MEDITERRANEAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE
VOL. 17 NO. 3 (MEJMBPS) SEPTEMBER, 2021
Published by: MEDITERRANEAN PUBLICATIONS AND RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL,
Canberra ACT 0201, Australia.
Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011, Kano State, Nigeria.
E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org PHONE: +234-708-717-324
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INSECTICIDE TREATED MOSQUITO NETS AS A SINGLE VECTOR CONTROL MEASURE AGAINST MALARIA IN ONMBA-ASHA COMMUNITY NAKA, GWER-WEST LGA BENUE STATE, NIGERIA
ORJIME, MARK TERHILE
Biology Unit, School of Basic Sciences, Nigeria Maritime University, Okerenkoko, Delta State
The use of Insecticide Treated mosquito Net (ITN) has been the major preventive measure against Malaria for a long time now but Malaria is still a serious public health challenge. This study investigated the effectiveness of ITN and the use of indoor residual spray (IRS) of insecticide Novan (Nashik) when used as a single vector control measure against Malaria. A total of 402 human subjects were screened using standard microscopy, out of which 302 (75.1%) were infected with plasmodium species while 100 (24.9%) were not infected. The 100 uninfected subjects were then divided into 2 groups with one group having their homes sprayed with Novan insecticide while the other group was given ITNs. After 8 months of observations, 40 subjects (80%) from those who used Novan had Malaria while 46 subjects (92%) who used ITN had Malaria. The higher percentage of Malaria infection observed among ITN users was attributed to factors such as outdoor resting at night for long periods before going to bed, wrong or non- usage of the nets during heat periods etc. Although results have shown that Novan insecticide is more effective than ITN, statistical analysis (Chi-square; df=21, p>0.05) showed that there was no significant difference between the effectiveness of Novan insecticide and ITN when used as a single vector control measure against Malaria. These findings may be useful in providing information concerning ITN in evaluating appropriate vector control measures against Malaria. The public health and epidemiological implications of the findings is the use of these two vector controls measures simultaneously.
KEYWORDS: Malaria, Effectiveness, Insecticide, Treated Mosquito Net, Vector.
SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE (HSD) TEST OF MEAN SCORES FOR MOSQUITOES’ GENERA
1DUWA, S.R., 2OLORUNPOMI, O.T AND 3ANI, C.
1,3Department of Biological Sciences, Nigeria Police Academy, Wudil, Kano, Nigeria. 2Department of Computer Science and Mathematics, Nigeria Police Academy, Wudil, Kano, Nigeria.
This study investigates the relative abundance of adult mosquitoes in four selected sites in Nigeria Police Academy, Wudil, Kano, Nigeria in June, 2019 via two-factor analysis model. A total of eight hundred and thirty-nine (839) adult mosquitoes involving of 3 genera namely Anopheles, Aedes, and Culex were identified in the four selected sites, and 125 of the mosquitoes were males (14.90%) and 714 were females (85.1%). More so, Anopheles mosquitoes were higher in terms of abundance with a total number of 476samples (56.7%) followed by Culex, 203 (24.20%), and then Aedes, 160 (19.07%). Furthermore, the population of mosquitoes in the girls’ hostel is 250 (29.80%), the girls’ hostel staircase, 241 (28.72%), the quarter guard, 330 (39.33%), and the clinic, 18 (2.15%). Residual of the ANOVA for the transformed data are normally distributed and homogeneity of variances exist across samples; hence, insect group means are all equal while, the surveyed site group means are different from the others. More so, no significant differences between groups sample means of girls’ hostel and clinic, as well as the girls’ hostel staircase and quarter guard; thus, the factor effects are additive and no interaction between factors. Furthermore, significant differences were noticed between groups sample mean of quarter guard and clinic, girls’ hostel staircase and clinic, quarter guard and girls’ hostel, girls’ hostel staircase and girls’ hostel; thus, the factor effects are no means additive and interaction between factors exist. Succinctly, no significant differences between group sample means of the insects considered; thus, the factor effects are additive and no interaction between factors
KEYWORDS: Additive Factor Effects, Homogeneity, Mosquitoes, Interaction, Two-factor analysis
STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF MALARIA ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AMONG RESIDENTS OF GWADABAWA LOCAL GOVERNMENT SOKOTO STATE, NIGERIA
ABDULLAHI, B. DANLADI, Y. K. AND N.T. ISYAKU
Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aleiro.
