MEDITERRANEAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES
VOL. 17 NO. 9 (MEJPAS) SEPTEMBER, 2021
Published by: MEDITERRANEAN PUBLICATIONS AND RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL,
Canberra ACT 0201, Australia.
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org PHONE: +234-708-717-324
DEVELOPMENT OF A RANDOM-FOREST-BASED MODEL FOR PREDICTING LIQUID HOLD-UP AND SLUG FLOW REGIME CHARACTERISTICS IN VERTICAL TWO-PHASE FLOW USING MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUE
EBIRIM, FRANCIS ONYEMAA*, ABDULKADIRA, MUKHTAR AND AGAJO, JAMESB
aDepartment of Chemical Engineering, bDepartment of Computer Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna – Nigeria.
The development of heavy oil has attracted attention in recent times. With increasing fluid viscosity, slug flow has become the most common flow pattern in oil and gas pipeline flow which poses a challenge in flow assurance as the need for stability of system and production maximization. The accurate prediction of slug flow parameters is an urgent problem to be solved in heavy oil development for more efficiency in productivity. In this research paper, the analysis of experimental data for the Air-Silicon oil slug transition in a 67mm diameter and 6m long vertical pipe was carried out in this work. The superficial velocity ranges of gas and liquid obtained from the ECT were 0.047 – 4.727m/s and 0.05 – 0.284m/s respectively. This research makes use of Random-forest-based Machine learning technique to predict liquid hold up and slog flow regime characteristics at different time intervals due to as it uses random subspace method and bagging to prevent overfitting. From the investigated data, the liquid hold up, void fraction were obtained and other slug flow parameters obtained were; structural velocity, slug frequency, length of slug and film thickness. Comparison with the data from the proposed algorithm accurately predicts the liquid hold up, void fraction, and liquid film thickness. They were seen to have a good agreement with the Machine Learning based Random-forest prediction however slug frequency, structural velocity, and length of slug unit all had varying disagreement with the prediction leading to limitations in the use of the model algorithm in prediction of these flow parameters. The model was also tested against varying viscosity and a good agreement was seen from 5cP to 1000cP excluding high liquid viscosity of 5000cP. The random-forest based machine learning model can then be used in predicting liquid hold up, void fraction, and liquid film thickness in low viscosity fluids less 1000cP.
KEYWORDS: Slug flow, Machine learning, Random-forest, Modeling, Multi-phase flow, vertical pipe, liquid hold-up
ASSESSMENT OF GULLY EROSION ON RESIDENTIAL LAND USE IN LAFIA, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA
B.L NASIR1, I. M SAGIR2, NASIRU UMAR3, I. M HAUWA4
1,2&3Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. 4Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi
Gully erosion has always caused a lot of devastation to link roads houses, bridges/culvers, farm lands etc. It has caused a lot of distortions to various kinds of land use practices spread between rural and urban settlements. However, the assessment of the effects of gully erosion on residential land use in LAFIA Town of Nasarawa State was carried out with a view to identify the several and most severed areas, the causes, the impacts on the environment and the status effects of the gullies in the selected study areas, hence the mitigative increase to be applied on such areas. Both primary and secondary data were applied in the areas of questionnaire administration, laboratory soil textural analysis as well as field measurements (Height, Width and Depth) of gullies of the identified areas. Descriptive statistics were adopted to analyze the results from the questionnaire administered and the results shows that 50% identified increase in volume of water as being responsible while 33.33% noted increase and residential development 10% to haphazard development and 6.66% to sand borrow pits as the major causes of gully erosion. The result on effects of gully erosion on residential land use shows that 50% identified the destruction of basic infrastructures (roads, drainages, communication gadgets etc), 36% noted the lose of lives/properties (Private and public) and 14% to collapse of houses every year. Also, the results of the analysis shows that moisture contents of soils in virtually all the areas were low with mean value in each rainfall which implies that the rate of recession of gullies would increase intermittently and the predominance soil texture in sandy with its silt being 2.4% and 15.5% respectively. On the average of the gullies measurements of the identifies areas, ranges of 9.2m was found at Kofar Zanwa as the highest and 2.2m at Bukan Sidi being the lowest. The researcher recommends the growth of vegetation cover, restoration and development of green-belt zones, construction of concrete (channelization) along gully routs and establishment of soil conservation boards that will ensure appropriate land utilization by all sundry.
