TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY (TIJERAT)
VOL. 6 (5) AUGUST, 2021 EDITIONS. ISSN: 2707-5654
TIMBOU-AFRICAN ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS,
Centre for African Development Studies,
Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT-Nigeria.
EFFECT OF MIX RATIO AND CURING ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SANDCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS IN KANO
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
The strength of a building is determined to a great extent by the quality of materials used in its construction. Sandcrete hollow block is a major building material in Nigeria. This research is assessed the effect of mix ratio and curing of sandcrete hollow blocks in Kano state. Six industries were selected from the study area and the quality of their blocks were measured for their mix ratio, curing and density and compared with the Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS) specifications. Th density ranges from 1527kg/mm3 to 1815kg/mm3 which stistify the minimum specification of 1500kg/mm3. Inadequate mix ratio and curing are the factors that resulted in the poor quality sandcrete hollow blocks produced in the study area.
Keywords: Kano state, sandcrete hollow blocks, Density, mix ratio, curing
GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF GRAVEL DEPOSITS AROUND AMOYO AREA, KWARA STATE
*OBARO R.I; AND **OBARO N.T
*Department of Minerals and Petroleum Resources Engineering Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin. **Department of Social Sciences, University of Ilorin.
Evaluation of petrological characteristics and engineering analyses of gravel deposits were carried out around Amoyo area Kwara state to assess its suitability as construction materials. The petrological characteristics were done out through visual inspection and measurement of the particles axes. Representative samples were subjected engineering analyses such as Specific Gravity, Water Absorption Value, Aggregate Abrasion Value, Aggregate crushing Value and Aggregate Impact Value. Petrology characteristics of the aggregates (particle shape and size) revealed that the gravel deposit consists of particles ranging from clay to boulders which are essentially poorly sorted with variable mixtures of pebbles, cobbles and boulders. The engineering analyses carried out suggests that Specific Gravity of gravel aggregates ranges from 2.58 to 2.63 with an average of 2.60, Water Absorption Value ranges from 1.66% to 1.98% with an average of 1.80%. Aggregate Abrasion Value ranges from 27.20% to 38.91% with an average of 31.74%. Aggregate Crushing Value and Aggregate Impact Value ranges from 26.30% to 30.10% with an average of 28.70% and aggregate impact value falls within 26.65% and 28.70% with an average of 27.55% The results of petrological study and engineering analysis revealed that all the rocks favourable conform with standards used for construction purpose but can also be suitable with good workability for road, concrete and filter aggregates.
Keywords: Geological, Engineering, Gravel, Aggregates, Construction
DEVELOPMENT OF RAINFALL INTENSITY – DURATION-FREQUENCY (IDF) CURVE FOR KASTINA, NIGERIA.
I.A.GAYA, N.MAMUD, I. JAAFAR.
Department of Civil Engineering, Kaduna polytechnic, kaduna State NIGERIA.
Every year damage cause by flood waters becomes major concern in different communities across Katsina state and entire nation, mostly these flood waters appear unusual causing sever damages to life and properties. This unusual damage by flood water is cause due to proliferation in green house gases, which is rapidly changing hydrologic cycle which varietal events. Since rainfall characteristics are very important in planning and design of different water resources project, reviewing and updating these characteristics are very important in planning and design of different water resources project such review and updating become necessary. [i.e., intensity-duration-frequency (IDF)] . The reason of this study was to develop rainfall IDF empirical equations for Katsina city and environs, 47 years (1997-2017), data got from the Nigeria meteorological agency (NIMET) Abuja, was used to estimate the short duration rainfall intensity using yearly maximum rainfall data. Gumbel extreme – value and log Pearson III distribution methods was used to develop IDF and equations. It was found that log Pearson III distribution fits the data best, and also intensity of rainfall decreases with increase in rainfall duration, further, a rainfall of any given duration will have a larger intensity and its return period is large.
Keywords. Rainfall intensity, Return periods, Rainfall duration, Rainfall frequency.