Malaria remain a major public health concern in Nigeria where it account for more morbidity and mortality than any other country in the world. This study investigate the effects of malaria on haematological parameters among residents of Gwadabawa Local Government, Sokoto State Nigeria. A total of 350 individuals were randomly selected from 350 systematically selected households across five wards of the area. A sample of 2ml of venous blood was collected by venopuncture into ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid bottle. Malaria parasite was detected by microscopic examination of thick and thin blood films stained with 10% Giemsa. Haemoanalysis was conducted using Genesis6000HA. The study revealed that, there is significant difference between the infected and non infected individuals in the following blood parameters; MCH, MCV,HCT and PLT. P=0.030, 0.010, 0.031 and 0.004 respectively. Malaria affect some blood parameters among infected individuals which could leads to considerable morbidity. Hence proper management of these blood parameters is vital for the treatment of infected individuals and also, improved sanitation, health education, environmental modification and other vector control measures as well as prompt diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals should be carried out to prevent the spread of the infection in the area.
KEYWORDS: Malaria, Household, Venopuncture, Microscopy, Haemoanalysis,
THE DEBITTERING EFFECT OF POTASH ON METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BITTERLEAF (Vernonia amygdalina)
1KANU C. N. AND 2ONUEGBU P. I.
1Department of Food Technology Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria. 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State.
The current study was aimed at evaluating The Debittering Effect of Potash on Methanolic Extract of Bitterleaf (Vernonia amygdalina) using hot treatment process. The extract was analyzed of its qualitative phytochemicals using standard analytical methods before and after treatment with potash salt. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids (+++), flavonoids (++), phenols (++), tannins (++), saponins (++), steroids (++), terpenoids (+) and cardiac glycoside (+) in the sample without potash treatment, while the sample treated with potash showed the presence of alkaloid (+), flavonoids (+), saponins (+), terpenoids (+), steroids (+), cardiac glycoside (+), but there was no presence of phenol and tannins. Phenols and tannins have been reported to be the compound causing bitterness in vegetables. Alkaloid from bitter leaf (V. amygdalina) inhibits phosphodiesterase – 5, and oxidative stress in rat’s penile tissue. Phenols and tannins which have been reported to be the compound causing bitterness in vegetables were totally absent in the treated extract. Therefore, the process is recommended as a preparative method of bitter leaf for use when cooking, contrary to a belief that squeezing and washing alone will be sufficient to remove anti nutritional factors contributing to the bitter taste of V. amygdalina.
KEYWORDS: Debittering, Bitterleaf, Extract, Potash, Methanolic
PREVALENCE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION AMONG SCIENCE LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS IN FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC OKO, ANAMBRA STATE.
OKECHUKWU CHIKELUBA M.; And AGU CHICHEBEM M.
Federal Polytechnic Oko.
Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection among Science Laboratory Technology student’s in Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State was investigated. 5 samples of urine were analyzed for urinary tract infection associated organisms. Mac-Conkey agar medium and manitol salt agar were used to culture the urine samples by streak method and pure cultures obtained were indentified by various standard biochemical tests. The result showed Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli was isolated in all samples, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. The isolated bacterial pathogens were screened for their susceptibilities to antibiotics using disk diffusion method. Result showed the average zone of inhibition to be the widest for ampiclox and ciprofloxacin at 15.0mm while amoxaccilin had the least at 6.0mm for Escherichia coli while the average diameter of inhibition showed gentamycin to be widest at 15.0mm for Staphylococcus aureus.
KEYWORDS: Urinary, Laboratory, Prevelence, Infection, Science
AGRANULOCYTIC RESPONSES TO PARASITAEMIA OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM SPECIES IN CHILDREN (6-
YAHAYA, INUWA1, MOHAMMED ISA TADA2, YUSUF SHETTIMA3, MUSA ALI MUHAMAD4
1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri Nigeria. (Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Federal
One of the major social and health problems of the 21st century is drug use which has contributed a lot to the psychological/mental displacement of youths and the adult population in Nigeria. It is against this backdrop that the academic discourse looks at drug use as a public health issue in Nigeria. The prevalence of drug use was described using the recent National survey data of the National Bureau of Statistics, National Drug Law Enforcement Agency [NDLEA] and United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime [UNODC]. Also, the commonly used drugs, the nature of administration into the body and acute/health effects, root causes, and measures for curbing the menace were also discussed. Based on the reviewed literature side-by-side the observed current situation, it was recommended among others that government and Non- Governmental Organizations should employ qualified Social Workers and Environmental Health officers to develop professional strategies for prevention, control and treatment of drug addicts and abusers in society. This will help to provide effective assessment, referral, community supports, and inter-professional collaboration; government at all levels as well as private enterprises, community leaders, philanthropists, and other relevant stakeholders should provide organise skill acquisition training/empower programs for the teeming youths and able men and women. This will help to reduce idleness and at the same time channel their strength toward nation-building activities for the attainment of sustainable development goals in Nigeria.