KEYWORDS: Gully, Erosion, Residential, Land use, Degradation
5G TECHNOLOGY: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES
FATIMA MAIKUDI ABUBAKAR; AND SHITU ABDULLAHI LAME
Computer Science Department, Sch. Of Communication and Information Sciences, AD Rufai College of Education, Legal and General studies Misau, Bauchi State.
5G technology is the fifth generation mobile cellular network, 5G mobile networks are expected to be the next big leap in mobile broadband that will provide greater download speeds as high as 20gbps, 5G will support the massive numbers of devices that will simultaneously access the network, which will be far more than 4G LTE can handle. This paper highlights the opportunities that 5G technology presents to mobile cellular networks, IoT applications such as health care, education, energy, also challenges and evolution of different generations of mobile wireless technology.
KEYWORDS: 5G, Technology, Broadband, Gbps, Cellular, networks, evolution, wireless
MODELING BIODIVERSITY IN THE CONTEXT OF COMPETITION BETWEEN TWO INTERACTING PHYTOPLANKTON SPECIES
IGWE P.Y1, OLOWU B.U2 AND EKAKA-A E.N3
1,2Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku, Rivers State. 3Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Modeling the effect of decreasing the inter-competition coefficient between two phytoplankton species from the value of 0.0025 to 0.0125 has clearly shown an evidence of biodiversity gain for the first phytoplankton species and a biodiversity loss for the second phytoplankton species. Therefore, an appropriate ecological policy should be put in place to sustain the biodiversity gain and also to mitigate against the loss of biodiversity. These novel results obtained in this paper has not been seen elsewhere, they are presented and discussed.
KEYWORDS: Inter-competition coefficient, Phytoplankton species, biodiversity gain, biodiversity loss, ecological policy.
THE EFFECT OF EXCHANGE RATE VARIATION ON THE NIGERIA ECONOMIC INSTABILITY FOR A PERIOD OF 1986-2017 (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA STOCK EXCHANGE AND CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA)
*ADEBUKUNOLA OLUGBENGA SOLOMON; *FAMUYIWA KOLAWOLE SAMUEL ABIODUN; *AKINWUNMI OLUWAFEMI OLAKUNLE; & * ODUSANYA OLUWASEUN AYODEJI
Department of Computer Science and Statistics, D.S Adegbenro ICT Polytechnic, Itori – Ewekoro, Ogun state
This research work investigated the effect of exchange rate variation on Nigeria economic instability for the period of 1986 to 2017. A secondary source of data were employed in this work from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. Maximum Likelihood estimation from the R-software was carried out to evaluate the parameter estimate of the multiple regression coefficients and analyzed the influence of the explanatory variables (Gross Domestic Product, Unemployment and Inflation on the dependent variable (Exchange rate). The result revealed that Gross Domestic Product and Unemployment rate had negative effect on the Exchange rate but significant with (β = -1.646, t = -2.409, sig.val = 0.0228) and (β = – 0.8602, t = -3.302, sig.val = 0.00263) respectively. Also that Inflation rate has positive effect on the Exchange rate but not significant with (β = 1.311, t = 0.852, sig.val = 0.40122). The Coefficient of determination (R2 = 82.7) implies that exchange rate variation has effect on the Nigeria economy instability from 1986-2017. Therefore, the paper recommended that the Government should endeavor to control the rising rate of inflation inorder to have a stabilized exchange rate and a promising economy for the citizens, government should encourage the export promotion strategies in order to maintain a surplus balance of trade, adequate security, effective fiscal and monetary policies, as well as the provision of infrastructural facilities so that foreign investors will be attracted to invest in Nigeria.
