TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND EARTH SCIENCE (TIJBEES)
VOL. 8 (4) FEBRUARY, 2022 EDITIONS. ISSN: 1881-2167
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies,
Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
POTENTIAL OF RICE HUSK ASH IN GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE
I A Kwami 1, A. Sani 2 and S.I Aliyu 3
1,2&3Department of Building, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
Geopolymer is a noble material, made from reaction between aluminosilicate compounds and alkali solution which owns a good binding property. In last decades, lots of research and development works have been carried out globally to investigate the engineering, thermal, micro-structural and durability properties of geopolymer concrete as a sustainable alternative to Portland cement. Results from previous works indicated that geopolymer concrete exhibited better mechanical strength and durability properties than ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. Though, production of geopolymer concrete is based on the availability of the aluminosilicate materials and the cost implication of alkaline binders. In this paper rice husk ash and sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) was used as the source material and binder, like wise ambient curing method was adopted to see the effect on in-situ geopolymer concrete, emphasis was based on compressive strength for both the real and predicted compressive strength. Result obtained in the laboratory have a conflict of interest in the compressive strength results, the compressive strength decrease with increase in curing period from seven to twenty-eight days curing period. Meanwhile from the predicted compressive strength result, the strength increases after twenty-eight days curing periods using a model generated from the compressive strength result of seven to twenty-eight curing period.
Key words: Geopolymer, Concrete, Rice husk ash, Pozzolana, aluminosilicate, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), Sodium Silicate, Compressive strength, Workability, Density, Curing period.
INVESTIGATION INTO CAUSES OF CAPITAL VALUE VARIANCE RESULTING FROM VALUATION OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES IN UYO PROPERTY MARKET, AKWA IBOM STAE
NSE A. BASSEY; & FRANCIS P. UDOUDOH, Ph.D
Department of Estate Management, University of Uyo, Uyo.
Valuation is crucial to all property performance indicators, and investment in property market cannot operate unless reliable valuations are produced. Unfortunately cases are common of two or more Estate Surveyors and Valuers arriving at different capital values with wide margins of variation for the same property. This study therefore aimed at investigating the causes of capital value variance resulting from valuation of residential properties in Uyo property market, Akwa Ibom State, identifying factors responsible for variation in Estate Valuers Opinions of value and proffering solution to identified problems. A total of 54 questionnaire were administered to respondents, out of which 44 were retrieve and found useful for analysis. Also 15 residential properties were inspected by each Estate Surveyor and Valuer for the purpose of this study with a view to giving their opinion of value. Both the descriptive and inferential statistical methods were adopted for analysis. Inferential statistics namely analysis of variances (ANOVA) and factor analysis were used in identifying the factors responsible for variance in valuation. The study reveals among other findings that though Valuers opinions fall outside the “acceptable range” of + 5%, there is generally no significant difference between the means of opinion of values given by Estate surveyors and Valuers in Uyo residential property market as incident by the p-value >0.05 at p = 724 in the analysis of variance test. However, the result of the factor analysis yielded a two factor structure, technical and economic as well as institutional and social factors as the causes of valuation variation in residential property market in Uyo. The research therefore recommends the establishment of property data bank in Uyo with a view to replicating same across Cities in Nigerian as well as publication of valuation information papers and alerts, while sustained monitoring of activities of Estate Surveyors and Valuers by the disciplinary committee of Nigeria Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers should be encouraged.
Keywords: Capital Value, Variance, valuation, Causes, Residential properties.
ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CEREBROSPINAL MENINGITIS OUTBREAKS AND CLIMATIC ELEMENTS IN JOS NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA
KAMA, HOSEA GOBAK
Department of Environmental Science; Faculty of Sciences, National Open University of Nigeria, Jabi-Abuja
The study examined the relationship between the outbreak of CSM with temperature and rainfall in the study area. Meningitis is one of the most feared epidemic diseases in Africa because of its rapid onset and severe consequences, majority of people are ignorant about the presence of the diseases. Data covering period of 15years from 2003-2018 collected from Jos University Teaching Hospital, Plateau State Specialist Hospital, Our Lady of Apostolic Hospital, Bingham University Teaching Hospital and NIMET for rainfall and temperature data. The results show that, 1796 CSM cases were recorded in the hospitals within the study period consisting of 1035 male and 761 females. The highest number of cases (215) was recorded in 2016, while the lowest 58 (3.2%) was recorded in 2003. Most of the patients were within the age group of 0-4. The month of April had the highest (415) recorded cases while the lowest was recorded in December (27). Most occurrence of the disease rises from January and attains their peaks in March, April and May when temperature is also higher. The study concludes that CSM is prevalent in the study area occurring on annual basis. The study recommend that individuals in the study area should identify seasons of the year they are more susceptible to the diseases to enable them take precautionary measures. Government should make the vaccines available for general immunization so that communities where the disease has manifested and where it has not will be immunized against it.