KEYWORDS: Drug & Substance Use, Public Health, Prevalence, Effects and Measures
MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF RICE SAMPLES COMMONLY SOLD IN MUBI MARKET, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA (MANUSCRIPT NUMBER: (MANUSCRIPT NUMBER: 2021-198)
WAFARI, U. U; & TA’AWU, K. G
Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi.
Rice can be a source of food poisoning because it can be contaminated with dangerous pathogens. The aim of this study is to assess the microbial quality of some rice sold in Mubi market. A total of Eight (8) different rice samples purchased from Mubi market were analyzed to study the microbial loads by standard microbiological techniques. The Moisture content was also investigated. Highest moisture content (11.5%) was obtained from local rice whiles the lowest moisture content (7.5%) was observed in foreign rice. The mean ACC for the cooked and uncooked rice samples ranged between 2.67 ± 0.39 to 3.19 ± 0.06log10 CFU/g and 2.69 ± 0.3 to 3.34 ± 0.03log10 CFU/g respectively. The ACC was found to be higher in foreign rice as compared to the local rice for both cooked and uncooked rice samples. For the fungal counts, the mean FCC of the cooked and uncooked rice samples ranged from 1.0 ± 0.0 to 2.45 ±0.64log10 CFU/g and 1.0 ± 0.0 to 3.15 ± 0.21log10 CFU/g in that order. The mean fungal count for the local rice was found to be higher as compared to the foreign for both cooked and uncooked rice samples. Salmonella species, Staphylococcus aureus, and E. coli were not detected in all the samples.
KEYWORDS: rice, pathogens, microbial assessment, food poisoning, Bacillus cereus
THE ROLE OF PUBLIC HEALTH IN FOSTERING ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA
*DR. MOHAMMED SANI ABDULLAHI; **DR. DAWA SAMBO JONES; & ***JAMIYAL NATHAN DAUDA
*General Outpatient Department, Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe. **School of Medicine, Gombe state University. ***Department of General studies, Gombe State Polytechnic, Bajoga.
Public health improvements and economic growth are closely interrelated. In discussing such issues, a large number of both theoretical and empirical questions, and social policy issues are obvious. The issue of bi-directional causality between health and development has contributed to one of the liveliest debates in the last two decades in development economics, with an alternation of mainstreams rather than a real dialogue. We offer four pathways to overcome these limitations, some of which are not new but have not been integrated together: reconcile the microeconomic and macroeconomic analyses; explore the channels of influence to better resolve the ambiguity of the relationship; establish a dialogue with the epidemiology and biomedical sciences – the definition of a good or bad health is not neutral in this debate, neither are the health indicators used; develop a supply side analysis, while so far the demand side has received more attention. The paper used secondary sources of data as its methodology of data collection.
KEYWORDS: Health, epidemiology, economic growth, poverty, inequality.
THE PHYSICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF MARGARINE PRODUCED FROM CANNABIS OIL-PALM OIL BLENDS
GBENGA O. MICHAEL OYINLOYE1, KELECHI NNAJI1, JUSTINA OBIAJUNWA1
Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri
Margarine was produced from blends of cannabis oil-palm oil to investigate if the product will be accepted. The samples obtained were (100% Palm oil, 100% Marijuana oil, 70% Palm oil and 30% marijuana oil, 70% Marijuana oil and 30% Palm oil and 50% Palm oil and 50% Marijuana oil. The produced Margarine samples were stored at an ambient temperature, and its physical properties were investigated with the standard method, while its sensory properties were conducted using a 9-point hedonic scale. The physical result ranged for moisture (%); from 38.0-42.0, Viscosity (centipoise); 2.9 -8.2, and the Specific gravity from 73.6 to 74.8; all for Samples AOA, AOB, AOC, AOD and AOE, respectively. The result from the sensory analysis revealed that most samples for taste were significantly different at p < 0.05. It was concluded that margarine could be produced replacing palm oil with only 50% cannabis oil. The acceptability of some of the sensory parameters suggested that production of margarine using the two oil blends should be granted the proper ethical approval for enabling the volunteering panelists for a comprehensive taste paneling.
