TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY (TIJSRAT)
VOL. 7 (9) NOVEMBER, 2021 EDITIONS. ISSN: 2623-7861
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies,
Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION STATUS OF KAFIN CHIRI DAMS USING SELECTED PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA
*MAITERA, O. N.; & **USMAN I.B
*Department of Chemistry, Moddibo Adama University, Yola **Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Kano State Polytechnic
Physicochemical parameters of kafin-chiri were investigated for three season to determine the quality of water. Water samples were collected and analyzed using standard methods. Four sampling sites (KFA, KFB, KFC and KFD) were chosen on the Dam based on the geographical positioning. pH, Temperature, Conductivity, Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Suspended Solid (SS), Chloride Cl–, Nitrate (NO2–), Nitrite (NO3–), Phosphate (PO42-) were analysed using standard procedure. The mean values of these parameters indicate the effectiveness of the treatment process on suspended solids mturbidity, NO3– and color. From the result obtained it shows a high value of nitrates and this might be as a result of the use of nitrous based fertilizer in the sampling location. There is significant variation (P <0.05) between the values of color, nitrate, phosphates temperature, suspended solids and conductivity, observed for the three seasons. The overall quality of Kafin-Chiri reservoir was found to be within the WHO recommended value for drinking water. It is therefore recommended that proper attention need to be given to the water body by appropriate authorities due to its possible health implication on the consumers through continuous monitoring so as to track any adverse environmental changes in the dam.
Keywords: Assessment, Pollution, Physico – chemical, Reservoir, Water Quality, Seasonal Variation.
COMPARISON BETWEEN SVM, ARIMA AND GMDH MODELS IN DROUHGT FORECASTING WITH SPI DATA
1ALHAJI ISMAILA SULAIMAN; 1ABUBAKAR MUHAMMAD AUWAL; & 2MOHAMMED SALISU ALFA
1Department of Statistics, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. Nasarawa State. 2Department of Statistics, Federal Polytechnic, Bida. Niger State
In this paper, the results obtained from the analysis carried out on Support Vector Machines (SVM), Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Group Methods of Data Handling (GMDH) models for drought forecasting based on Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) data series were compared. In the study four data sets (SPI3, SPI6, SPI9 and SPI12) were used. The main objective is to compare the results of these models and choose the most appropriate model based on the errors in terms of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Average Error (MAE) and coefficient of correlation (R) as the performance statistical error measures used in all the SPI data series. The result showed that the GMDH model which has the minimum value of RMSE and MAE with the highest R is the most appropriate. Similarly, SPI12 data has the lowest value. With this, the GMDH model is recommended as the best model for the drought forecasting.
Keyword: SVM, ARIMA, GMDH, Forecasting, SPI
ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF INTERSTATE ROAD TRANSPORT SERVICE IN MINNA, NIGER STATE
ABDULLAHI, MUHAMMED ITOPA1; & JOEL ADEMOLA OJEKUNLE2
Department of Logistics and Transport Technology, School of Innovative Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
This study focuses on assessing the quality of interstate road transport service in Minna, Niger state using SERVPERF and IMPORTANCE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS (IPA). A sample of 301 passengers was used for the study, while proportional stratified random sampling was used to compose the sample size for each park. Questionnaires were administered to the passengers for data collection. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data on level of satisfaction with services provided. Mean, frequencies, tables and charts were used for analysis. It was found that about 15.3% of users were very unsatisfied, 27.6% were unsatisfied, 32.2% were neither satisfied nor unsatisfied while 24.9% were either satisfied or very satisfied with quality of service. Long waiting time, bad terminal facilities, safety of luggage, congestion at parks, bad driver attitude, uncomfortable vehicles and overloading were the major issues users faced with inter-state services. Based on the findings, it was recommended that service providers should look to decreasing waiting time by sticking to schedules where available, improve on provision and maintenance of terminal facilities and orient drivers to curb bad attitudes.