KEYWORDS: Economic instability, Exchange rate, Gross Domestic Product, Inflation
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF 3.5 KW SELF-LOOP GENERATOR SYSTEMS
1 ABUBAKAR ABDULKADIR, 1I.H. USMAN, 2SANI MAIKAFI, 3I.RUFAI, 1A.M. GADAM
1Department of Electrical Electronic Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. 2Department of Computer Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. 3National Agency for Science and Engineering Infrastructure (NASENI), Kumbotso, Kano
Nigeria’s power generation and distribution have been an indispensable factor in the progress of the national economy. Power generation and distribution play an important factor in all aspects of development, but even with the vast natural resources endowed in Nigeria in the forms of natural gas, oil and coal, Nigeria is still not able to solve the problem of erratic power supply. This problem has lead the country to find alternative means of power supply in generators that consume petrol and diesel. The problem with these generators is that they are very costly to run and maintain, and they have negative environmental impacts. In this work, the design and construction of 3.5 KW fuel-less generator was conducted which is a self-loop system that generates power without any dependence on an outside source (example fuel, solar). The design and construction of a 3.5KW self-loop generator was achieved through Faradays law of induction, using an alternator, electric motor, flywheel, rectifier and a DC power source. The system achieved self-power generation status successfully and the AC output was tested on load status and no load status with output voltages ranging from 120-220v.
KEYWORDS: Power, Electricity, Generator, Self-loop, Environment.
INSECTICIDAL EFFECT OF ABAMECTIN AGAINST LESSER GRAIN BORER (Rhyzopertha Dominica (Fabrius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) ON COWPEA SEED (Vigna unguiculata (Linnaeus))
1BUKAR, A., 2KABIR, B. G. J. & 2SASTAWA, B. M.
1Department of Agricultural Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, P. M. B. 1427, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria 2Department of Crop protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, P. M. B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of Abamectin against Rhyzopertha dominica on cowpea. The test was conducted under ambient laboratory conditions (28-35Oc and 65-70% r.h.). Thirty unsexed adult insects were bioassayed on 50g cowpea grain sample treated with the Abamectin insecticide at five concentrations: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 ml/kg. Mortality of exposed adults were assessed after 7, 14 and 21days exposure to treated grains. Number of progeny were assessed at 56 and 112days after removal of parent insects. Significance (p<0.05) differences in adult mortality were noted between different concentrations and exposure periods on treated grain. Increase in concentrations and exposure period resulted in higher adult mortality and progeny suppression. After 14days exposure to the highest dose rates, 100% adult mortality was achieved. Progeny production was considerably suppressed even with lowest concentrations of 1.0ml/kg. Where 1.2±0.6 and 1.0±0.5 adults recorded compared with untreated control with 91.4±2.9 and 116.0±5.1 after 56 and 112days of storage, respectively. Similarly, the percentage of insect damage kernel and weight loss decreased with increase in concentrations. At 3.0ml/kg no grain damage and weight loss were recorded as compared to 100% and 81.6%, in the untreated control, respectively. Furthermore, the result indicate that germination loss decreased with increase in concentrations of Abamectin. The present results show high insecticidal efficacy of Abamectin towards R. dominica and represent a suitable alternative to the traditional grain protectants.
KEYWORDS: Abamectin .R. dominica . Cowpea . Adult mortality . Progeny Suppression
OPTIMUM REDUCTION OF ANTI-NUTRITIONAL FACTORS FROM BLEND OF SORGHUM AND GROUNDNUT CAKE FLOUR ENRICHED WITH DATE FRUIT FLOUR AS POST COVID-19 SNACK FOOD
1TA’AWU K.G., 2SHUA J. N AND MAIRO A1
1Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi P.M.B 35, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria 2Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, the Federal Polytechnic, PMB, 35 Mubi, Nigeria.
This study aimed at optimization and development of sorghum snack enriched with groundnut cake and date flour using response surface methodology (RSM). Consumer Acceptance and optimum reduction of Anti-nutritional factors were studied. As the concentration of groundnut in the formulation increased, the product was disliked due to the strong nutty flavour of the groundnut cake, thus affecting the overall acceptability. Date fruit flour (%) was composited to enriched snack. Central composite design was used to develop a polynomial model for the responses. It was observed that higher composition of groundnut in the feed composition and moisture content significantly (p≤0.01) affected the optimum reduction of AFNs making it less palatable, and thereby reducing the overall acceptability of the snack. Based on the response surface 3D plots, the AFNs content of the samples were optimized at 17.08% (fc), 17.89%(mc) and 6.0ds(mm) with optimal reduction in the predicted responses of 3.758 mg TIA /g, 0.218 mg Tanic acid /g and 112.556mg phytate /g at an optimum desirability of 0.742. The sensory data obtained in this study had revealed that samples produced from appropriate blends of flours from sorghum, date palm fruit and defatted groundnut cake were highly acceptable by the panellists used for this study and it can be used as a post covid 19 food.