KEYWORDS: Margarine, Cannabis oil and Palm oil.
DETERMINATION OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ALKALINEWATER PRODUCED VIA ELECTROLYSIS
NDIFE CHIDIEBERE TEMPLE AND MGBECHI CLETUS EKENE
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State.
In this work, the physicochemical properties of alkaline water produced through electrolysis were determined. The alkaline water sample was gotten from Kangen alkaline water company in Awka, Anambra State and was taken to the laboratory for analysis. The physicochemical properties of the alkaline water were determined using standard water analysis methods and the results for the analysis showed that the alkaline water is colourless, oourless, has an ash taste, a turbidity of 0.02(NTU), temperature 27oC, pH 8.50, conductivity 158µSiemens/cm, total solid 189.2mg/L, total alkalinity 69.8mg CaCO3/L, total hardness 108.0mg/L CaCO3, aluminium 0.05mg/L, iron 0.03mg/L, calcium 131.01mg/L, sodium 77.5mg/L, chloride 0.81mg/L and fluoride 0.003mg/L. All the parameters of this alkaline water falls within the WHO an SON permitted levels. The water was made alkaline through electrolysis from a borehole water whose initial pH was 6.17 which is unfit for consumption. This alkaline water is good for drinking specifically as it helps the body to maintain a good pH to fight off certain illnesses caused by some bacteria.
KEYWORDS: Alkaline water, Borehole water, Electrolysis, Physicochemical Properties,
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TOKAR SHA AGAINST ENTERIC BACTERIA
*1SHITU, S., 1ABUBAKAR, A. A. AND 2TAL, B. S.
1Department of Applied Biology, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna State, Nigeria 2School of Health Technology, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna State, Nigeria
The antibacterial activity of Tokar sha; a local traditional medication widely used by many people in North-west zone of Nigeria especially Sokoto, Kebbi and Zamfara against enteric infections were examined against some clinical isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhi) using agar well diffusion method. The pattern of inhibition varied with the tokar sha concentrations and the organisms tested. The tokar sha was more effective on E. coli with a maximum zone of growth inhibition of 25mm at 35mg/ml followed by B. cereus (20mm). However, S. aureus and S. typhi were resistant to tokar sha at all concentrations tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were found to be 35mg/ml for both E. coli and B. cereus. The antibacterial activities exhibited by tokar sha in this study could be attributed to the presence of its constituents which signifies the potential of the tokar sha as a therapeutic agent. These findings may justify the ethnomedicinal use of tokar sha as an antibacterial agent against enterobacteria.
KEYWORDS: antibacterial activity, E. coli, S. aureus, Tokar sha, clinical isolates
POLY (OLEFIN SULFONE)S (POSS)/CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITES IN SENSORS/BIOSENSORS APPLICATIONS.
MGBECHI CLETUS EKENE; AND NDIFE CHIDIEBERE TEMPLE
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Applied Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Pmb 021 Aguata Anambra State.
Organic polymers can be used as the active component of sensors and layer of solar cells. Ionizing radiation is radiation capable of ejecting an electron from an atom upon interaction with organic matter. The rational design and modification of the chemical structure of polymers has enabled control over their properties and morphology, leading to the advancement of Nanotechnology. Sensing the presence of ionizing radiation is crucial in several fields, including energy, biological and nuclear research. In general, systems used for the detection and dosimetry of ionizing radiation usually have one or several drawbacks. In this study, we report a new sensing scheme for radiation based on organic materials, in which the signal is not generated by scintillation or charge creation in a semi-conductor. The system herein described is based on the degradation of the radiation labile polymeric matrix of a composite film upon radiation exposure, which leads to large resistivity changes in a composite film. We also show how chemical design and tailoring of the sides chains of this active polymer using an orthogonal post polymerization modification can be used for the optimization of sensor performance. All reactions were performed using standard Schlenk techniques. Poly (Olefin Sulfone) (POS) synthesis was carried out following literature procedures. In order to test these ideas, devices containing a thin film of a poly (1-hexene Sulfone) (P1HS) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were fabricated. When the current measured under a constant potential of devices fabricated with different ratios of P1HS to MWCNTs was investigated, it was evidenced that increasing loadings of P1HS yielded Lower Conductivities for the composite films. The chemical structure of the active element in the sensor was modified to improve device sensitivity.