Keywords: Meningitis, Temperature, Rainfall, Diseases, Jos.
UTILISING THE INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT APPROACH TO ASSESS THE SUSTAINABILITY OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN BIRNIN KEBBI, NORTHWEST, NIGERIA
*DR ABDULLAHI, SHUAIBU DANJUMA; **DR ROZ JASON; & **DR PHILIPPE RAS
*Department of Urban & Regional Planning, Kebbi State University of Science & Technology, Aliero, Nigeria. **Cambridge International College, Britain, St Brelade, Jersey JE3 8FP, Britain.
This study was carried out with the aim of assessing the current municipal solid waste management system in Birnin Kebbi, that became the Kebbi State capital in 1991. With the elevation of the town to a state capital, it began to grow in physical size and population which resulted in rise of the demand for effective and efficient municipal solid waste management service for the town. Over the years, however, the State Government has viewed the solution to meeting the demand of the service by the residents through establishing and providing equipment and vehicles including a meagre monthly grant to the outfit. This is without the consideration that sustainable municipal solid waste management goes beyond purchase of vehicles and equipment. It involves aspects that will ensure integrated sustainable waste management (ISWM) service aspects that include technical, economic, environmental, legal and institutional, financial and social sustainability aspects. These were used as tools to assess the sustainability of municipal solid service in Birnin Kebbi. The results and analysis from the study, clearly showed that the town ranked low in all sustainability aspects especially in financial, legal and institutional aspects. It also failed on environmental sustainability aspect because the final disposal is carried out indiscriminately on farm lands and open spaces instead of a legally designated dumpsite.
Keywords: integrated sustainable waste management, sustainable municipal solid waste management, sustainability aspects, municipal solid waste, assessment tools
TENANTS’ RENT DEFAULT DISPOSITIONINBAUCHI RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY MARKET AMID COVID 19 PANDEMIC
1ILEKOIN OLUTOBA AYODELE; AND 2FATIMA MOHAMMED ABUBAKAR
1Estate Management Department, FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC BAUCHI. 2Quantity Surveying Department,Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi.
Property investment return optimal maximization is often the main aim of the property investors, yet landlords are not able to receive the initial expected returns that made them to invest in the property due to some factors that are constantly preventing renters from paying rents as at when due. The outbreak of the novel Coronavirus in late December 2019, which has spread throughout the world is one of such factors. This paper examined the impact of the outbreak of the coronavirus on tenant’s ability to pay rent on residential houses in Bauchi, Nigeria. Data on 493 tenants about their rent-paying ability from January 2019 to April 2019 was compared against the rent-paying ability of the same set of tenants from January 2020 to April 2020. Descriptive and inference statistics analysis was used to analyze the data that was obtained with the aid of SPSS version 25, the study found that the outbreak of the coronavirus does not significantly have an impact on tenant rent-paying obligation, however; the study recommended that government should assist the few tenants that could not pay their rents as a result of the COVID 19 diseases pandemic. Likewise, the burden of the rent payments should be shared by both the landlord and the tenants and the government should not allow tenants to be evicted from their homes during the period of the pandemic.
Keywords: coronavirus, rent default, diseases, tenants, Bauchi.
TRENDS IN RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY VALUES IN UYO REAL ESTATE MARKET, AKWA IBOM STATE. NIGERIA
*EKPO, MBOSOWO EBONG (PhD); & **BASSEY, NSE AKPAN
*Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, Uyo. Akwa Ibom State. **Department of Estate Management, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State.
