TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND BIOTECHNOLOGY (TIJARBT)
VOL. 8 (2) FEBRUARY, 2022 EDITIONS. ISSN: 3438-2901
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies,
Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY OF CORTICOLOUS BRYOPHYTES IN THE GUINEA SAVANNA REGION OF NIGERIA
BARTHOLOMEW OLUFEMI OGUNBIYI
Department of Plant Biology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
Bryophytes often grow in communities on hard substrates, like rock and tree bark which are impenetrable to roots of higher plants. Only a few studies have been carried out on bryophyte distribution in Nigeria despite the fact that bryophytes are ecologically equally important groups of embryophytes with their origins predating contemporary vascular plants. This study investigated the occurrence of corticolous bryophytes in relation to phorophyte characters in the guinea savanna region of Nigeria. Bryophyte samples were randomly collected from different substrates in the study areas and each sample was kept in an envelope, labeled and brought to the laboratory of Department of Plant Biology, University of Ilorin for observations and identification, and other analytical works. A total of 12 species of bryophytes comprising 4 liverworts and 8 mosses were identified on different substrates. The greater content of the cation exchangeable ions: Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ in tree bark compared to other substrates contributed to the species richness in the study areas. The study concluded that phorophyte species, tree bark chemistry and structure, and growing height and exposure on tree stems are important factors for species distribution.
Keywords: Mosses, Liverworts, phorophyte, grassland, vascular plants.
EFFECT OF SERUM BIOCHEMICAL INDICES ON BROILER CHIKENS FED MAIZE (Zea mays) AND SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolar) OF DIFFERENT PARTICLE SIZES
BAH, S. U1, DANDAURA, M2 AND BAH, U. J3.
1Desert Research Monitoring and Control Centre, Yobe State University Damaturu Nigeria. 2Yobe State Ministry of Agriculture Damaturu, Yobe State Nigeria. 3Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. Kaduna State Nigeria.
A six (6) weeks feeding trial was carried out to determine the effect of feeding maize (Zea mays) and sorghum( Sorghum bicolar) of different particle sizes on serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens. Two hundred and fourty broiler chicks were randomly allotted to four (4) treatment groups with sixty (60) birds per treatment, and each treatment was replicated four (4) times with twenty five (15) birds per replicate in a completely randomized design (CRD). The diets containing sorghum and maize were ground to 2 and 6.1 to 6.4mm particle sizes. The particle size reduction involves the disruption of outer seed coat and the exposure of endosperm established by geometric mean diameter (GMD). A sample of grain is passed through a series of sieves and amount of grain retained on each screen size is determined. At the end of the study period (42 days) blood samples were analyzed for serum biochemical indices. All the serum biochemical indices analyzed did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among treatment groups. The result of the study showed that feeding broiler birds with different particle sizes of maize (Zea mays) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolar) has no treatment effect on serum biochemical indices.
Keywords: Serum biochemical indices, Broiler chickens, Particle sizes
COMPETENCIES REQUIRED BY CIVIL SERVANTS IN BITTER LEAF (Verononia amyglina) PRODUCTION FOR SUSTAINABLE INCOME IN ANAMBRA STATE
1CHUKWUKELU, IFEANYI SAMUEL; 2OBHIOKHENAN, AMBROSE, A. (PhD); 2EDET, EYO; AND 3ENEMCHUKWU AUGUSTINE KANAYO.
1Departmemt of Agricultural Education Federal College of Education (Technical) Asaba, Delta State 2National Productivity Centre Calabar, Cross River State 3National Productivity Centre Enugu, State Office
The study examined the competencies required by civil servants in bitter leaf production in Anambra State. Three research questions guided the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The sampled population was 201 civil servants out of all the civil servants in the state secretariat complex Awka and 68 agricultural extension workers from state ministry of agriculture. A 4 point scale type of questionnaire made of three sections with 39 items was used. The questionnaire was validated by three expects. Data collected was analyzed using mean scores. A criterion mean of 2.50 was set for decision on the research questions. Findings revealed that civil servants required competencies in 35 out of the 38 competency items on the questionnaire. It was recommended that civil servants should be trained by extension workers on the potentials in bitter leaf and competencies required to go into commercial production. Also they should form cooperatives for easy assessment of soft loan from commercial production.
Keyword: Competencies, civil servants, Bitter leaf, production, sustainable and income.