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A MOTORIZED CAR JACK
SIBEUDU CHIWETALU EMENIKE; & OKIGBO NONSO EMMANUEL
Department of Mechanical Engineering Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State
With the increasing levels of technology, the efforts are being put to produce any kind of work that has been continuously decreasing. The efforts required in achieving the desired output can be effectively and economically be decreased by the implementation of better designs. Power screws are used to convert rotary motion into reciprocating motion. An object lifting jack is an example of a power screw in which a small force applied in a horizontal plane is used to raise or lower a large load. In this fabricated model, an electric motor will be integrated with the object lifting jack and the electricity needed for the operation will be taken from the battery and thereby the mechanical advantage will be increased.
DESIGN OF SOLAR POWERED TRICYCLE, APPLICATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY COMPARING IT WITH CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM
A MOHAMMED, A. YA’U, M. HALADU
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi. Adamawa State Nigeria
A tricycle is a three (3) wheeled vehicle used as a means of transport around the globe, in developing countries of Africa and Asia, it serves for commercial transport in most of the cities. Most of these vehicle uses fossil-fuelled engine as their prime mover, which emits carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere, a serious contributor of global warming. However, this research presents a solar powered tricycle (SPT) which uses the energy of the sun (solar) as its prime mover. Two solar photovoltaic (PV) module 250W each, placed on the roof of the vehicle will produce the power to drive the tricycle. Brushless (BLDC) motor with a power of 750W will be powered by a battery pack designed to drive the tricycle around the cities. It was concluded that SPT can serve the purpose of short distance transport but has limitation of passengers it can carry due to limited solar module area. It can only work when there is sun, but it is environmentally friendly with zero CO2 emissions during operation. Despite high initial cost of production, it is more economical at long run.
Keywords: Tricycle; Solar; Battery; Photovoltaic (PV); Energy
A REVIEW OF OPTICAL-FIBER CORROSION SENSOR: CREATING THE NORMS FOR MONITORING AND DIAGNOSTIC SOLUTIONS IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY
*UMAR MUAZU TADAMA; **PROF. BABAGANA GUTTI; **DR. MURTALA A. MUSA; & **DR SHEHU A. GREMA
*Chemical Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria **Chemical Engineering Department, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
Optical fiber corrosion sensor is the most recent research field in oil and gas corrosion monitoring sensor. Due to their versatility and multiplexing abilities, they are simple with superiority in lightness, widespread measurement and anti-electromagnetic interference. The use of fiber optic sensors in monitoring corrosion in oil and gas industry were review and the sensors appears to be particularly suited in broad application prospect. In this study the broad range of oil and gas corrosion are presented. Fiber Bragg gratings transducers and methods of detecting fiber-optic corrosion sensors are addressed, optical fiber sensors distributed at different location within the reservoirs or wellbores and their advances in corrosion monitoring as the latest techniques are described. This study further presented the general detail monitoring techniques for fiber-optical corrosion sensors, enumerating its advantages and superiority over the other corrosion countermeasures. It exposes the developmental advances and directional application for fiber-optical corrosion sensors.
Keywords: Fiber-Optic Sensors; Corrosion; Oil & Gas; Monitoring; Bragg Gratings;
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CONCRETE PRODUCED WITH KAOLIN/EGGSHELL POWDER AS AN ALTERNATIVE BINDER
*KUDU MAHMUD; **DR. ADAMU LAWAN; & **DR. BILKISU H. S. AMARTEY
*Civil Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State. **Civil Engineering Department, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State.
Taking into account the huge amount of CO2 emission and high energy expense from the production of cement with the adverse environmental and health effects, Concrete had to have its share of sustainable construction practices. Based on that, there has been an increasing pressure to reduce cement consumption and hence the environmental pollution with all its adverse health effects through an increasing trend of using waste materials in construction. This research work attempted to investigate the possibility of using two materials combined, that are readily available in Nigeria which are Kaolin soil and Eggshells to replace Cement and to be activated with user friendly alkaline reagents, Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and Sodium Silicate (Na2SiO3). However, the oxide composition analysis indicated that both the Natural Kaolin and Eggshell Powder belong to Class N and Class C respectively. Also, the maximum compressive strength test was obtained at 25% ESP and 75% Kaolin in 28days indicating a weak concrete.
Key words: Kaolin, Eggshell Powder, Alkaline activator, Concrete.
