0.05), while the anti-nutrient composition showed that nitrate, phytate and cyanide increased significantly (p < 0.05), with addition of watermelon seed flour. Nutritious and organoleptically acceptable “akara – akpu” was successfully produced from Cassava-watermelon Seed blends. This research work recommended Sample A because it was the best product in term of nutritional quality and acceptability.
MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF FERMENTED SOY DRINK FROM TAMARIND AND NONO
ADAMU, B. B.; BABAYI, H.; AYISA, T. T.; IDEH, R. R.; & OKON,I.J.
National Biotechnology Development Agency, the Federal University of Technology Minna. Biological science department, the Federal Polytechnic Bida, P.M.B 55, Bida, Niger state
Microbiological quality of fermented soy drink with isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from tamarind was evaluated. Soymilk was extracted from milled whole soybean grains, sieved and allowed to stay before subjecting it to pasteurization at76oC for 30 minutes and were thereafter divided into two: one portion inoculated with tamarind pulp juice containing 5.3×103 cfu/mL and the other with nono containing 11.6×103 cfu/mL. They were incubated at 42oC for 12 hours, and thereafter the products obtained were subjected to microbial analysis using the standard method. The Lactic Acid Bacteria isolated was characterized and identified using molecular techniques. Second generation fermented soy drink (A2) was produced using the back slopping method from the first generation fermented soy drink (A).The total viable count in fermented soy drink with tamarind (A), fermented soy drink with nono bought from Fulani woman hawking (B) and commercial yoghurt (C) ranged from 2.67×103 – 8.7×103 cfu/mL while coliform and fungal counts for B were 1.0×103 cfu/mL and 3.7×103 cfu/mL respectively. Neither coliforms nor fungal species were isolated in A and C. Sample A2 had lower bacterial count of 2.0×103 cfu/mL with no coliform and fungal growth. Species of Lactobacillus, Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas were isolated from the samples. Molecular identification of the isolates revealed coded strains of Lactobacillus. plantarumVJC38 16S, Lactobacillus plantarumM10, Lactobacillus pentosusZU 22 and PediococcuspentosaceusJN 1. Appropriate aseptic and HACCP techniques could significantly improve the microbiological quality of the fermented drink produced using isolates from tamarind.
Keywords: Bacteria, Fermentation, Lactobacillus, Soy, Tamarind.
SURVEY ON THE STORAGE METHODS OF GARCINIA KOLA USED IN OGUN, ONDO AND EDO STATES, NIGERIA
HADIZA BELLO KATAGUM
Department of Soil Science Technology, Bauchi State College of Agriculture
The Survey was carried on the Storage methods of Garcinia kola in Ogun, Ondo and Edo State, Nigeria. The objectives were to examine the different storage methods of G. kola used in study area; analyse the causes and level of damage of G. kola during storage in the study area and to determine the influence of education on quantity of G. kola storage in the study area. The data for the study was obtained using structured questionnaire administered to 133 respondent selected using multistage sampling technique. Descriptive statistics such as charts, frequency and percentages were used to evaluate the data. Storage is a very common activity among the respondents and its result showed that 91.7 % considered polyethylene bags as the preferred storage material. The result on the damage indicates that only 9 % recorded less than 10 % damage during storage and the contamination is mostly associated to biotic factors. It was determined that, if G. kola is stored properly using conventional method, the level of damage is less very minimal. Influence of education on quantity of G. kola stored suggests that education has significant influence on the quantity of storage of G. kola. It is recommended that the Federal Government should explore the potentials of NTFPs such as Garcinia kola by employing technology to develop and optimize the value chain and to make it more attractive for the younger generation to come in as this would help in discouraging deforestation.
Keywords: Garcinia kola, Southern Nigeria, Education, damage, storage, polyethylene
SMART STREET LIGHTING SYSTEM: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION
D M NAZIF 1, YUNUSA M. A2, HAMZA YUNUSA3, SADIQ UMAR4, MUHAMMAD YAHAYA YARDA5
1-4Dept. of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 5Dept. of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, Gombe State Polytechnic Bajoga, Gombe State, Nigeria.