GROWTH PERFORMANCE, NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWING RABBITS FED VARYING LEVELS OF UREA-MOLASSES TREATED MAIZE COB AS A REPLACEMENT FOR WHEAT OFFAL
MAFIMIDIWO. A.N.1; WILLIAMS, G.A.2; & MAFIMIDIWO. Z.T.3
1Yaba College of Technology, Department of Agricultural Technology, Lagos. Nigeria. 2Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture, Lagos State University Epe Campus Lagos, Nigeria. 3Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, Moor plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria
The study investigated the effect of graded levels of urea-molasses treated maize cobs (UMTMC) as replacement for wheat offal in diet of rabbits. A total of forty-five rabbits of about 42 ± 1d old were used to investigate the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics. Rabbits were allotted into five dietary treatments of nine rabbits segregated into three replicate of three rabbits each. The diets contained UMTMC at five (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 %) replacement levels. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance in a Completely Randomized Design. Daily feed intake (36.37g/rabbit) was reduced (P<0.05) in rabbit fed diets supplemented with 50% UMTMC in comparison to 0% UMTMC (42.40g/rabbit). Nitrogen free extract digestibility decreased (P<0.05) with increasing replacement level of UMTMC. Improved (P<0.05) carcass weight (815.67g/rabbit) and dressing percentage (63.50%) were obtained in rabbits fed diets added with 25% UMTMC when compared to 75 (58.49%) and 100% (57.90%) UMTMC. Organ weight were significantly affected with 50% and 100% UMTMC inclusion level showing increased (P<0.05) liver (3.35g and 3.08g) and kidney (0.78g and 0.94g) weight. It was concluded that inclusion of 25, 75 and 100% UMTMC did not adversely affect carcass parameters instead, the inclusion of 50% UMTMC improved growth performance and carcass characteristics.
Keywords: Rabbits, Maize cob, Urea-molasses, Growth performance, Nutrient digestibility, Carcass
SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING MAIZE SEED REPLACEMENT OF SMALLHOLDER MAIZE FARMERS IN NORTH-WEST, NIGERIA
*ABUBAKAR AMINU; **ZILKIFILI ABDU; & ***AMINU SULEIMAN
*Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, National Biotechnology Development Agency, Umaru Musa Yar’adua Express Way, Abuja, FCT. **Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Bayero University, Kano. ***Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Bayero University, Kano
The study examined the Socio-economic Factors influencing Seed Replacement of Smallholder Maize Farmers in North-West, Nigeria. A survey of smallholder maize production for 3 seasons was conducted in Kaduna, Kano and Katsina and multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for the research. A total of 374 smallholder maize farmers who replaced seed and those not were selected and cross-sectional data was collected using structured questionnaires. Data collected was analysed using SPSS version 20 for the descriptive statistics and logit regression analysis. From the result 94.5% of the respondents were male with mean age of 46 years; 48.7% had 10 – 19 years of experience and 74.1% had formal education with the mean household size of 12 people. From the findings, majority of the farmers 55.1% belongs to farmers associations with a minimum household income of N60,000 per annum. The result also revealed farming experience and cooperative membership as the positive and significant socio-economic variables that influence smallholder maize producer seed replacement. The study concluded that farming experience and cooperative membership appeared to be main determinant of seed replacement among smallholder maize farmers in the study area. Also, the study recommended for intervention to bring more women into small scale maize production; Cooperative department of State ministries to facilitate engaging more smallholder farmers into Cooperative Societies and knowledge sharing among smallholder maize producers with more experience and upcoming ones.
Key words: Socio-economic factors; Smallholder maize farmer; Seed replacement; farming experience; cooperative membership
SCREENING OF SOME SUNFLOWER GENOTYPES AGAINST Pseudomonas syringea pv helianthi IN A NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA ENVIRONMENT OF NIGERIA
DAHIRU, B.1, NAHUNNARO, H.2 AND TUTI , N. Z.3
1Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State. 2Department of Crop Protection Modibbo Adama University, P.M.B. 2076, Yola Adamawa State. 3Department of Horticultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State
Ten (10) sunflower genotypes namely; SAMSUN–1, 2, 3, 4, Biu, Yola, Mubi, Funtua, Yemaltudeba and Gombe locals, were tried in Yola during the 2016 farming season, to evaluate their reaction to Pseudomonas syringea pv helianthi pathogen. The plants were inoculated using 108cfu/mg concentration of the pathogen at 3WAS. Data were collected on disease incidence at 3-9 weeks after inoculation and severity at 11 weeks after inoculation and yield. All data analyzed using Analysis of Variation (ANOVA) while means separation was done using Duncan multiple Range Test at 5% level of significance. Results obtained from this study revealed that Funtua local had the highest incidence of the disease recording 36.09% at 8 weeks after inoculation while SAMSUN-4 had the lowest incidence of 25.21%. At 11 weeks after inoculation, Biu local obtained highest disease severity of 82.30% while SAMSUN-4 had 30.61%. SAMSUN-4 recorded highest yield of 1310.25kg/ha-1 while lowest yield of 557.36kg/ha-1 was obtained on Biu local genotype respectively
Key words: Sunflower, Genotypes, Severity, Yield, Bacterial leaf spot, Pathogen
IMPACT OF INSECURITY ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES IN SELECTED LGAs IN KADUNA STATE NIGERIA
*AKUT, SALE DANIEL; *AMINU, LAWAL BARAU; & **ALIMI SEMIYU ABDULRAZAQ
*Department of Co-operative Economics and Management, College of Management Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. **Department of Agricultural Technology, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.