KEYWORDS: Optimum, anti-nutritional factors (AFNs), overall acceptability, extruded snack, sorghum, groundnuts cake, date palm flour and Covid-19
BINOMIAL LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL ON RISK FACTORS INFLUENCING DRUG ABUSE AMONG YOUTHS IN NUMAN METROPOLIS, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA.
LIMAN, SALE AWALU
Department of General Studies, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola.
Drug abuse is the indiscriminate use of drugs without a doctor’s prescription. Drugs commonly abuse is cigarettes, sleeping tablets, pain relief tablets, cough syrup, household detergents, narcotics and psychotropic substances. Youths Involvement in drug abuse starts with experimentation or curiosity, occasional use, regular use and dependency addiction. Reasons advance for drug abuse are peer group influence, psychological or physiological factors, environmental factors, unemployment, unmet expectations and media advertisement. The aim of this study is to determine Risk Factors Influencing Drug Abuse Among Youths particularly in Numan Metropolis, Adamawa State, Nigeria using Binomial logistic regression model. The findings of the research indicated that factors that are significantly important and moved youths in Numan Metropolis based on the data collected from the four wards using stratified and deliberate sampling and using seventy six respondents are; teenager’s curiosity, peer group pressure, early alcohol use, drug availability and unemployment. The model indicates that there is 2.2, 1.4, 1.7, 2.0 and 1.8 times likelihood of involvement in drug abuse with a unit increase in teenager’s curiosity, peer group pressure, early alcohol use, drug availability and unemployment respectively among youths. The result obtained can be used in tackling drug use within the Metropolis by NDLEA, security agencies and parents and it supported many findings of other researchers on drug use/abuse and it is recommended to involve other factors for further research on the topic.
KEYWORDS: Drug, drug abuse, prevalence, Binomial Logistic Regression, Risk factors
A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF COLLABORATIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT BASED ON TPACK FRAMEWORK
HYELLAMADA SIMON1, IRETI HOPE AJAYI2, & HIRADI LAZARUS MICHAEL3
1,2,3Department of Computer Science Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, P.M.B. 35 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria
Learning in the 21st century has been taking a new dimension due to the technological innovations in pedagogy. Where mobile devices offer new prospects for learning within and beyond the conners of classroom. Though creating standard technological pedagogy content for interactive learning is of concern among teachers in tertiary institutions. This research proposed a concept based on Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework for effective creation of pedagogy content for collaborative seamless learning. This work also proposed a model architectural design for the development of collaborative e-learning environment. Therefore, the paper recommends that the model should be used by teachers for creation of learners-centric content. Also, programmers should use the model designed to create interactive environment for e-learning.
KEYWORDS: Student-centric learning, TPACK framework, collaborative learning, e-learning, and pedagogy
TYPICAL SOLAR RADIATION DATA FOR OSOGBO, NIGERIA
1ADEYEMI WAHEED ADEBANJO, 2YUSUF ABDULHAMID, 3ALAJE ELIJAH OLAYIWOLA, 4 ABIOYE, ISMAIL OLAWALE, & 5OLAWALE, OLANIRAN KAYODE
1, 3,4 Department of Science Laboratory Technology. Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria. 2Atmospheric data station. Physics with Electronics Unit. Department of Physics Electronics & Earth Science. Fountain University Osogbo, Nigeria. 5Department of Science Laboratory Technology. Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria
The measured values of the hourly global solar radiation, GR, on a horizontal surface for a year period (January 1st–December 31st,2017) have been collected and used to examine the solar radiation characteristics in Osogbo, Nigeria. The daily total values and their monthly and seasonal means, as well as their frequency distributions, have been calculated and investigated. The preliminary data set show the annual trend of GR to be symmetry around August, with peak value of about 23.38 MJ m−2 in June and a minimum value of 3.26 MJ m−2 in August, which is the peak of the monsoon season. It was also noticed that 5MJm-2, 10 MJm-2, 15MJm-2 and 20 MJm-2 of GR are received for 362, 311, 170 and 9 days over the year respectively. A comparative study has also been done to investigate the quantity of global radiation values received in Osogbo. It was found that GR values received during the period is low when compared to other region around the world.