Keywords: Assessment, Quality, Interstate Road, Transport Service, Niger State
ASSESSMENT OF BUSH BURNING ON VEGETATION COVER, IN MUBI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA ADAMAWA STATE
RICHARD1, S. D., MAIJAMA’A2 N. A. AND IJABULA3, S.
1,2Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic, PMB.35 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 3Department Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 35, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of bush burning on soil physical properties and biodiversity conservation, in Mubi North local government area of Adamawa state. The wards randomly selected were Muchalla, Digil, Mayo bani, Pahuli and Vimtim. Questionnaires were prepared and distributed to farmers in the study area. Results obtained were analyzed using simple percentage and tables. The study revealed the effects of bush burning on surface destruction; soil erosion and biodiversity destruction as shown in table 4.10. The result also reveals bad farming practices as one major factor accounting for the wide spread of bush fires in Mubi north. The study revealed that about 70 % of respondents in the study areas used hand clearing and 30 % used slash and burn system of farming respectively. The study also revealed the effects of bush burning. Bushfire has been identified to be one of the major socio-economic problems besetting the economic progress. The vegetation cover is consumed every year by wild fire. The susceptibility of grass to wild fire makes it difficult to control when it starts. Bad farming practices is one major factor accounting for the wide spread of bush fires in the north.
Keyword: bush burning, assessment, effects, control measures and questionnaire Mubi north.
EXTRACTION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF OIL FROM 4 GENETICALLY MODIFIED VARIETIES OF SOYBEANS IN NIGERIA
H.S. BALARABE; I.A. USMAN; AND M.T. ADO
Department of Applied Chemistry, College Of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.
The extraction and physicochemical analysis of soybean oils extracted from four newly genetically modified soybean varieties obtained from Institute for Agricultural Research, Zaria, Nigeria were carried out in order to ascertain their qualities. The physicochemical parameters determined includes their colours, densities (D), saponification values (SV), peroxide values (PV), acid values (AV), free fatty acids (FFA) and iodine values (IV). The oils were extracted from each Variety by solvent extraction method using soxhlet apparatus and N-hexane as extracting solvent. The results of the analysis obtained, showed that the colours of the oils were pale yellow. The highest density was seen in TGX-1951-3F soybean oil (0.926 Kg/L) and lowest in TGX-1955-10E soybean oil (0.901 Kg/L). On the other hand, pH Values were observed to be between 7.2 to 7.4. The highest and lowest saponification values were obtained at 120.62 mgKOH/g for TGX-1448-2E, TGX-1904-2E and TGX-1951-3F respectively and 122.02 mgKOH/g for TGX-1955-10E variety. It was observed that TGX-1955-10E showed 0.5 meKOH/kg while the other three varieties had 0.4 meKOH/kg as peroxide values. TGX-1448-2E and TGX-1955-10E had the highest and the lowest free fatty acid values of 15.61 and 13.05% respectively. It was also observed that TGX-1955-10E variety recorded the highest iodine value of 25.63gI2/g oil while the remaining varieties recorded same iodine values of 24.75gI2/g oil. The highest acid value was observed in TGX-1448-2E variety at 15.61mgKOH/g and the lowest in TGX-1955-10E 13.05 mgKOH/g. The study and results obtained revealed the good attributes of the four varieties of soyabean as edible oil and the results compares favourably with standard parameters for edible oils.
Keywords: Density; peroxide value; acid value; iodine value and saponification value.