The negative impact of insecurity is associated to crimes of different kinds like kidnappers, Boko Haram, Heardmen ISWAP, ISIS among others insurgent groups is becoming worrisome not only in Kaduna and the entire country. This has heightened the fear of citizens, thereby threatening the foundation of economic development and food insecurity in the state. The overall implication has worsened the labour market situation resulting to thousands of unemployment and displacement of the workforce from the affected area, where they see kidnapping as a lucrative job opportunities. This study indicates that the current stage of kidnapping and other crimes has discouraged farmers from their farming businesses resulted to unemployment, worsening the country insecurity. The population consisted of all the members of agricultural co-operative societies in study areas (Southern Kaduna).Out of 423 members of 16 agricultural co-operative societies, only 136 members were used for the study. To determine the sample size, Taro Yamani formula was used, for the distribution of sample size of the societies, Kumaisons (1997) was adopted. Research result shows that co-operative societies where severely impacted negatively by insecurity they could not discharged their responsibility effectively, they were unable to provides member farmers with agricultural inputs like agro- chemical, fertilizers, pesticides, seedling and training of member farmers in their various farms because of fear of been kidnapped or attack by bandits, these resulted to low productivity. Insecurity in the study area affected member farmers in performing their normal farming business, they no longer go to their farm lands, they were forced by this trend to farm within their homes that affect their annual income which lead to poor standard of living of the co-operative members It is therefore recommended among others that, government should, institutions that are capable of creating employment for Nigeria youths ,there should be fair Distribution of Resources among the states, equipping the Youth with good skill and training for Entrepreneurship, government should build barracks around these trouble areas and equip the army, police, DSS and other security agents with model weapons more sophisticated than that of the bandits.
Key Words: Co-operative, Productivity, Agriculture, Insecurity, Agricultural Credit, Security.
SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS SCREENING OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF PART CULTIVATED IN COLLEGE FARM, JERE, NORTH – EASTERN NIGERIA
GWANA ADAMU MOHAMMED*1; FATI ALI DIMARI2; ABUBAKAR ALIU3; HADIZA BALLAMA4; BABA MALA MUSTAPHA5; FATIMA MOHAMMED TAHIR6; MA’AJI MUSTAPHA7; & POLYCAP DAUDA8
1 ,6 ,7Laboratory Unit, Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2,4Department of General Study, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Nigeria. 3Department of Forestry Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Nigeria. 5Department of Basic Science and Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Edible plants’ part material for foods and drugs production safety security and biosecurity management have to be a source of concerned when considering foods and drugs production and its management. This research study was conducted on Some Phytochemicals Screening of Moringa oleifera Leaf Part Cultivated in College Farm, Jere, Nigeria. All materials used were of analytical grade and conducted under cleaned and hygienic environment. Standard operation procedures thoroughly followed. The method applied were as the methods described by Idris et al., (2020); Bassey et al., (2018) and AOAC, (1990). The results obtained in triplicate, revealed the qualitative screening analysis of some phytochemicals in leave powder of M. oleifera; among some of the 12 plant’s chemical (alkaloids, anthraquinones, hydroxyl methyl anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, polyphenol, reducing sugar, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoid) being screened for, only six (cyanogenic glycoside, flavonoids, polyphenol, reducing sugar, tannins and terpenoid) were present. Amongst the present ones, only cyanogenic glycosides were moderately present, but the rest were present in scanty or in traces. There are the needs to carry out intensive research on the all parts of the Moringa oleifera plant including the roots, leaves, stems, stem barks, flowers and seeds in order to evaluate the nutritive and non-nutritive compositions of the plant.
Keyword: Ayurveda medicine, Edible plants, Moringa oleifera, Leaf, Phytochemicals Screening.