KEYWORDS: Global solar radiation, Osogbo, distribution, seasonal, frequency.
PROXIMATE AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF SOME SELECTED PLANTS UTILIZED BY SUNBIRD SPECIES FOUND IN FEDERAL COLLEGE OF FORESTRY, JOS, NIGERIA
COLLINA KAMBAI*1, OGECHI C. MATTHIAS1, SHOMBORO KARAU2, DAVID O. OYELEYE1, RABIU S. ABUBAKAR1
1Department of Forestry Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State. 2The National Centre for Remote Sensing, Jos, Nigeria
The study was carried out to determine proximate and mineral composition of some selected plants highly visited (Hamelia patens, Callistemon citrinus) and rarely visited (Senna siamea and saba comorensis) by sunbird species found in Federal College of Forestry, Jos. The nectar of each of the flowers was collected very early in the morning with the use of capillary tube. Proximate analysis was carried out to determine the moisture content, crude fiber, crude protein, ash, carbohydrate, crude fat and sugar. The result revealed crude fat is higher in Hamelia patens with 10%. Hamelia patens is richer in calcium with 87209 ppm whereas Callistemon citrinus has high content of sodium with 4166.77 ppm. Furthemore, Senna siamea is richer in Manganese with 22.353 ppm and Saba comorensis has the highest content of magnesium with 613.54 ppm. Hamelia patens and Callistemon citrinus is red in colour, Senna siamea and Saba comorensis has bright yellow and white colour respectively. It can be deduced that the various characteristics of choice of plants attracted by sunbirds is colour, nutrient and mineral content as was discovered to be higher in plants mostly visited. Hence, it is recommended that in order to ensure the existence of sunbird species which are important pollinators and keystone species, the conservation of these highly visited plant species should be encouraged.
KEYWORDS: Sunbirds, Utilisation, Competition, Proximate, Mineral.
INFLEUNCE OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL FARM ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF AGRICULTURAL STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LAU LGA, TARABA STATE, NIGERIA
1MELAIYE, O RUFUS (PhD); 2GALADIMA, ANTHONY ISHAKU; 3CHUBOH, J. VICTOR, 3YUSUF, A AUDU; & 5TABI, ISAAC,
1Taraba State University Jalingo, Vocational and Technology Ed. Dept. 2GDSS SAYONTI, LAU LGA. 3Dept. of Agricultural Education, Voc. & Tech., College of Education, Zing 5College of education, Zing, Integrated Science Dept. College of Education zing
The study determined the influence of vocational Agricultural School Farm on the academic performance of Agricultural Science Students in Secondary Schools in LAU LGA, Taraba State. One of the objectives of vocational agriculture is to prepare students for occupation in agriculture. This important objective cannot be accomplished without the use of adequate and pragmatic strategies that will enhance teaching and learning. Employing a descriptive survey research design, the study collected data by administering a structured questionnaire to 70 respondents comprising of 50 teachers and 20 Non-academic staff. No sampling was done. The entire population was used. The questionnaire was validated, giving reliability co-efficient of 0.85%. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation, while T-test analysis was used to test the hypothesis at .05 level of significance. The findings revealed that agricultural teachers and non-academic staff in all the schools in the study area agreed on all the items presented on the two research questions. The findings of the study form the basis to draw conclusion that efforts are highly needed in vocational agricultural school farm establishment.
KEYWORDS: Vocational, School Farm, Teacher
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF N.P.K FERTILIZER ON ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE (MELOIDOGYNE SPP) ASSOCIATED WITH SWEET POTATO (IPOMOEA BATATAS) IN THE NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA OF NIGERIA
1MAIJAMA’A, N. A., 2CHIMOYA, I.A. AND 3 TUTI N. Z.