KEYWORDS: Biosensor, sensor, poly (Olefin Sulfone), Nanotubes, Polymers, Radiation.
EFFECTS OF METALLIC NANOPARTICLES AS ANTIMICROBIALS OF NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID FLOW THROUGH DISEASED ARTERIES
Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, PMB 0231, Bauchi State. Nigeria.
The current investigation is the study of different types of nanoparticles such as copper (Cu), titanium (TiO2) and aluminum (Al2O3) in the existence of mild stenosis lesions. To account the gravitational effects artery is considered longways. The exact solutions are achieved by using the Euler–Cauchy method. The presented graphs show the thermophysical properties of fluids (blood) and nanoparticles through the velocity profile (Vz), volume fraction (ϕ), Grashof number (Gr), heat source or sink parameter (β), resistance impedance (λ), wall shear stress(τrz) and temperature profile (θ). The obtained results show that the transmission of axial velocity curves through a pure fluid (ϕ=0) is substantially lower at (-0.505≤r≤0.505) than that through a nanofluid. The size of trapping bolus in the case of pure fluid flow (ϕ=0) is smaller than that through nanofluid.
KEYWORDS: Homogenous flow model, Nanoparticles Blood flow Stenosis, Grashof number
POTENTIAL OF HAIR GROWTH OIL PRODUCTION FROM OIL EXTRACTED FROM THE PULP (MESOCARP) OF AVOCADO PEAR
OBODOEZE JOSEPH JIDEOFOR1 AND IGWAGU RUTH CHIDIOGO2
Science Laboratory Technology Department, School of Applied Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria
This project work involves extraction, characterization and production of hair growth oil from avocado pear oil (APO) as carrier oil. Oil extraction from the dried and ground pulp of avocado pear of 0.3mm particle size was done using soxhlet extraction method with n-hexane as extracting solvent at 60oC and 90 minutes. Physicochemical properties of the oil were determined using standard AOAC method (2010). The hair growth oil (HGO) was produced using cold method by mixing a given quantity of the carrier oil (APO) with a given amount of peppermint essential oil, followed by addition of desired fragrance. The percentage oil yield of 15.39% was obtained. Physicochemical properties of the extracted APO were: Colour (dark greenish brown), refractive index (1.4608), specific gravity (0.9182), flash point (220 oC), Saponification value (178.90mgKOH/100g oil), Acid Value (1.23 mg/g), iodine value (77.95g-I/100g oil), peroxide value (1.46meqKOH/g), and pH at 29oC (4.56). The properties of the produced hair growth oil (HGO) were: pH (5.8), specific gravity at 60 oC (0.898), flash point (230 oC), colour ((light greenish brown) while Sensory evaluation showed that the produce HGO was smooth to touch, mild to the body, and of nice smelling aroma (fragrance) of vanilla fantasy, and very effective in promoting hair growth, decreasing dandruff and mitigate hair brakage and damage. The oil obtained from this study can be considered to be economical for commercial production of oil in Nigeria because of the appreciable yield and the encouraging physicochemical properties, while the produced HGO can be said to be a good hair product with excellent properties.
KEYWORDS: Hair growth, oil, avocado pear
INVESTIGATIVE STUDY ON THE DETOXIFICATION OF CHROMIUM III ION (Cr3+) POLLUTED WATER USING NEEM LEAVES AS ADSORBENT
*ABDULLAHI MOYOSORE; *DAUDA HASSAN LAMUNTANI; & **EFFIOM WILLIAM ANIETIMFON
*Department Of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, Katsina. **Department of Mathematics, Federal College of Education, Katsina.