DESIGN OF A SCREW JACK APPARATUS
ALAGO EMMANUEL CHIGOZIE; & NWOSU CHIJIOKE OBINNA
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State
With the increasing level of technology, researchers all over the world are working continuously to improve and implement better and robust design of materials at workplace for productivity, efficiency and effectiveness. Detailed design procedure of a quick lifting screw jack is presented in this paper. The design is fundamentally a modification of the conventional scissor jack. The problems associated with the conventional jacks are the ergonomic snags experienced by operators due to prolonged bending or squatting positions during operation. These problems of waist pain and backaches are as a result of continuous turning of the wrench or crank shaft in an uncomfortable position for a long period. These led to the design and modification of quick lifting screw jack with gear arrangements that are safe, reliable and capable of raising or lowering heavy load with little effort. The results showed that the introduction of the crank and gear mechanism would help reduce difficulty in operation, reduce time, increase efficiency and effectively control the difficulties concomitant with Ergonomics – which is an ultimate sensitivity in design process.
SUITABILITY OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH AND ALKALINE ACTIVATED RICE HUSK ASH AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CEMENT IN CONCRETE
ADEJOH BENJAMIN OCHOLA1, ABDULLAHI BALARABE BALA2, ABUBAKAR MUHAMMAD AHMADU3.
Department of Civil Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic
In this study, the suitability of Sugarcane bagasse ash and alkaline activated rice husk ash as Cementious materials in partial replacement for cement in concrete was investigated. The Sugarcane bagasse ash and activated rice husk ash were used to partially replace cement by percentage of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% in concrete cube samples. 60 number of grade 20 concrete cubes and 60 numbers of grade 25 concrete cubes were cast in laboratory and cured for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days in accordance to BS1881: part 116: 1983. Water/cement ratio of 0.55 was used in the work; the study is aimed towards managing the of Sugarcane bagasse and rice husks through reuse so as to reduce there accumulation which constitute nuisance on the environment and could cause environmental health hazards. The Sugarcane bagasse was incinerated, sieved after incineration using sieve size of 150m and was later mixed with the activated rice husk ash in the laboratory at equal percentage. However despite the observed loss in compressive strengths of the concrete, it can still be used for various application requiring medium and low strength in accordance to concrete grade 5, a strength which is achieved with these replacement of Sugarcane bagasse ash and activated rice husk ash in concrete: such as non-load bearing concrete wall, sidewalks, road barrier, concrete block, kerbs. The amount of concrete produce worldwide for this application could ensure the viability of this study.
Keywords: Sugarcane bagasse ash, rice husk ash, Cementious material, Environmental health hazard, Compressive strength.
EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION AND SIMULATION OF SHUNT ACTIVE POWER FILTER FOR HARMONIC MITIGATION
CHIEGBOKA JOSEPH EZEILO; & NDUBUISI OLUCHUKWU NWOSU
Department of Electrical Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko.
The proliferation of power electronics devices used in industrial, commercial and residential applications, have led to the deterioration of supply current and voltage wave forms, and this caused power quality problems within the supply system. These power electronics devices are nonlinear in nature, which draws reactive power and harmonic distortions from the alternating current source in the fundamental current. Traditional passive filter was the earliest solution for mitigating harmonics and reactive power produced by nonlinear loads, but passive filter have the disadvantages of series and parallel resonances with the supply source impedance and it’s heavy in size. Due to these problems in passive filter, its applications become very limited. With the introduction of shunt active power filter, harmonics mitigations of current and voltage distortion wave forms can therefore be suppressed. In this paper, the modeling and simulation of DSP based single phase shunt active power filter controlled with fuzzy logic controller for power quality improvement in MATLAB/ SIMULINK fuzzy inference system (FIS), is proposed. Synchronous reference frame for the extraction of harmonics is introduced in this paper. The simulated results are validated with experimented results of the proto type hardware implementation via TMS320F28335 digital signal processor (DSP) in order to show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed control algorithm. The simulated results of the THD are in conformity with IEEE 519-1992 harmonics standard limit, while the results of the hardware THD do not obey the IEEE standard because of the hardware deficiency in sampling rate in real time development.