The study aimed at examining the trends in the rental value, capital value and returns of residential properties from 2011 to 2020, in Uyo metropolis, Nigeria with a view to providing information for investment decision making. Questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data on rental and capital values from investments in residential properties in Uyo metropolis. The data were collected from Principal partners/branch managers of Estate Surveying and Valuation Firms in the study area. About 103 Estate Surveying and Valuation firms were sampled in Uyo with an average of 3,193 residential properties in their management portfolios (average of 31 residential properties in each management portfolio). A total enumeration of the 103 firms was conducted using structured questionnaire. However, only 89 questionnaires were completed and returned for analysis (representing about 86% response rate). Both descriptive statistics and appraisal techniques were used in analysis of the data obtained, hence the use of frequencies; percentages; income, capital and total returns formulae; weighted mean and trend analysis. The study found that there was a steady and continuous increase in both the rental and capital values of the selected property types throughout the period of the study. This was depicted by the trendline generated from data obtained from the field for 2-bedroom apartment rental values, 3-bedroom apartment rental values, capital values for 2-bedroom bungalows and capital values for 3-bedroom bungalows. The study also revealed that investment in 3-bedroom bungalows in Uyo is riskier (with a standard deviation value of 12%) than investment in 2-bedroom bungalows (with a standard deviation value of 2%). The income, capital and total returns values indicated positive returns values for both 2-bedroom and 3-bedroom residential properties throughout the study period. This study was necessary because of the dynamic nature of emerging property markets of developing nations such as Nigeria. Investors may wish to evaluate the trends of returns of commercial real estate investments in order to serve as a guide for investment decision making. This study is unique as it gathered historical data on commercial property investments and made future forecast or predictions of possible investment behaviour of returns values in an emerging property market, such as the case of Uyo, which could serve as a guide to property investors in making investment decisions.
Keywords: Emerging real estate market, investment, residential property values, returns, trends, Uyo.
WHY MIDDLE CLASS INDIVIDUALS AND URBAN ELITES PREFER RESIDENCES IN THE METROPOLITAN FRINGES OF OWERRI CITY
*ELDER, ESV, DR. OKORONKWO, NDUKAUBA SUNDAY NWAFOR, PHD; & **DR. EMMANUEL OHAEGBULEM PHD
*Department of Estate Management, Imo State University, Owerri Nigeria. **Dept. of Statistics, Imo State University Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.
he urban middle class income earners and elites residents in Owerri metropolitan area recently have formed the habit of migrating and establishing their residential homes in the fringes of the metropolitan areas. The group includes the middle class income earners that are found in the public and civil service jobs, traders of medium commercial enterprises, artisans of sophisticated prowess and some urban groups in elite class which Bloch (2015) may have inferred to as the regional dynamics. They are the group that keeps the urban area alive economically, commercially and socially. They locate their residences from the city center at distances ranging from above twelve kilometers away from the central business area of the city. As habitat migrants they are found by the West of Owerri city centre at Uratta and Uzoagba; by the East at Avu, Obinze, Mgbirichi, Okuku, Oforola, and Umuguma. By the North at Ohii, Ogbaku, Irete Ubommiri, Nworieubi, Mbierri, Akabo and Orogwe. While by the South they are found at Egbu, Emekuku, Azaraegbelu, Ulakwo, Agbala, Naze Nekede and Ihiagwa respectively.
Keywords: Middle Class, Urban Elites, Residences, Metropolitan Fringes.
BASELINE REVIEW OF SUBSIDY RE-INVESTMENT AND EMPOWERMENT PROGRAM (SURE-P) RAILWAY PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION UNIT (PIU)
*ABUBAKAR AMINU; **ZAKARI LAWAL; & ***ALIYU AMINU AHMED
*National Biotechnology Development Agency, Nigeria) **Federal Ministry of Finance, Budget & National Planning, Abuja, Nigeria. ***Monitoring & Evaluation Institute, Abuja, Nigeria
The paper was on the baseline review of Subsidy Re-investment and Empowerment Program (SURE-P) Railway Project Implementation Unit (PIU). The objective was to review the existed baselines data for the SURE-P railway project implementation unit. Given the purpose and available resources (financial and time) the study was done in a purposive manner and this made it difficult to use a more robust probabilistic approach. Two semi-structured questionnaires were developed and administered; 9 interviews were conducted and numerous documents and online-related materials were reviewed to gather the secondary data used for the study. From the findings of the study In the last twenty years before SURE-P initiated, the highest number of passengers carried was 15.5 million in 1984 and the highest volume of freight was 2.4 million metric tonnes in 1977 and by 2000 traffic had fallen to 2 million passengers and less than 300,000 metric tonnes of freight .The railway sector in 2009 accounts for less than 1% of land transportation in the country. The study concluded that the reported KIPs indicated changes happens in the services rendered by the corporation with new and improved amenities provided through the SURE-P investment and the study recommended for the need to commission new study on the railway sector from the time SURE-P ended to have a new findings and stories to tell Nigerian citizens on the changes happened in the sector.
Keywords: Baseline, Review, SURE-P, PIU, Railways
THE PLACE OF INFORMAL SECTOR IN URBAN EMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA
TPL. YAKUBU AHMED UBANGARI; & BENSON POLYCARP
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Isa Mustapha Agwa I Polytechnic Lafia
The informal sector accounts for about 60- 80% of urban employment in Nigeria and in other parts of the world. It encompasses a wide range of gainful economic activities. In Nigeria, Government has aided the development of informal sector through the establishment of the National Directorate of Employment (NDE). This paper suggests that emphasis should be placed on skill acquisition rather than on formal education.