USE OF ARIMA MODEL IN TIME SERIES DROUGHT FORECASTING WITH STANDARDIZED PRECIPITATION INDEX
1AHMED IBRAHIM; 2 MOHAMMED SALISU ALFA; & 1 ABUBAKAR MUHAMMAD AUWAL
1Department of Statistics, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. Nasarawa State 2Department of Statistics, Federal Polytechnic, Bida. Niger State
Drought is a natural disaster known all over the universe that greatly impacts all portions of the environment. Drought forecasting could provide practical support for drought risk avoidance. The standardized precipitation index (SPI) remained as universal data used to measure the classification of drought. The autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were developed to fit and forecast the SPI series. Most of the selected ARIMA models are seasonal models (SARIMA). The forecast results display that the forecasting ability of the ARIMA models increases as the time scale increases, and the ARIMA models are more powerful in short-term forecasting. The measure of performance of root means square error (RMSE) and mean average error (MAE) and further study was made on the correlation coefficient (R) between the actual SPIs and the predicted SPIs for the forecasting. It is shown that the ARIMA models can be used to forecast 1-month leading values of all SPI series, and 6-month leading values for SPI with time scales of 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Our study shows that the ARIMA models developed can be effectively used for drought forecasting.
Keywords: drought forecasting; SPI; ARIMA model
DENSITY CHARACTERIZATION OF ROCKS WITHIN HAWUL, BORNO STATE, NORTH-EAST NIGERIA
SUNDAY DAVID NAJOJI1, MOHAMMED MOHAMMED YALWA2, AND ALIYU AHMED MALGWI2
1School of General & Remedial Studies, Department of Basic Science, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu. 2School of Science & Technology, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu.
In this research work, the density of rocks within the Hawul area of Borno State was investigated. The high-density rock may be due to the presence of heavy metals and radioactive elements such as uranium which can affect the environment as well as plants and animals’ health. A total of twenty samples were collected from the hill (host rock) and other locations in the vicinity of the host rock. The method employed for density measurement is the direct mass volume where ten samples from each site were investigated of different rock classification. The data obtained were processed using statistical data analysis and the result shows gabbro (mean ρ ̴ 2.320.72 g/cm3), basalt (mean ρ ̴ 2.410.29 g/cm3), sandstone (mean ρ ̴ 2.210.59 g/cm3), granite (mean ρ ̴ 2.270.61 g/cm3) and shale (mean ρ ̴ 2.500.36 g/cm3). These slightly vary as compared to the standard values for the types of rocks considered. Since the density of rocks varies significantly among different rock types because of differences in mineralogy and porosity, the knowledge of the distribution of underground rock density should be improved and encouraged to help in finding the subsurface geologic structure and rock type that would be essential for building and construction.
Keywords: rock, density, mass, volume, heterogeneity.
MALWARE DETECTION: A REVIEW OF PAPERS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC JOURNALS’ DATABASES
1SANUSI MUHAMMED ALIYU; & 2SAMAILA AJI
1Department of Health Information Management College of Health Sciences and Technology Kaltungo, Gombe State, Nigeria. 2Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, School of Sciences, College of Education Billiri, Gombe State, Nigeria
The Internet environment is changing into a second world for human activities. Crimes committed in the internet platform are increasing geometrically. One of the effective ways for committing these crimes (attacks) is through malware. Malware (also known as malicious software) refers to programs that affect a computer system without the user’s permission and with an intention to cause damages to the system or steal private information from the system. In this paper, various academic papers on malware detection were reviewed. The papers reviewed were downloaded from international academic journals’ databases that includes; Elsevier, science world, science direct, IEEE and ISI journals. Various detection techniques reviewed show that there is no single technique that would serve all forms of malware detection across platforms. The review reveals that; to have a cross platforms malware detection technique, a comprehensive and integrated algorithm for malware detection should be developed.
Keywords: Malware, Machine learning algorithms, detection technique, static technique, dynamic technique, Hybrid technique, deep learning algorithms, signature-based, anomaly-based.
REVIEW: LOW TEMPERATURE SINTERING OF TIO2 FOR DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS (DSSCS) FABRICATION ON FLEXIBLE SUBSTRATES
1H. P. WANTE; 2S. BALA; & 3H. ABUBAKAR
1,2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State. Nigeria. 3Department of Applied Physics, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State. Nigeria.