1,2, Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi P.M. B. 35 Mubi Adamawa State. 3Department of Horticultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi P.M. B. 35 Mubi Adamawa State
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different rates of N.P.K fertilizer on the management of Root knot nematode on sweet potato and to identify the best N.P.K fertilizer rate for the control of Root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp) and optimum tuber yield of sweet potato. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was employed. The insecticidal treatments consisted of three rates of fertilizer (0.24kgha, 0.16kg/ha and 0.08kg/ha). Results of the study consistently indicated there was significant (P<0.05) differences among the different rates of fertilizer treatments on Root knot nematodes population, number of tubers, tubers weight, tubers diameter, and tuber yield throughout the study period. The higher fertilizer rate of 0.24kg/ha, gave the best control of the nematode pest, followed by 0.16kg/ha and 0.08 kg/ha rate with significant reduction in nematode population, higher number of tubers, tuber weight, tuber diameter and tuber yield , compared to control. Consequently, the best tuber yield was obtained from 0.24kg/ha rate, while yields obtained from 0.16kg/ha and 0.08kg/ha were statistically similar in that order. It could be recommended that N.P.K fertilizer rates, 0.24kg/ha was the most effective in the control of nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and in enhancing the tuber yield of sweet potato.
KEYWORDS: N.P.K, Fertilizer, Level, Root-knot Nematodes, Sweet potato and Tuber
EFFECTS OF POST-HARVEST MANAGEMENT OF RICE PADDY IN BWARI AREA COUNCIL, FCT, ABUJA NIGERIA
WAZIS, DUNAMA HARUNA
Department of Research Outreach, Nigerian Stored Product, Research Institute, Kano, P.M.B. 3032, Kano, Nigeria.
This study aimed at investigating the effects of post harvesting management methods used by rice farmers in Bwari Area Council and the effects of such methods on the quality of harvested paddy rice. 30 farmers were selected and a focus group discussion was conducted gather information on the stages of post-harvest management of the rice paddy. The result of the focus group discussion revealed that respondents harvest rice with sickle and after harvesting, they Stockpile the harvested rice stalk paddy in heaps which they turn in order to dry before threshing. Threshing is manually done by beating the harvested rice stalk or straw on a metal water drum with capacity of 100 litre in order for the grains to be detached from the rice stalk. The respondents transport the paddy in bags of 50kg and buckets in order to clean and store the paddy rice. They clean their paddy by winnowing which is to allow the air current to blow of chaff gathered during threshing. Also, the use sieve with a mesh that allows small stones gathered during threshing and drying to drop from the paddy grains and hand pick the heavier foreign materials like bigger stones and animal waste. After this stage, the rice paddy is bagged into 50kg sacks made of polythene.These methods give rise to impurities like stones; animal excretes, which stop grain from sprouting and to be discoloured as a result of mould. The rice paddy quality is also affected during storage as farmers are faced with the constraints of available space and leaking roofs and also attack by rodents and weevil in the storage house which cause sprouted grains, discoloured (mould) grains, damaged grain during storage.
KEYWORDS: Council, Management, Harvest, Effect, Post-harvest
A REVIEW OF NON-ASBESTOS BRAKE PAD MATERIALS AND THE FUTURE TREND
GAI PETER FRIDAY (1), ADISA, ADEMOLA BELLO (2), TOKAN AJE (2), BAWA, MAHAMMED A. (2).
1UAC Foods Limited Ojota Lagos. 2Department of Mechanical/Production Engineering Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria.
The discovering of asbestos as friction material for brake was a breakthrough in the manufacturing of modern friction material for brake pads and linings. In early 70’s it was discovered that asbestos is carcinogenic, and this post a great danger to human health, hence a legislative ban on the use of asbestos in materials especially the brake pad and lining. The banned spark intensive research on alternative materials for brake pad, in the area of agro-waste, materials like palm kernel shell, cocoa beans shell, coconut shell, cow bones, cow hoof, periwinkle shell, banana peel, maize husk and rice husk have been researched as materials for brake. Other materials investigated are metals of different types like cast iron, copper, titanium, bronze, aluminium, and ceramics were developed as alternative materials for brake pad. Among these materials ceramics seems to have better properties but one of its drawbacks is the cost of production because of high specialized equipment required in the production of ceramic fibre. This review looked at an alternative for ceramics that is rocks especially basalt rock. This rock has similar chemical compositions with ceramics, and it is available in abundant quantity hence there is need to research in the area.