Keywords: Urban, Place, Informal, Employment, Sector
FLOOD FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF ERITI WATERSHED IN LOWER OGUN RIVER BASIN SOUTH-WEST, NIGERIA
ADEBAYO, MATTHEW GBOLAGADE
Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu – Lagos. Nigeria
Flood is one of the natural disasters that had hit mankind severally irrespective of geographical locations and the disasters caused had been monumental. Despite the high risks of flooding, many settlements remain located near potential flood sources due to the socio-economic benefits offered by such locations. Therefore, flood occurrence has to be predicted to a reasonable degree of accuracy in order to minimise its catastrophic effects. Therefore, this paper presents a method by which the flood frequency of Eriti Watershed in Lower Ogun River Basin was analysed based on the annual peak flows and daily average water levels of river Ogun compiled at Mokoloki weir dam intake as well as the digitalized topographic map of the watershed. Flood frequency analysis is the universal method being used for estimation of recurrent interval of any hydrological event. However, selection of appropriate flood frequency analysis method was a big challenge because of uncertainties and variability in river behaviours. The challenge was surmounted by simultaneously utilised Log Pearson Type III and Gumbel distributions for flood frequency analysis of Eriti Watershed using the terrain and flow data. Chi-Square test was used to assess the degree of fitness of the two selected distributions and the probability value of Gumbel distribution was found to be lesser. Therefore, Gumbel distribution was concluded to be better and consequently recommended for flood frequency analysis of watersheds that are hydrologically-similar to Eriti Watershed.
Keywords: Flood, frequency, watershed, Gumbel distribution.
INTEGRATED 2D RESISTIVITY SURVEY OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIALS IN KADUNA POLYTECHNIC STAFF QUARTERS, PANTEKA, KADUNA
MAHMOUD ABDULRAHMAN; HALIMA HARUNA; & HADIZA J. HARUNA
Department of Mineral and Petroleum Resources Engineering, College of Engineering, School Of Natural Resources Engineering, Kaduna polytechnic
A geophysical survey was carried out at Kaduna Polytechnic’s staff quarters, Panteka-Tudun Nufawa, Kaduna, to determine the geo-electrical and hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifers present in the area, and to delineate the geoelectric stratigraphy of each profile. A total of four (4) profile sections were carried out with the ABEM Terrameter SAS 4000C, Wenner Configuration array was adopted. The potential electrodes separation was maintained between each electrode, and spacing of 5m, 20m, 25m, 30m, for Wenner, were used in the traverse. Two-dimension (2D) Pseudo section maps were created. The 2D sections were quantitatively interpreted by computer iteration techniques, using RES2DIV software. The results of the interpreted data confirmed from the geoelectric sections revealed that the aquiferous units within the study area, are mostly confined, this means that there is a reasonable amount of safe and clean water within the study area.
Keywords: Groundwater, Geoelectric, Wenner, Aquifer, Pseudo-section
ESTIMATING THE COSTS OF HEALTH AND SAFETY FOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS IN ABUJA
*MAMMAN, EKEMENA JULIET; & **OKE, ABDULGANIYU ADEBAYO
*Department of Quantity Surveying Federal Polytechnic Bida. **Department of Quantity Surveying Federal University of Technology Minna
Accident records in the construction industry is so pronounced that it cuts across developed and developing economies and so the industry is known as one of the industries with very high rate of accident. The costs of accidents in any project impacts on the financial success of the construction organisations and affects the overall costs of construction. The aim of the study is to estimate the costs of health and safety for building construction projects in Abuja. One hundred (100) well-structured questionnaire were distributed to quantity surveyors who prepared bills of quantities for the QS firms in Abuja. A total of fifty- three (53) questionnaire were retrieved making a response rate of 53% and fifty- three (53) bill of quantities was obtained. Findings on the Health and Safety cost item in construction project that was the most estimated for by all respondents was Scaffolding, Plant and Equipment, Temporary electricity, first aid and Temporary Water with frequency rate of 100%, 98.11% and 88.70%. Result revealed that the percentage of health and safety cost (HSC) to the total project costs was approximately 3.19% and health and safety cost per unit area was approximately N13,777.56/m2. It is therefore concluded that if approximately 3.19% of project sum will save life and property, stakeholders should embrace the notion of budgeting for OHS in every project embark on.
KEYWORDS: Accident Prevention, Building Construction, Estimate, Health and Safety, Safety cost,