This article discusses the most recent developments in the manufacture of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), with a focus on the use of flexible plastic substrates instead of rigid glass substrates. The temperature restriction of the substrate in generating TiO2 nanoparticles is a key problem for creating DSSCs on plastic substrates. Ball-milling, acid/water treatments, chemical vapor deposition, and electrophoretic deposition, as well as chemical and mechanical film processing methods such as chemical sintering, hydrothermal treatment, microwave irradiation, and various compression techniques, are all discussed here. It also includes research on novel flexible counter electrode manufacturing processes and recently produced new materials that are particularly beneficial for flexible DSSCs. Finally, the progress and possibilities of large-scale flexible DSSC module fabrication, as well as their endurance, are reviewed.
Keywords: Temperature, Sintering of Tio2, Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCS), Fabrication, Flexible Substrates
THE USAGE OF MICROSOFT PROJECT AS MANAGEMENT TOOL AMONG PROFESSIONALS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY: AN APPRAISAL
1MUKAILA ZAKARI, 2EBENEHI IBRAHIM YAKUBU, 3MAMMAN NURU SHUAIBU, 4BELLO KABIR, AND 5BALTEH MOHAMMED, 6SHUAIBU UMAR, AND 7MAHMUD ABBA TAHIR
[1,2,3, 4,5,7] Department of Building Technology, The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria 6Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, The Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria
This study was undertaken to appraise the usage of Microsoft Project as a Management tool among Professionals in Construction Industry. The objectives addressed in the study include: to determine the effectiveness of Microsoft project on the executed task, to determine the prevalence usage of Microsoft project among professionals in the construction industry in addition to a determination of strategies that would be applied for the improvement of the use of software’s (MS project). The data were obtained using structured questionnaires administered to 45 respondents using stratified random sampling. Mean Model was used to analyse the data gotten from the administered questionnaire. The data analysis results showed that the Microsoft project helped one become a more effective project manager by accurately establishing all relations between tasks to prove that project is under-when the project manager builds his forecast schedule from the ground up. The study recommends that Microsoft Project be taught in higher institutions of learning under the construction discipline to give them early knowledge of the application. Government should pass a bill for the use of software as a management tool for every construction work within the different parts of the federation.
Keywords: Microsoft Project, Management Tool Among Professionals In The Construction Industry: An Appraisal
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AN AUTOMATED BODY MASS INDEX MACHINE
DAUDA A. FOLARIN1, NURUDEEN A. AZEEZ2 AND KABIRU A. HASSAN1.
1Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Ede. 2Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State, Nigeria.
This study designed, developed and evaluated an automated Body Mass Index computational machine. The machine is sub divided into three top sub-system unit (Height Measurement Unit, central sub-system and base sub-system unit. The units work together to compute the height, weight, BMI and send the result with interpretation to the end users. Results obtained were compared with manual compilation of the BMI. The Manual and automated data comparison for 55 adults showed very minute deviation traceable to parallax error in manual computations. The 55 respondents received text messages of the BBMI value on their mobile phones. Three (3) of the subjects had overweight, one (1) had underweight while fifty-one (51) had normal weight. Text messages were sent to pre-registered health practitioners for the overweight and underweight for proper advice, counselling and follow up. It was concluded that the machine is accurate, easy to operate and cost effective with minimum error tolerance and therefore recommended for use in various medical centers.
Keywords: Obesity, Body Mass Index machine, Microcontroller, Serial communication Interface, Short Message Service.
A REVIEW OF: THE ROLE OF POLYMER COMPOSITES IN THE FABRICATION OF ARTIFICIAL HUMAN ARMS
1A.Y. ABDULAZEEZ, 2B. HABIB 3S.M. NASIR & 4M.M BUHARI
1,2Department of Textile Technology, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna-Nigeria. 3Department of Printing Technology Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. 4Department of Polymer and Textile Engineering, ABU, Zaria.