KEYWORDS: Review, Non-Asbestos, Materials, Brake, Pad, Future, Trend
DEVELOPMENT OF A CAR LOCKING SYSTEM USING ANDROID APPLICATION
EBINOWEN, TUSIN DAYO.
Department of Electrical Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Ile Oluji, Ondo State.
For effective security against car theft, an embedded system that provides features of locking and un-locking cars using smart phones was developed and implemented. This Paper therefore, presents the ‘Development and Implementation of a Car Locking System Using Android Phone’ for security and ease of locking and unlocking car doors. This is achieved by using the mobile phone’s Bluetooth and Android application. This technology will help the user to access his/her car with ease.
KEYWORDS: Android Phone, Locking, Un-Locking, Car, Security.
SMART OFFICE USING MESSAGE DELIVERY ROBOTIC VEHICLE
1OLAIYA, K. A., 2OLADOSU, D. A., 3BELLO, A.
1,3Department of Mechatronics Engineering, The Polytechnic, Ibadan 2Department of Computer Engineering, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.
As per drive in obtaining higher degree in establishment, the number of officers applying/working as office assistants and messengers are getting reduced, besides, majority of those there presently are of age fifty (50) and above. This may pose administrative laxity if the trend is not controlled. Technical interventions that utilize technology, such as robotics, are solutions that have proven to arrest the situation as it is developed Countries. This study intends to develop Message Delivery Robotic Vehicle, it was developed to assist in office management and message delivery to make daily activities easier as long as the message is to be delivered within the same floor. It has a dimension of 40 cm (length) x 40 cm (wide) x 40 cm (height), it can be remotely controlled to send message and call back using Radio Frequency (RF) Application from Head of Department (HOD) office to General Departmental office as well as departmental Library. The robot also has several features such as alarm system which indicates the robot arrival at the destination, LCD and keyboard so the user can write message, obstacle sensor to avoid crash, and emergency system which will activate when the robot strays out of the line. All activities are controlled by microcontroller PIC16F84 while the maximum speed of the robot is 1.045 m/s, and it can accommodate maximum load of 1.5 kg.
KEYWORDS: Car, Microcontroller, RF transmitter, delivery robot, Speed
APPRAISAL OF A SOLAR POWERED AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM
ONYEMELIKAYA IFEOMA BLESSING; & ENEASATOR CHINELO FAUSTINA
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko
The availability of solar radiation in phase with the seasonal as well as hourly cooling load profiles in most of the office buildings in the Mediterranean region, in addition to the large share of primary energy consumed for air-conditioning applications in office buildings create a high motivation for the utilization of solar cooling technology for such type of buildings. A solar heating and cooling system for an office building in Italy has been designed, installed and monitored within the framework of the EC co-funded project SOLERA aiming at developing highly integrated solar thermal heating and cooling system that is able to achieve a high solar fraction both for the heating and cooling seasons. The analysis of the system performance during 2011 is presented in this paper, with main focus on electricity consumption during summer. The analysis has been carried out according to the monitoring procedure developed within the frame of the IEA SHC Task 38.
KEYWORDS: Solar assisted air-conditioning; solar cooling; absorption; performance assessment.
AN ON-LINE DRUG AUTHENTICATION AND NOTIFICATION SYSTEM
ODUMOSU A. A.
Department of Computer Science, Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu-Igbo, Ogun State, Nigeria
Authentication is the act of verifying the validity of an entity’s stated true attribute of a single piece of data (data). Proof of the authenticity of a drug actually involves the act of verifying that the origin of the drug exists or is active and the expiration date is valid. Drug authentication, in other words, also requires verification of at least one type of identification. Many drug identification methods have been set by the regulatory body to monitor the detection of contaminated drugs. The main purpose of this study is to establish an Online Drug Authenticating System (ODAS) that can verify and certify expired drugs and inform pharmacists and consumers of any drug that will expire or has expired.This system is designed to be a central authentication system with a single product verification database. During the registration and testing of each development or product development, each drug will be given a specific barcode according to its production package. This special code cannot be cloned and before the product consumer discloses the code before or after payment, it remains anonymous.
KEYWORDS: Authentication, Drug, Notification, QR Code, Expiry date.