Solar energy has proven to be of significance in areas of engineering, agriculture and other important sectors of the economy of any nation. The use of this form of energy has made it possible for the implementation of so many innovations across the globe. Solar street lighting systems now coming up with new technologies of embedding the PV panels, LEDs, charge controller and battery as a single unit. This technology is now giving room for little design and more installations. In this system, design, construction and installation was achieved with the use of the solar lighting system that comes in the form of a module. The design involves the civil work, mechanical work and as well as the electrical work. The height of the support used was 11ft having a diameter of 4inch and a base dimension of 1ft2. The size of the space meant for the installation is 300m2, where 4 street lighting systems were installed, each located at an angle of the space. The depth of the hole dug was 1.8ft. The system comes with a proximity sensor that senses the presence of humans and a light detector that senses the strength of light intensity, thereby switching ON and OFF depending on the light intensity. Observations after the installation showed that the system gives full light in the presence of human interference within a distance range of about 7m and then returns to dim in 20seconds without movement of people within the 7m. The system performed effectively as expected.
Keywords: Solar panel, Illumination, LED, Street lighting, Sensor.
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PERCENTAGE OIL YIELD OF SELECTED LOCAL FOODSTUFF USING HEXANE, PETROLEUM SPIRIT, AND ETHYL ALCOHOL
OLUBUKOLA ALEXANDER KURE; CLEMENT TENE DOGO; & MUSTAPHA YUSUF DAUDA
Department Of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda
Extraction of oil using Hexane, Petroleum spirit and Ethyl alcohol was carried out on selected foodstuffs namely; Melon, African breadfruit, Coconut, Cashew nut, Avocado pear- Flesh and Seed- and African (or native) pear-Flesh and Seed respectively. Their percentage oil yield were calculated and found to be: 46.9%, 51.8%, 37.0%, 15.1%, 10.8%,14.4%,72.0%, 66.9%, 28.7%, 35.5%, 39.0% 23.1%, 43.2%, 40.5%, 53.0% (flesh) and 3.1%, 3.0%, 3.2% (seed) and 62.5%, 74.1%, 43.0%(flesh) and 21.9%, 16.4%, 7.2% (seed) respectively. Hexane and Petroleum spirit were found to be more efficient as solvent for oil extraction than Ethyl alcohol. The values obtained lie around those found in the literature except for Cashew nut, Avocado and African pear.
OPTIMAL BLEACHING CONDITION FOR PALM OIL
UGADU EMMANUEL EZE
Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko
This research was aimed at developing the optional palm oil bleaching process conditions using Enugu Clay as a local adsorbent. The conditions evaluated were temperature, time and the adsorbent dosage. The central composite design (CCD), a type of response surface methodology (RSM) was used. The research showed that the optimal bleaching process condition are clay dosage of 3.6g at the temperature of 900C and the time of 40 minutes with desirability of 0.93. The optimal conditions were validated by repeating the bleaching process at the predicated optimum conditions. Residual plots were used to validate the model equation developed. It is recommended that Enugu clay should be used as a local adsorbent in bleaching palm oil at the operating conditions above.
KINETICS, ISOTHERM AND THERMODYNAMIC STUDIES OF THE RECLUSION OF CU (II) FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY MAIZE COB AND SUGACAINE PUIP
1ODUEKE, OLUSEYI A., 2ALIYU OMOTANWA A., 3JOHN MORIAMO O.
1,2,3Department of Chemistry, Tai Solarin College of Education, Omu-Ijebu, Ogun State.
Over the years, heavy metal contamination of the environment, through industrial waste had been a perennial problem to which biosorption is been proposed as solution in recent studies. The biosorption characteristics of Cu (II) ion using maize and saccharum officinarum (sugarcane pulp) were investigated by contacting 0.5g of the biomass with 10ml of 100mg/L solution of the metal ions. Experimental parameters affecting the biosorption process such as pH, contact time, concentration and temperature were studied. Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherms. The biosorption capacities of maize cob and saccharum officinarum were found to be sufficiently high to consider the biomasses used as substances that could be employed in the removal of Cu (II) ions from waste water. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, G0, for biosorption of Cu (II) on to cob and bagasse determine at pH 5.0 and 301k, are -1.5KJmol-1 and -2.505KJmol-1 respectively. This showed that the biosorption of Cu(II) ions onto maize cob and saccharum officinarum was feasible and spontaneous at 301K.
DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF FRESHWATER SNAILS IN RELATION TO PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF WARWADE DAM, DUTSE, NIGERIA
*ALHAJI, G. K1.., ADAMU, A. H2., KATUZU, M.I.3 & LAWAN, B4.
1,2&4Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, P. M. B. 1006, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria. 3Department of Basic Studies, School of General Studies, The Federal Polytechnic Damaturu. P.M.B 1006 Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria.
Preliminary investigation in August, 2017 revealed an order of increasing abundance and distribution of four fresh water snail species namely: Lymnea natalensis, Bellamya unicolor, Melanoides tuberculata and Bulinus globosus in Warwade dam, Dutse, Nigeria. As a follow up, a study was carried in April and October, 2019 in order to establish detailed information on the abundance and distribution of freshwater snails in relation to some physiochemical parameters of the dam. Four sampling sites which include human activity, vegetation cover, lentic water and lotic water were randomly selected for the study along the bank of the dam. Freshwater snails were collected in each of the four sampling sites using long handled scoop net with mesh 0.2mm and hand picking methods. Using standard procedures, both the samples and associated plants were analyzed in Federal University Dutse. A total of 2,027 species of fresh water snails spread across ten species were identified in order of increasing abundance as follows: Bulinus globosus 12(0.6%), Lymnea natalensis 12(0.6%), Bulimulus teniussumus 12(0.6%), Monarch cantiana 13(0.6%), Gabbiela humerosa 14(0.7%), Drymeaus multilineatus 19(0.9%), Lanistervaricus 22(1.1%), Cleopatra bulimoides 66(3.3%), Bellamya unicolor 302(14.9%) and Melanoides tuberculata 1553(76.6%).Fresh water snails were most abundant in site characterized by human activities (670) followed by vegetation(482), lotic water(442) and lentic water (433). The mean snail abundance varied significantly across the four sampling sites within the same period and duration of sampling. However, the mean snail abundance at sites with vegetation cover (M = 68.9) did not significantly differ from either sites with human activities, lentic or lotic water .This study established that M. tuberculata is the most dominant species and appeared to have out competed all the nine species particularly those that are of medical and veterinary importance. This finding could have positive implication for the control of fresh water snail species that are of medical and veterinary importance. This study therefore recommends the continuous monitoring of M. tuberculata in order to establish its ability to out compete species of medical and veterinary with a view to its use in their control in Warwade dam.
Keywords: Human Activity, Vegetation Cover, Lotic, Lentic
A PROPOSED APPROACH TO COMBINING FORECASTS
ISMAILA A. BOLARINWA* AND BUSHIRAT T. BOLARINWA
Department of Statistics, the Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 55, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria
An approach to combining multiple forecasts into single forecast is proposed. The method which utilizes all-possible-regressions approach measures in-sample forecasting ability through the adjusted coefficient of determination and out-of-sample forecasting ability, through mean square error to pick best subset of individual model forecasts for predicting the actual series values. The inspiration behind combining multiple forecasts into single forecasts remains the desire to obtain more accurate forecasts. Experimental results with solar radiation data indicate that the proposed method is better than mean and median forecast combining schemes. Hence, the approach may be used for combining forecasts towards attaining improved accuracy.
Keywords: Series, Forecasting, Adjusted R square, Mean, Median
BLENDED AND TRADITIONAL LEARNING OF DATABASE DESIGN BASICS: EXPERIMENTAL OUTCOMES
FAUZIYYA UMAR ADAMU
Department of Computer Science, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria
The traditional face to face approach to teaching and learning has been adopted in many societies until the arrival of new technologies of Information and Communication. New instructional methods have emerged and researchers have been comparing and analyzing such new methods against the well established traditional ones. One such new method is the Blended Learning. In this paper, the researchers has tried to compare the outcome of the blended methodology with the traditional face to-face learning in the study of database design using Microsoft Access. The result shows that students taught through blended learning method performed better than those taught through traditional method. This may encourage learners and policy makers to enroll more students in this form of teaching and learning in this era where physical structure can only accommodate limited number of students
Keywords: Learning, Blended learning, Traditional learning, Outcome.