Polymer composites have been found useful in the fabrication of artificial prostheses limb, most importantly in the field of medical science which cannot be over emphasize, especially in the manufacturing and production of artificial human arms such as amputed hand and legs. Polymer composite which are of various types of different degree of strength are being employed in the production of prosthesis limb which includes; polyethylene, polyester, vinyl ester, epoxy, poly imide, poly propylene, hydroxyapatite, and poly ethyl ether ketone, with their respective reinforce material[fibres] such as glass fibre, carbon fibre, and bone fibre. these provides devices that are strong and light weight than earlier limb made of iron and wood. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of polymer composites in the fabrication of artificial human arm, with the use of Nano Composites as which would prevent the casino genic of some synthetic composite.
Keywords: Polymer Composites, Artificial human arms, Application and manufacturing.
PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SULPHONATED CARBON CATALYST FROM COCONUT HUSK FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION
WAZIRI J., MUDI K.Y., E. G. KEFAS
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna
This study is aimed at preparing sulphonated carbon catalyst from coconut husk. The coconut husk which is the source of carbon was carbonized at a temperature of 500°C and then sulphonated by impregnating it in 1 M solution of H2SO4. The resulting catalyst was washed thoroughly with distilled water and then characterized. The prepared catalyst was found to have a Brunauer- Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 302 m2/g, its Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of revealed pore size > 2nm which implies mesopores, its pore volume at p/po 0.95 was determined as 0.32 cm3 and the Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) indicates that the carbonization and sulfonation resulted in a sulfonated carbon with the SO3H radicals been fused at various sites of the carbon in the form C-SO3H. The properties of the prepared catalyst revealed appreciable catalytic activity which makes it is suitable for biodiesel production.
Keywords: Sulphonated carbon catalyst, mesopore, BET, SEM, EDX.
ISOTHERMS STUDY ON ADSORBED GASES ON POROUS CARBON SYNTHESIZED FROM AGRO-WASTE
UMAR HAYATU SIDIK1* AND BIRDLING IJUDIGAL AMTAGU
Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State
It is important to understand quantitatively the natural gas adsorption onto an adsorbent surface synthesized from available biomass for its storage. The synthesized adsorbents were examined as potential porous adsorbents for natural gas adsorption at an ambient temperature. The ideal natural gas adsorption capacity of the activated carbon was conducted using volumetric adsorption equipment at pressures (5-17 bar). The natural gas adsorption data obtained were correlated by common adsorption isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir and Sip). The Freundlich, had high correlation coefficient up to 0.9989 and lower root mean square deviation (RMSD) which fitted our data better than others. The findings revealed the potential of isotherm models in methane adsorption applications.
Keywords: Hybrid, Non hybrid, Activated carbon, Adsorption, Isotherm
EFFECT OF EUCALYPTUS SPECIES ON NATURAL REGENERATION OF NATIVE SPECIES
*GARBA A., **ABUBAKAR I. A., ***SANI A AND *YAKUBU I.
*Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. **Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi ***Department of Animal Health and Production, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
The study accessed the native species regeneration within the two-hectare Eucalyptus plantation and an adjoining open savanna located at Magamar Gumau Toro local government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria with the view of elucidating the ecological impact of Eucalyptus species on natural regeneration of indigenous species. Three quadrats of 10mx10m were selected in each of the two sides and total species count conducted. Results from the study shows that, there are 184 and 125 tree stands representing 25 and 9 tree species cutting across 24 and 9 genera and 13 and 7 families in the open savanna and the adjoining Eucalyptus plantation respectively. Isobalinia doka and Eucalyptus toroliana recorded the highest frequency and percentage frequency of 77 and 46, and 41.8% and 36.8% in the open savanna and the plantation respectively followed by Piliostigma reticulatum and Isobalinia doka with frequency and frequency percentage of 26 and 14.1% and 44 and 35.2% in the respective sites. In the plantation, Dichrostachys cinerea have the least frequency and frequency percentage with 1 and 0.8% respectively. While in the savanna the list frequencies where recorded with Boeravia diffusa, Kedrostis foetidissima, Amblygonocarpus andongensis, Bauhinia rufescens, Parkia biglobosa, Dialium guineense, Diospyros mespiliformis and Acacia ataxacanta with 1 and 0.5 each. The family Fabaceae/Leguminosae recorded the highest frequency and percentage frequency of 5 and 45.45 while Myrtaceae, Sapotaceae, Apocynaceae, Ebenaceae, Oligocaceae and Zygophyllaceae recorded the lowest frequency of 1 and 1.23% each . Although the introduced Eucalyptus species is the dominant species in the plantation, natural regeneration could be said to be relatively fair probably caused by periodical harvesting of the Eucalyptus species.