AGRICULTURAL MARKETING FINANCE AS A PARADIGM FOR ACHIEVING ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY IN THE POST-COVID19 ERA IN NIGERIA
SALIHU SHEHU & AMINA MOHAMMED DOKO
Department of Marketing, Federal Polytechnic, Bida
This paper aims to assess agricultural marketing as a paradigm to achieve economic sustainability in the face of the COVID19 pandemic that is ravaging the world with a ripple effect on global economies and developing countries being the most affected. The objective is to assess the roles that can be played by agricultural commercialization in achieving economic sustainability in the post-pandemic era as well as to identify the possible benefits that can be derived from the practice of agricultural commercialization as a subsistence activity. The authors used a survey research design and where primary data was collected with questionnaires administered to 25 rural farmers each of Kuchi, Jima, Bussu and Ilorin roads of Bida city, with a total of 85 responses. Stratified and simple random sampling methods were used to select and rank representative farmer members. The results revealed that agricultural marketing has a role to play in achieving economic sustainability. In addition, the benefits of agricultural commercialization can sustain livelihoods. A 5-point Likert scale was used to determine the mean and standard deviation which was used to analyze the collected data, the result revealed that the first hypothesis stated is rejected and the alternative hypothesis accepted, which means that agricultural marketing has a role to play in economic achievement. durability. It is recommended that adequate funds and budgetary allocations be made available to finance policy initiatives, and that timely and adequate information on agricultural marketing is provided by extension service agents. In addition, a review should be made of the remaining regimes on agricultural marketing policies of existing agencies to make them more favorable to agricultural production.
Keywords: Agricultural marketing; Paradigm; Economic sustainability; post-COVID-19; Time; Nigeria
COST BENEFIT OF INCLUSION OF PARBOILED MANGO SEED KERNEL MEAL IN WEANED RABBITS DIETS.
1AGBANA, JUDE ABAYOMI; 2MEPAIYEDA SEYI; AND 3 BENJAMIN, O OYEWOLE
1,3Department of Animal Production, Kogi State University, Anyigba, PMB 1008, Nigeria. 2Department of Geology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa.
Economics of parboiled mango seed kernel meal (PBMSKM) inclusion in rabbit diets was examined to ascertain if it can replace maize bran. Sixteen (16) cross bred rabbits were randomly assigned to 0%, 15%, 30% and 45% dietary inclusion level of PBMSKM at four per group. Feed and drinking water were provided ad libitum to the rabbits housed individually in wooden hutches. Average final live body weight gain and average final feed intake was used to calculate feed conversion ratio. Cost of total feed consumed, feed cost per Kg weight gain and reduction in total feed were also computed. The cost /Kg feed, cost per Kg feed consumed and feed cost / Kg live weight differed significantly (P<0.05) among treatments and decreased progressively (P< 0.05) with increasing levels of PBMSKM inclusion. Thus, was in favour of diets stuffed with 45% PBMSKM. Hence, the observed cost differentials suggest financial gain in PBMSKM based diets.
Keywords: Economics, PBMSKM, cost, rabbits, diets, weight gain.
IMPACT OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER AND SPACING ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea L.) IN BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA
GAMBO, M1, ISAH, Y., HARUNA, Y1. BARAZA, S. A1, A.A. MAHMUD1, YUNUSA, M.M1., GAYA, B.H1. SHUGABA, Y.A1.ABBA-AJI, A.A1.
1Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
This research was carried out at Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi Teaching and Research Farm during the 2018 and 2019 rainy seasons. The main objective was to find out the impact of phosphorus fertilizer and spacing patterns on the growth and yield of groundnut in the study area. Four levels of phosphorus fertilizer were used namely P1: 0kg P2O5 ha-1, P2: 30kg P2O5 ha-1, P3: 60kg P2O5 ha-1, and P4: 90kg P2O5 ha-1.Three different spacing patterns were also used (S1: Spacing of 60cm x 20cm, S2: Spacing of 60cm x 25cm and S3: Spacing of 60cm x 30cm. This gave a 4×3 treatment combination and laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated three time. The result obtained revealed that there was no significant difference in the various spacing patterns used except at 8 WAP where a statistically significant differences was observed in canopy spread. However, a significant difference was observed with the levels of phosphorus fertilizer. There was a marked difference on the growth and yield parameters being measured with 90kg P2O5 ha-1, recording higher values while the control had the lowest values. Based on the results of this research, it is recommended that farmers should adopt the use of 90kg/ha P2O5 and spacing of 20cm x 60cm treatments since they produced the highest pod, grain and total dry matter yields per hectare in the experiment of all the two seasons. The study was conducted in Guinea Savanna ecological zone. The variety of groundnut used for the study was “SAMNUT 26”. It is, therefore, recommended that further work should be conducted in multi agro-ecological zones to expand varietal response to P2O5 and spacing. The treatments applied were 90kg/ha P2O5, 60kg/ha P2O5, P2O5, 30kg/ha P2O5 and 0kg/ha P2O5 with spacing of 20cm x 60cm, 25cm x 60cm and 30cm x 60cm. It is further recommended that other levels of P2O5 and spacing can be experimented upon in order to widen the scope.
Keywords: Impact, Phosphorus fertilizer,Spacing, Growth, Groundnut