Keywords: Shunt active power filter, harmonics, mitigation, fuzzy logic, current extraction and THD
BIOMETRIC FINGER PRINT-BASED EXAMINATION HALL AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM ON SMART DEVICES USING MINUTIAE-BASED ALGORITHM
1D.A. ADENIYI, 2E. G. ABUBAKAR, 3S. A. TIJJANI
1Department of Computer Science, College of Science and Technology, ,P.M.B. 2021, Kaduna Polytechnic, T/Wada, Kaduna, Nigeria. 2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, College of Engineering, ,P.M.B. 2021, Kaduna Polytechnic, T/Wada, Kaduna, Nigeria. 3Department of Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, ,P.M.B. 2021, Kaduna Polytechnic, T/Wada, Kaduna, Nigeria
Identification and Verification of authentic candidates for an examination has always been a major challenge. The manual method of identifying and authenticating candidate for an examination is time and process consuming, error prone with high degree of impersonation. To alleviate these challenges, this work presents the design and construction of an accurate, faster and reliable automatic biometric finger print-based examination hall authentication system on smart devices, powered by minutiae-based algorithm. The proposed system is made up of both the hardware and software. The hardware module is made up of a fingerprint scanner, keypad and indicators. The software component is an android application installed on the smart device. For convenience, the fingerprint module is accessed from the app via a Bluetooth module attached to the hardware. The android app was developed in android studio; this is used for implementing the adopted minutiae algorithm. The programming was done using object oriented Java programming language. The system is capable of registering authentic candidates for the examination, save their identity with respective id numbers in the smart device memory. At the point of authentication, the candidate first scans his finger on the scanner; the microcontroller checks the candidate’s fingerprint validity. If the fingerprint is valid the microcontroller now sends a signal to the user’s smart device which either grant or denies the potential candidate access to the examination hall. This is aimed at eliminating any forms of impersonation during examination and to ensure only authorized candidates are allowed to enter the examination hall Performance evaluation of the proposed system demonstrates that the proposed authentication model is capable of providing, efficient, faster and accurate candidate’s authentication for any forms of examinations consistently.
Keywords: Biometrics, Finger print, Examination, Authentication, Smart Devices, Minutiae Algorithm
THE PROBLEMS OF POWER QUALITY IN THE NIGERIAN UTILITY NETWORK: A CRITICAL REVIEW
OMOSIGHO EMMANUEL OSAWARU; OKOEKHIAN JOSHUA; & OKOTIE LUCKY EDAFE
Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, National Institute of Construction Technology and Management (NICTM), Uromi, Edo State.
The threat of power quality in generation depends on source of energy. Those tendencies are caused by different reasons, it include thermal limits, stability limits and the decrease of fossil fuel consumption. The most important issues in national grids are the power quality and supply reliability issues. In this paper, it provides a starting point for utilities in developing countries to better plan their systems to meet dispersed loads, while optimizing for renewables and other decentralized generation sources.
Keywords: Power Quality, Renewable energy, Transients, Harmonics, Voltage Swells, Interruptions, Voltage Sags, Flickers, National Grid.
PARAMETRIC SIMULATION AND EXERGY ANALYSIS OF A 30W ETHANOL FUEL CELL: THEORETICAL APPROACH
EMENIRU DANIEL C1,3, OGORO ZINO BRIGHT2, OSAZEE OGBEIFUN E.2, OWUTUAMOR FREDRICK T.2, OLAWALE ADEGBOYEGA S.3, OGUCHE JOHN ENEMONA3
1Chemical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oil and Gas Ekowe, Bayelsa state, Nigeria. 2Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oil and Gas Ekowe, Bayelsa state. 3Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Ethanol has the potential of being an abundant biofuel considering raw materials and indigenous technology available. Due to its oxidation tendency, higher energy density, nontoxic and environmental affability, etc., studies have accord and intensify preference and suitability in the use of ethanol in fuel cells. Hence, this work adopts a theoretical approach in the simulation and exergy analysis of a 30W ethanol fuel cell. While making empirically considerable assumptions on the layers’ thicknesses and other parameters, the simulation considers 1atm. and 65oC operating condition. Fixed and standard parameters from literature were applied in the mathematical expressions and models describing the over-potentials, energy and power generation and, the efficiencies inherent of the simulation. Voltage loss due to transport contributes about 80% of the 0.1211 V total over-potential that culminates to the 3.633W irreversible power. The exergy analysis of the simulated 95% Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell (DEFC) gave 89% cell efficiency for the generation of 3,050 kJ energy, 33.80 W ideal power and 30.28W useful power in a 90 seconds operation at a 1.1267V potential.
Keywords: Fuel cells, ethanol, simulation, Voltage loss, efficiency, exergy.