Keywords: Tree species composition, Savanna, Indigenous tree species, Forest Conservation
FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF SOLAR STILL: A REVIEW
DANLADI Y. BISU1, DATAU S. G2., ALHASSAN A. MOHAMMED3
1,3Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria. 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Jos, Nigeria.
Although many technologies exist for clean water production, the commodity is still scarce due to population explosion, contamination due to structural failure, frequent displacement of people in conflict areas, poor electricity supply, and high skill requirement in the operation and maintenance of the systems. The solar still is a technology for clean water production that is cost effective, and does not require any skill for its operation and maintenance. It employs the principle of heat and mass transfer in the distillation of water through the use of solar radiation. It can be used in any place where there is sunshine. This paper reviews the various factors affecting the performance of the solar still as presented by researchers over the years. The aim is to provide information for researchers at a glance in order to help them in conducting more research to enhance the production of clean water by the solar still. This paper will help designers to consider all such factors that can make or mar their design of the still. Water depth, cover glass thickness, tilt angle, configuration, water salinity, absorber material, etc have been identified as factors which affect the water production capacity of the solar still.
Keywords: Solar still, clean water, Salinity, sustainability.
ASSESSMENT OF PATHOGENECITY TEST , ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES AND MICROBIAL LOAD OF CHEESE PRODUCED FROM WEST AFRICA DWARF GOAT (WAD) AND COW MILK USING BREVIBACTERIUM LINENS AS USING BREVIBACTRIUM LINENS AND SODOM APPLE EXTRACT AS COAGULANT
*LAWAL, R.UKAYAT AJOKE., 1 MUSA, H.1 AND 2GARUBA, M.N
¹Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal polytechnic, Bauchi. 2Department of Biological Science, Federal College of Education, Kano.
This study investigated the pathogenecity test , Organoleptic properties and Microbial Load of cheese produced from West Africa Dwarf Goat (WAD) and Cow milk using Brevibactrium linens and Sodom apple extract as Coagulant. Brevibacterium linens were isolated from samples of cheese. Milk samples were filtered and pasteurized at 90 ± 1 ºC for 10 min. Sample A (West Africa Dwarf goat’s milk) was inoculated with Brevibacterium linens as coagulant followed by direct acidification of Sodom apple extract with sample B (Cow’s milk). The vats were incubated at 36 oC and gel was pressed, drained, cut, salted and package. The isolate(s) was tested for the presence of virulence gene. B. linen was inoculated in pasteurized milk to compare its potential as coagulant against Sodom apple extract. Aroma, mouth- feel and taste were monitored for the sensory quality and microbial activity were determined using standard laboratory procedures the general acceptability of the products was evaluated using twenty (20) trained panelists. The yoghurt produced from commercial starter culture were generally accepted by panelist. The result of microbial properties revealed no coliform and mould was detected and small amount of other microbes were present. In conclusion, B. linens can be used as starter culture in yoghurt production. Efforts should intensify toward commercial production of yoghurt and other dairy products using B. linens as starter culture.
Keywords: West Africa Dwarf (WAD) goat milk, Cow milk, Sodom apple extract, Brevibacterium linens, coagulant.