This research work is being carried out in order to ascertain the presence and level of dissolved chromium III ion (Cr3+) in water, vegetables and soil of farm land and to investigate the production of an adsorbent from natural source and its use for the removal of the metal ion (Cr3+) from the affected water. The presence and level of dissolved chromium III ion (Cr3+) in the water, vegetable and the soil samples were ascertained using simple qualitative test and AAS (Atomic leaves) respectively. Powdered Azadiracta indica leaves (Neem leaves) was prepared and used as adsorbent as against the use of activated carbon, Silica, Alumina e.t.c. The equilibrium study was systematically carried out in a batch process covering process parameters such as agitation time, adsorbent dosage and pH of the chromium solution. The effect of the variation of equilibrium agitation time was considered by plotting % removal of Cr3+) against agitation time and found out that as time increases, the rate at which chromium ion is being adsorbed by the adsorbent increases, indicating a removal efficiency of 89.2% at 5min. for the water and a maximum of 92.5% at equilibrium time of 60min probably due to weak interaction between Cr3+ and the adsorbent with constant stirring. The result of varying the adsorbent dosage to give the idea of the percentage removal of Cr3+ in 60min agitation time indicated an increase in adsorption from 89.2% to 89.4% as the amount of neem powder increases from 2g to 10g. This is probably due to an increase in surface area of attachment of the Cr3+ to the adsorbent whose surface area has been increased due to the large quantity of it being used. The results of the effect of variation of concentration indicate a decrease in % removal of Cr3+ from 95.3% to 62.2% as the initial concentration of Cr3+ increases from 10mg/L to 50mg/L for 10g of 106µm, size adsorbent at 60min equilibrium agitation time. The results of the effect of pH variation shows that the % removal of Cr3+ from the water increases from 89.2% to 96.8% with 6g of 106µm adsorbent for an increase in pH from 2 to 6. Thus adsorption increases with decrease in acidity, since at low pH, H+ competes with Cr3+ for sites on the adsorbent. Based on the above results which show the maximum % removal of Cr3+ higher adsorption of Cr3+ heavy metal ion on the adsorbent, there is the possibility of electrostatic interaction or attraction between the adsorbent and Cr3+ adsorbent. The possibility of the neem leaves powder containing higher % electronegative components and polar groups like –NH2 –COOH, OH e.t.c providing negative surface and making the attraction possible is also thought in this study. From the results of the AAS and the qualitative test on the soil and vegetable samples, the presence of (Cr3t) was confirmed though at a low level of 0.000352 ppm and 0.000537 ppm respectively for each of the samples.
KEYWORDS: Chromium III Ion, Plluted Water, Investigation, Detoxification, Adsorbent.
RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF RESPIRATORY DISEASES OF TURKEY IN THE GUINEA SAVANNAH ZONE OF NIGERIA
ABUBAKAR S. M. ABBA; & ADAMU M, S
Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
Five years retrospective study on the incidences of respiratory diseases of turkeys in Mubi, the northern guinea savannah zone of Nigeria was carried out from 2013 to 2017. All the incidence of turkey respiratory diseases within the periods of the study was obtained from the records of zonal veterinary clinic Mubi of adamawa state, Nigeria. The five year retrospective study revealed a total number of 254 detected cases of respiratory diseases in turkeys reported to the zonal veterinary clinic, Mubi. Out of this number (254), 134 (52.8. %), 109 (42.9%), and 11(4.3%) were recorded for bacterial, viral and non-infectious diseases respectively. Fowl typhoid 79 (31.1%) was the most predominant disease of turkeys recorded during the study, while Marek’s disease 5 (2.0%) was the least respiratory disease of turkeys as revealed in the study. The incidence of respiratory diseases in turkeys is generally low as observed in this study but there is need for total eradications of these diseases for successful turkey production as this species provides the much needed low fat protein supplement to the ever increasing human population in Nigeria. This can be achieved through better enforcement of government disease control policies and measures with better management practices such as intensive system of management and routine vaccination of all turkeys against preventable respiratory diseases.
KEYWORDS: Retrospective, Incidence, Respiratory diseases and turkeys
THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CHILDHOOD POVERTY, ADOLESCENT EXPOSURE TO INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE, AND POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN A NONCLINICAL SAMPLE OF NIGERIAN AND SOUTH-AFRICAN YOUTH
*RONKE G AWOPETU; & **STEVEN J. COLLINGS
*Airforce Institute of Technology, Kaduna, Nigeria. **University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
The association between childhood poverty, adolescent exposure to intimate partner violence, and the presence of clinically significant levels of PTSD symptoms was examined among students registered for undergraduate social science classes in Nigeria (n = 426) and South Africa (n = 438). Multivariate analyses indicate that for each of the national samples: PTSD outcomes were: (a) independently predicted by exposure to childhood poverty and by recent exposure to intimate partner violence involving psychological aggression, but (b) were not independently associated with intimate partner violence involving physical assault or sexual coercion. Study findings provide no evidence that the association between poverty and PTSD is mediated by an increased risk of exposure to traumatic events among impoverished individuals. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and with respect to the way in which poverty is conceptualized in trauma research.
KEYWORDS: Poverty, intimate partner violence, PTSD, developing countries, Nigeria, South Africa