A NEW 3-POINT IMPLICIT BLOCK NUMERICAL METHOD FOR SOLVING FIRST ORDER STIFF INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS
BALA NAJAMUDDEEN1, ALHASSAN BUHARI2, MUSA HAMISU3
1Department of Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State. 23Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina, Nigeria.
A Diagonally Implicit form of the 3-point block backward differentiation formula (BBDF) for solving first order stiff initial value problems is developed. The proposed method is derived by introducing a lower triangular matrix in the coefficient matrix of the existing 3-point block BDF method for solving first order stiff ordinary differential equations. The method approximates three solutions values simultaneously at each iteration step and it’s of order 5. The stability analysis of the method indicates that the method is both zero and A-stable. Some first order linear and non-linear stiff initial value problems are solved and the results obtained show that the new method competes with an existing 3-point block BDF method in terms of accuracy and computation time.
Keywords: Diagonally Implicit, Stiff, Block Backward Differentiation Formula, A-stability.
APPLICATION OF LIE ALGEBRA TO 3-D HYDROGENIC ATOM
AREMU S.O1, NDAWASHI M1, SURAJ ALIYU2
1Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. 2Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna
Lie algebraic method to simple quantum system was examined. Lie algebra were discussed generally with properties and types. The calculus commutators were also analyzed. The realization of SO (2,1) lie algebra was discussed and it was applied to 3-dimensional hydrogen atom.
Keywords: Lie, algebra, hydrogen, quantum, atom.
COMPUTATION OF PRICE CORRELATION MATRIX OF FOREX TRADED METALS FROM LONDON METAL EXCHANGE
*ABUBAKAR MUHAMMAD; *ADONU SUNDAY EJIYIME; *ZAINAB ALIYU MUSA; & **HAFSAT MUHAMMAD AMBI
*Department of Computer Science, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi (Nigeria) **Department of Management & Information Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi (Nigeria)
The coefficient of correlation of traded items in forex are fundamental in successful forex trading. Traders tend to perform analysis on an item and extend such result to other items due to correlation established by the coefficient of correlation. In Forex, hedge-trading is trading an item with its most negative correlated to augment any losses in the trading or with the most positive correlated to maximize profit. Naturally, hedge-trading is mostly done on currency pairs, hence correlation matrix is only available on currency pairs. Absence of correlation matrix in other traded items not currency pairs, is what prompted this research to attempt to put down correlation matrix of other traded items, prominently commodities. Due to importance of metals and their ability to withstand fundamental issues in forex, the research will narrow down to metals. London metal exchange, being the prominent market that determines prices of metals will be a reference market in this research and etoro trading platform. Traded metals correlation matrix will go a long way to assist metal traders conduct hedge-trading in forex either minimizing loss or maximizing profit.
Keywords: correlation coefficient, forex, metal, LME, etoro.
THE APPLICATION OF MARKOV CHAIN IN STUDYING SWITCHING BEHAVIORS OF POLITICIANS
OLARINOYE, S.B.; DAGANA, K. A.; ZUBAIR, O.R.; & ELEPO, T. A.
Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin
The paper study the politicians transitional behavior of changing parties. The cases become so alarming from one political party to another. A stochastic process application using Markov chain was used in the study of this switching behavior, A total sample size of one hundred and thirteen through interview method was obtained. Markov chain procedure was applied with Xt defined as the state of the politician at time t with four state spaces (1st party- foundation member, Not 1stparty -foundation member, 1st party -not foundation member, not 1st party-not foundation member). The four state spaces displayed the ergodic property of a Markov chain (irreducible, recurrent, andaperiodic) with a future limit of 41%, 29%, 14% and 16% respectively.
Keywords: Markov Chain, Transition, Switching, Politician, Party
KNOWLEDGE OF TERTIARY INSTITUTION STUDENTS ON THE TRANSMISSION DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES AT COVID-19 PANDEMIC AND ITS MATHEMATICAL MODEL
1AMINI MOSES LUCY, 2NKUTURUM CHRISTIANA, PhD; & 3AMINI OKANKWU ELIZABETH, PhD
1Department of Community Health, Rivers State College of Health Science and Management Technology Port Harcourt, 2School of Foundation Studies, Rivers State College of Health Science and Management Technology Port Harcourt.3Department of Nursing Sciences, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Rivers State University Port Harcourt
The study investigated knowledge of tertiary institution students on transmission dynamics and control of sexually transmitted diseases at covid-19 pandemic and its mathematical modeling. Three objectives and research questions were used to guide the study. Data were obtained from 123 out of 516 male and female students that formed the population of study, whose mean age was 17.5years. The instrument for data collection had a total of 16 statements that answered the different research questions. To curb the attitude on transmission dynamics of STDs, a five compartmental mathematical models was developed to represent unaware STDs susceptible individuals S, aware STDs susceptible individuals who modify their sexual behaviours S1, aware STDs susceptible individuals who remain faithful to their uninfected sexual partners for life S2, carriers class (I) and recovery or removal class (R). The STDs equilibrium point and reproduction number (Rn <1 and Rn >1) were discussed. The mathematical model solution indicates that STDs is still spreading because Rn >1, showing that the system is unstable. The data obtained were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions. Findings from the study showed that the students have good knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases when they indicated that STDs can be contracted through sexual intercourse at covid-19 pandemic with ( 3.96, SD = 0.20). Some have no cure with 3.22, SD = 0.93 and that human papillomavirus can lead to cervical cancer in women with 3.16, SD = 0.74 respectively. The findings also showed that the students’ attitude increase the transmission dynamics of STDs at covid-19 with 2.92, SD = 0.37 and that the different age groups differ in their knowledge of transmission dynamics, those of age group 16-18years had the 2.72, SD= 0.10 showing the least knowledge followed by those age group 19 – 21years was 2.99, SD = 0.57 whereas those in the age group of 22 years and above with the 3.17, SD = 0.41 showed a higher knowledge of the transmission dynamics at covid-19 pandemic. Based on these findings, it was recommended that children should be given health education talk on STDs at early age before they start school, they should be made to understand that there is no immunity against STDs and that self-care and being of responsible behaviour is required to control exposure to these diseases.
Keywords: STDs; covid-19 pandemic; mathematical model; equilibria; reproduction number
KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AMONG WOMEN LIVING IN DALA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA KANO STATE
NURA MOHAMMED; BAWA SHETAYA GADIMA; & SIM DAVID
Department of Biology, School of Science Education, Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya P.M.B. 1024, Kafanchan
This study explored the knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning methods among women living in Daba’i settlement of Dala local government. It also reveals that there is a high knowledge of family planning among women in the study area but they do not practice family planning as they tend to allow fear of the side effects consume them into rejecting family planning practice. Other factors such as religious belief/creed also play a big part in making women in the area not to accept family planning. Considering the questionnaire responses, it indicates that majority of the respondents (93.22%) heard of family planning with (6.77%) respondents who have never heard of it. This implies that majority of women residing in Daba’i settlement know about family planning. As indicated by the questionnaire responses, all the methods written on the questionnaire were used in Daba’i settlement. The methods were: Withdrawal, Intrauterine device, Implant, Injectable, Condom and Oral Pills. Going by the findings of this research, it appears that, the study respondents perceived family planning to have a problem on those using it as majority (83.85%) of them prove the side effect as the major problem of family planning and most of them (54.68%) cannot encourage others to practice it. The findings also showed that, most of the respondents are using injectable and implant.
Keywords: Family Planning, Oral Contraception, Birth Control Pills, Birth Control Ring
REVIEW OF RECOMMENDER SYSTEM: TAXONOMY AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
DR MUHAMMAD ALIYU; DR ILIYA MUSA ADAMU; AND SUNUSI ABDULHAMID DANTATA.
Computer Science Department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
Recommendation systems play an increasingly important role in online web services for the personalization and recommendation of content to individual users. The quantity and quality of user-based information have progressed, and present an opportunity to further tailor recommendations to users. The dynamic nature of data and the velocity at which cloud applications and mobile devices need, necessitate an efficient recommendation strategy. The recommendation system has been a subject of discussion in recent years in order to improve accuracy and prediction among others. The objective of this paper is to review the existing recommendation techniques and develop a taxonomy that will enable researchers to understand and select a technique as a basis for recommendation mechanisms. In this research five (5) recommendation approaches have been studied based on 33 articles related to the area. The characteristics of the recommender system have been studied and analyzed based on their requirements and the dataset used. Seven (7) requirements were used for the research such as accuracy of prediction, scalability, sparsity, cold start, diversity, precision, and recall. The research observes that most researches focus more on addressing the accuracy of prediction, sparsity, precision, and recall with less attention on scalability, cold start, and diversity. The research uncover some key future topics that can improve the progress and implementation of the recommender system.
ANALYSIS ON THE PRICE OF PETROLEUM AND HOW IT AFFECTS PRICE OF FOOD ITEMS IN NIGERIAN ECONOMY
ALI GAMBO, SULEIMAN SABO & USMAN HASSAN
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
This study has been carried out to access the statistical analysis on the price of petroleum on how it affects food items in Nigerian economy. This study found on average per capital increment on the various type of food items as the prices of petroleum increases. Data collected on the various types of food item shows 30% and 10% increment on Maize per 5% increase in the price of petroleum in 2001 and 2012 respectively, while there is a little increment on the price of millet compared to that of rice and maize. This research work was carried out with the use of a secondary data to get the information needed for the purpose of the study. Method of data analysis used is multiple regression with the aid of SPSS. The recommendation is that the government should create enabling policies to see to the fact that the price of petroleum does not always affect the prices of food items in the country. To this end government should seek the partnership and expertise of relevant petroleum institutes in the country and make sure that the various refineries in the country are been put in good order so as to allow for adequate production of crude oil.
Keywords; Petroleum, Millet, Rice, Maize and Multiple Regression.
A NON-OSCILLATORY MODEL OF TUMOR-IMMUNE SYSTEM INTERACTION WITH TIME DELAY
ABDULKAREEM AFOLABI IBRAHIM1; UGBAGA NKOLE IFEANYI2; & NURUDEEN LASISI3
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria1,3, Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria2
Tumor-immune system interaction usually climaxes into either tumor elimination, dormancy or escape as captured in the immunoediting hypotheses. Most of the existing mathematical models of tumor immune system interaction including prey-predator and competitive model had not accounted for total elimination and, or escape of tumor as hypothesized by biomedical studies. In this work, we propose a dual aggressive model for tumor-immune system interactions. The stability analyses of tumor-free steady states are stable when the body cells do not divide excessively (proliferation rate is less than their death rate) and the tumor-present steady state is saddled with the likelihood of possible elimination or escape of tumor. This has given birth to an immunoediting conformed model. To further enhance our understanding of model prediction, we introduced time delay to model the time taken by the immune system to accumulate necessary antibody[s] to eliminate tumor and the time taken by the tumor cell to suppress immune cells for possible evasion. The introduction of delay effect change of stability from unstable to uniformly asymptotically stable for tumor-present steady state. Bifurcation analysis yields both the direction and the corresponding estimated value for preserving the stability of the tumor-present steady-state. Numerical simulation results validate the analytical results and further provide a graphical overview of the interaction.
Keywords: Tumor-Immune system interaction; Immunoediting; prey-predator model; competitive models; Time Delay models.
ARDUINO CONTROLLED SMART DOOR LOCKING SYSTEM USING FINGERPRINT INTERFACE
1ALIYU BUBA DAHIRU, 2MOHAMMED SANDA MARIBE
1Department of Computer Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi.
This research work comprises a fingerprint-enabled smart and inexpensive door lock. The Atmel Atmega328p, a fingerprint sensor, a GSM module, a motor driver, and other hardware devices will be used to complete this study. The fingerprint sensor will be incorporated into the door panel, facing the outside of the door, to prevent outsiders from accessing the controlling system. The latches will be installed inside the door panel, where the thickness of the door will aid in latch strength. If you try to force your way in, we’ll deploy a few latches within the panel to distribute the force. The fingerprint sensor will take the user’s fingerprint and send it to the microcontroller for matching. If the print matches one of the microcontroller’s memory fingerprints, the latch will be locked or unlocked depending on the microcontroller’s present state. The buzzer will sound if the fingerprint is unfamiliar to the microcontroller, and the user will have to try again. If the system detects incorrect fingerprints five times at large, it will notify the owner, alerting him or her to a break-in. The system will also enter a secure mode, continuing to sound the buzzer to inform the neighbors that something is wrong. Once a known print is entered, the system will be reset.
Keywords: Fingerprint sensor; GSM Module; Motor Driver; AT 328 mega Microcontroller; Door panel; Latches; Buzzer.